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Connecticut Magazine. 


Devoted to Connecticut in its Various Phases of History, Litera- 
ture, Picturesque Features, Science, Art 
and Industry. 

VOL. V. 



Published by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 
Hartford, Conn. 




Adams, Sherman W. A Biographical Sketch. Edwin Stanley Welles, . 51 

Ancient School Dame, An. (Miss Sally Goodell, of Norwich). Emily S. Gilman. 472 

Away From the Railroad in Connecticut. William White Leete. . . . . 351 

Backward Glances at Hartford. Julius G. Rathbun. .... 42, 99, 218, 339 

Bible, An Historic. Josephine R. Baker 147 

Blind in Connecticut, Work for the. Rev. George M. Stone 171 

Boy Life at Camp Idlewild 286 

Bristol. Mi lo Leon Norton. ........... 4 

Burials. Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. List of. Annotated by Mary 

K. Talcott. 118, 186, 242, 290, 336, 382, 426, 481, 520 

Chatham, The Town of. (Bast Hampton, Middle Haddam). /. F. Loomis. . 303, 370 
Cogswell, Extracts from the Diary of Dr. Mason Fitch. Annotated by Rev. Dr. 

Leonard Bacon. Compiled by Ellen Strong Bartlett. . . . 532,562,606 

Connecticut Capitol, The. William Harrison Taylor 203 

Connecticut, — Away From the Railroad in. William White L^eete. . . . 351 

The Constitutional History of. Roger Welles. . . . . 86, 159 

Iron Mining in. W. H. C. Pynchon 20, 232, 277 

The Mayoralty in. Amos A. Brozvning 27 

Negro Slavery in. Frederick Calvin Norton. ..... 320 

Picturesque. Photographs of Scenery. 114,292 

A Son of. (Daniel Stevens Dickinson.) Marcus A. Casey. . 362 

Woman's Education in. Mrs. Henry Wallerstein. ... aj 

Work for the Blind in. Rev. George M. Stone. . . , , iy[ 

Crandall, Prudence. Note by the Editor 386 

Dickinson, Daniel Stevens, A Son of Connecticut. Marcus A. Casey. . . . 362 

Early Milford. M. Louis Greene 135 

East Hampton, The Town of Chatham. /. F. Loomis 303 

Fifteen Love. A story. Mrs. William Edgar Simonds 34, yy } ^3, 226 

Frontispieces — Capitol, The 202 

Cove From Lovers' Leap, The. (Housa tonic River). . . 498 

Davenport, Rev. John. 590 

Election Parade of a Negro Governor, An. Drawn by H. Phelps Arms. 302 
Hanging Hills of Meriden, The. From a painting by Nelson A. Moore. 66 
Mystic. Mystic From Reynold's Hill. Mystic River, Looking North. 398 

November. 542 

Prologue. Drawn by //. Phelps Arms 2 

Sharon Street. 448 

Spring Time 254 

Summer — An Old Mill. 350 

"They Walk Awhile in Darkness on the Earth." Drawn by 

H. Phelps Arms 134 

Haddam. The Plantation of Thirty Mile Island. Eveline Warner Brainerd. . 543 

Haddam Since the Revolution. Eveline Warner Brainerd 59 r 


Hartford, Backward Glances at. Julius G. Rathbun. 

Hartford, A Case of Witchcraft in. Charles J. Hoadly, LL. D. 

Hero, An Old Time. (Commodore Charles Morris). Ellen D. Lamed. 

Hill, Susan Benedict Fairfield. A Biographical Sketch. A. N. B. and L 

Historic Bible, An. Josephine R. Baker 

Hubbard Park. H. Phelps Arms 

Hubbard, Richard D. From "Reminiscences." John Hooker. 
Hubbard, Walter. A sketch. H. Phelps Arms. .... 

Iron Mining in Connecticut. W. H. C. Pynchon 

Johnson, Jr., of Guilford, and His Dictionaries, Samuel. Henry Pynchon Robinson 
Lamson, Rev. Dr. Charles Marion. A sketch. Williston Walker. 
Library, Mil ford, Taylor. M. Louise Greene. ..... 

Mayoralty in Connecticut, The. Amos A. Browning. 
Middle Haddam. The Town of Chatham. L. F. Loomis. 
Milford Cemetery. M. Louise Greene. . . . . . . 

Milford, Early. M. Louise Greene 

Milford, The Old Houses of. M. Louise Greene 

Mining in Connecticut, Iron. W. H. C. Pynchon. .... 

Minister's Life Mask, The. A story. Charles W. Burpee. 

Morris, Commodore Charles. An Old Time Hero. Ellen D. Lamed. 

Mystic. William Allen Wilbur. ..... . 

Negro Slavery in Connecticut. Frederiek Calvin Norton. 

New Haven, The Town of. George H. Ford. . 

New Milford. Dwight C. Kilbourn. . . . . . . 

New President of Yale College in 1778, The. Amelia Leavitt Hill. 
Norwich. An Ancient School Dame of. E?nily S. Gilman. 

Old Houses of Milford, The. M. Louise Greene 

Old Time Hero, An. (Commodore Charles Morris). Ellen D. Lamed. 

Pastor of the Church Militant, A. (Rev. Philemon Robbins). Frederick E 

Pearl Street Ecclesiastical Society, The. Note by the Editor. 

Picturesque Connecticut. Photographs of scenery. 

Plantation of Thirty Mile Island, The. Eveline Warner Brainerd. 

President of Yale College in 1778, The New. Amelia Leavitt Hill . 

Putnam, Israel. Fanny Greye Bragg. ...... 

Putnam, Israel, Tributes to 

Railroad in Connecticut, Away From the. William White Leete. . 

Robbins, Rev. Philemon. A Pastor of the Church Militant. Frederick E. Norton 

School Dame, An Ancient. (Miss Sally Goodell, of Norwich.) Emily S. Gilman 

Sharon, The Rose of. Myron B. Benton. 

Slavery in Connecticut, Negro. Frederick Calvin Norton. 

Son of Connecticut, A. (Daniel Stevens Dickinson). Marcus A. Casey 

Taylor Library, Milford. M. Louise Greene. .....' 

Thirty Mile Island. The Plantation of. Eveline Warner Brainerd. 
Tragedy, An Unwritten. Frederick E. Norton. . . . . . 

Treasure of the Money Ponds, The. A story. William Allen Wilbur. . 
Trowbridge, Thomas Rutherford. A Biographical Sketch and Tribute 

Friend. Francis Bacon Trowbridge and James M. LLoppin. 
What Hetty Saw. A story. Mary Bartlett Macdonald. 
Witchcraft in Hartford, A Case of. Charles J. Hoadly LL. D. 
Williams, D.D. LL. D., John. A Biographical Sketch. Samuel Hart. 
Woman's Education in Connecticut. Mrs. Henry Wallerstein. 
Work For the Blind in Connecticut. Rev. George M. Stone. 
Yale College in 1778, The New President of. Amelia Leavitt Hill. . 

42, 99, 218, 339 


423, 478 

D. B. 183 







20, 232, 277 

20, 232, 277 




423, 478 
Wrlon. 468 

114, 292 





of a 





Blindness. Elizabeth Alden Curtis. .... 

Cemetery, An Old New England. John Dewell Swain. 

Christmas Litany, A. Henry Rutgers Remsen. . 

Connecticut River, To the. Arthur Fremont Rider. 

Distance, From A. Daniel Hu$h Fenter. 

Earth's Master Workman. Henry Rutgers Remsen. 

Fleet in Santiago Bay, The. Margherita Arlina Hamm 

Good Night. Elizabeth Alden Curtis 

Greek, The. Charles Rufus Morey. 

Her Dream of Me. Claude Fayette Bragdon. 

Human Nature. Frank L. Hamilton. 

Indian Pipe. Elizabeth Alden Curtis. 

Inspiration. Herbert Randall 

Life, Our. Bert F. Case 

Lucinda's Light. Elizabeth Alden Curtis. . 

Menunketesette River. Ellen Brainerd Peck.. 

Old House, The. Anna M. Tuttle 

Old New England Cemetery, An. John Dewell Swain. 

Ol' Nance. Fred. J. Eaton. 

Parting, The. Charles G. Girelius: . 

Prologue. A sonnet. Elizabeth Alden Curtis. . 

Rainy Day, A. Herbert Randall. .... 

Roaring Brook, Cheshire, Poems on — An Outlook. E. IV. 

Roaring Brook. J. R 
A Passage of Scenery 

Sicilian Coast, On the. Edna Sanford. 

Song of the Tree-Top. Herbert Randall 

Sonnets, Two. Bert F. Case. 

Time. Arthur Femont Rider . 

Travel. Richard Burton. 

Twilight Study, A. Claribel Egbert. 

Valentine, A. Laurence C Woodworth. 

Vulnerable. Francis S. Saltus. . 

We Pulled a Rose in Summer Time. Elizabeth Alden Curtis. 

When Last I Close My Eyes. J. A. Spaulding 

Whippoor-will, To the. Herbert Randall. 

Winter Ride, A. Francis H. Tabor. 

Year's End, At the. Elizabeth Alden Curtis. 


1 Conn. N. P, 


















Genealogical Department. . . 57, 120, 188, 244, 295, 346, 389, 436, 493, 538, 585 

Editorial Notes. .... 59, 126, 197, 248, 298, 348, 393, 443, 495, 588, 650 

Publishers' Notes 61, 130, 200, 251, 301, 446 

Current Events. 63, 124, 193 

Book Notes. 64, 131, 195, 250, 300, 394, 496, 540, 588 

From the Societies 122, 194, 392 

Historical Notes. 496, 645 


Abbe, 438 
Abbott, 246 
Allen, 442 
Allin, 296 
Ailing, 58 
Allis. 437 
Ambler, 296 
Anderson, 120, 297 
Andrews, 494, 538 
Andrus, 587 
Arnold, 192, 347 
Ashley, 120 
Atkins, 121 
Avery, 389 
Ayer, 539 

Bacon, 192, 391 

Bailey, 191, 296, 347, 391 

Baker, 439 

Baldwin, 494 

Ball, 585 

Banning, 58 

Barber, 246, 437 

Barnard, 391 

Barnes, 439 

Barnum, 189 

Barrelle, 244 

Bartlett, 192 

Bassett, 389 

Bateman, 586 

Baxter, 188, 441, 296 

Beach, 438, 587 

Bearss, 189 

Beaty, 189 

Bebe, 389 

Beckley, 58 

Beckwith, 58 

Beecher, 191 

Belanger, 586 

Benedict 189, 296^439 

Biglow, 192, 439 

Birchwood, 391 

Bishop, 347, 391, 439, 538, 585 

Blackman, 390 

Blackmour, 441 

Blague, 437 

Blakeslee, 587 

Blinn, 58 

Bloomfield, 58, 244, 295 

Bonfoy, 586 

Boone, 297 

Booth, 390 

Bordman, 390 

Bowers, 391 

Bradley, 389, 436, 539 

Brainard, 191 

Brewer, 189, 587 

Brewster, 120, 438, 390 

Briggs, 246 

Brooks, 190 

Brown, 58, 297, 442, 493 

Buckingham, 347, 586 

Burge, 295 

Burgoyne, 586 

Burr, 390 

Burritt, 245 

Burt, 57 

Burwell, 191 

Bushnell, 191, 247 

Butler, 244, 585 

Buttolph, 391 

Camp, 437 
Campbell, 192 
Cary, 439 
Chace, 192 
Champion, 585 
Champlin, 438 
Chandler, 247, 441, 442 
Chapman, 121, 439 
Chase, 57, 121, 188, 192, 440, 442 
Church, 247 
Clapp, Daniel, 441 
Clark, 189, 191, 295, 347, 389, 
39i, 436, 538 
Cleavland, 440 
Clement, 441 
Cleveland, 188 
Clifford, 389 
Clin ten, 439 
Clinton, 58 
Coall, 540 
Cod wise, 189 
Cole, 493, 494 
Coleman, 437 
Collins, 121, 586 
Comes, 189 
Cone, 190, 192, 346 
Converse, 190 
Cook, 121, 347 
Cooke, 58 
Cooper, 436, 439 
Copeland, 247 
Copland, 246 
Corbin, 296 
Cornwall, 494 
Corn well, 391 
Cosier, 586 

Cozier (or Couzier) 246 
Crane, 246, 347, 441 
Creasy, 442 
Croes, 58 

Cross, 438 

Culver, 439 

Cunningham, 192, 247, 346, 44 

Curtis, 120 
Curtiss, 494 

Daly, 246 
Darte, 493 
Davison, 442 
Day, 585, 586, 587 
Denison, 192 
Derr, 437 
Desborough, 391 
Dewey, 192, 540, 587 
De Wolfe, 347 
Dexter, 247 
Dibble, 190 

Dickinson, 190, 347, 587 
Dimock, 390 
Dimon, 390 
Doane, 58, 347 
Dodge, 188 
Dorrance, 437 
Doty, 347 
Douglas, 437 
Downing, 441 
Dresser, 247, 440, 442 
Dudley, 190 
Dunning, 245 
Dyer, 245, 389 

Eastman, 539 
Eddy, 586 
Edson, 120, 191 
Eldridge, 439 
Elliott, 441, 442 
Ellsey, 58 
Elmer, 587 
Ely, 297, 585 

Farrington, 120, 244, 245 

Fay, 441 

Fenner, 295 

Field, 190, 440 

Fisher, 442 

Fisk, 441 

Fitch, 391 

Flower, 439 

Foote, 191, 295, 347 

Ford, 244 

Fordham, 347 

Foster, 191, 587 

Fountain, 121 

Fox, 57, 390 

Freer, 57 


Fuller, 121, 347 

Gallup, 58 

Gardiner, 438 

Gates, 390 

Geer, 438 

Gilbert, 120, 540 

Gillson, 191 

Gladden, 347, 586 

Gladding, 191, 439 

Gladwin, 192, 347 

Glover, 189 

Goddard, 297 

Goffe, 247 

Goodell, 246, 247, 44 r, 442 

Goodsell, 346 

Gould, 247, 440, 441 

Graham, 494 

Graves, 389, 439 

Gray, 189, 244 

Green, 441 

Greene, 390 

Gregory, 189, 190, 296 

Griggs, 247, 440 

Grihme (Graham), 494 

Griswold, 494 

Grosvenor, 188, 440 

Gunn, 296 

Haag, 437 
Hall, 540 
Ham, 191 
Hamblin, 246 
Hammond, 120 
Hand, 494 
Harmon, 121, 245 
Harrington, 57 
Harris, 121 
Harrison, 391 
Harvon, 436 
Hate, 245 
Hawley, 245 
Hebard, 438 
Helme. 297 
Henderixen, 57 
Hendrick, 539 
Henniger, 390 
Hickenlooper, 347 
Hicks, 188, 247, 442 
Hickson, 438 
Higginbotham, 246, 247 
Higgins, 439, 493 
Hillie, 586 
Hills. 439 
Hilton, 391 
Hinman, 438 
Hitchcock, 439 
Hodgh, 246 
Hodgkin, 389 

Holmes, 120, 192, 245, 347. 389, 
39°> 437. 586 
Holt, 442 

Hooker (?) Rev. John (?) 585 
Hopkins, 58, 191, 391, 539 
Horton, 391 
Hotchkiss, 245 
Howard, 245 

Howell, 190, 295, 389 
Howe, 391 
Hoyt, 190, 296 
Hubbard, 391, 540, 586 
Hubbell, 121, 494 
Hudson, 439 
Humiston, 539 
Humphrey, 494 
Hunt, 191 
Hurd, 191 
Hurlburt, 494 
Hurlbut, 121 
Hustead, 189 

Ingals, 188, 246, 247, 440, 441, 
Jennings, 245, 539 
Johnson, 120, 539, 586 
Jones, 191, 438 
Jordon, 391 
Judd, 540 

Kelsey, 347, 391, 436 
Kendal, 441 
Kent, 244 
King, 247, 441, 442 
Kingsley, 244, 439 
Kirkham, 190 
Knapp, 192, 246, 296 
Knowles, 438, 586 

Lane, 57, 586 

Lathrop, 439 

Laurel, 585 

Lawton, 442 

Lay, 437 

Lee, 389 

La Forge 244 

Lellsey, 587 

Leonard, 585 

Letimore (or Latimer) 439 

Lewis, 190, 295, 389, 391, 539 

Linnell, 121 

Loomis, 391, 439, 494 

Lord, 58, 247, 437, 441 

Lothrop, 538 

Loveland, 587 

i,uther, 58 

Lyon, 440, 441, 442 

Mack, 191 
Madan, 191 
Maguire, 188, 246, 441 
Maker, 192 
Malbone, 441 
Manning, 586 
Marsh, 120 
Mason, 58 
Mayhew, 245 
Meakins, 586 
Merrill, 540 
Merriman, 439, 538 
Merwin, 494, 53^ 
Messenger, 437 
Miller, 437, 585, 586 
Minard (or Maynard ) 43-) 
Minturn, 587 

Mix, 587, 494 
Moore, 587 
Morehouse, 246 
Morey, 245 
Morgan, 585 
Mott, 439 
Mun, 246 
Munson, 297 
Murray, 245 

Nearing, 245 
Newbury, 57 
Newcomb, 389 
Newell, 494 
Nickerson, 189 
Niles, 188 
North, 58 
Northrop, 190 
Northrup, 245 
Norton, 438 

Osgood, 188, 440, 441, 442 

Packer, 247, 297, 440, 442 

Page, 438 

Paine, 58 

Palmer, 441 

Parish, 441 

Parmelee, 347 

Park, 120 

Parker, 189, 191, 538, 587 

Patterson, 245 

Payne, 390 

Peck, 189 

Pell, 348 

Pelton, 192 

Penfield, 246, 346 

Perkins, 120 

Perry, 245, 389, 437, 440 

Phillips, 391, 441 

Phippeney, 438 

Picket, 189 

Pike, 441 

Pinkney, 390 

Piatt, 189, 347, 494. 539 

Plum, 540 

Poison, 586 

Pope, 121 

Post, 191, 586 

Porter, 391, 540 

Prout, 586 

Purdy, 57, 246 

Putnam, 121 

Randall, 247 

Randell, 347 

Raymond, 58, 441 

Reed, 297 

Reynolds, 438, 439 

Rich, 390 

Rickard, 246, 442 

Riley, 437- 439 

Ripley, 188 

Risley, 587 

Robinson, 244 

Rockwell, 120, 189, 585, 586 

Rogers, 121, 247, 239, 441, 53 8 


Root, 58, 539 

Rossiter, 493 

Rowland, 121 

Rowley, 120 

Royce, 391, 538 

Royer, 437 

Russell, 436, 437, 493 

Rutty, 190, 295, 347, 389, 436 

Sackett, 192, 438 

Savage, 191, 494 

Secord, 390 

Sessions, 246, 442 

Sexton, 586 

Sill, 439 

Shailer, 190, 346 

Shaler, 347 

Sharp, 246 

Sharpe, 247, 441 

Shattock, 439 

Shaylor, 390 

Sheldon, 436 

Sherman, 391, 440, 441, 442 

Sherwood, 189, 246, 391 

Shipman, 494 

Shourds, 245 

Shove, 189 

Shumway, 247, 442 

Shute, 296 

Sisson, 191, 346 

Slade, 188, 247, 440, 441 

Slate, 391 

Smith, 191, 297, 346, 389, 390, 

c 00 39i, 436 

Snow, 188 

Southwell, 121, 245 

Spalding, 247, 442 

Spencer, 121, 190, 191, 246, 346, 

Spruill, 586 493 

Squier, 121, 247 

Squire, 58 

Stagg, 437 

Stanley, 585 

Stannard, 192 

Starkey, 192, 347 

Starr, 189, 190, 296 

Stebbins, 245, 442 

Steele, 391, 538 

Steely, 586 

Stephens, 442 

Stevens, 121, 189, 347, 439, 493, 


Stewart, 189 
Stillman, 438 
Stinson, 57 
Stocking, 346 
Stoddard, 188 
Stone, 296 
Stowel, 440, 442 
Stowell, 442 
Storrs, 188 
S to ugh ton, 494 
Stranahan, 390 
Strickland, 540 
Strong, 297, 438 
Sturge, 189 
Sturges, 245 
Sumner, 442 - 
Swinehart, 437 

Talcott, 538 

Targinton, 586 

Taylor, 441, 585 

Ter Bosch, 57 

Terbush, 57 

Terry, 390 

Tilden, 438 

Tilton, 539 

Tinker, 439 

Thompson, 245, 347, 439, 585 

Thourlow, 191 

Throop, 121 

Thurlo, 191 

Todd, 58, 439, 

Tooker, 192 

Toucey, 437 

Towner, 190 

Treadwell, 121 

Treat, 191 

Trinigan, 586 

Tripp, 191, 192 

Trowbridge, 246, 442 

Trumbull, 586, 437, 493, 586 

Tryon, 192 

Tucker, 188, 191 

Turner, 346, 436 

Tuttle, 58 

Tyler, 439 

Utley, 188, 440 
Upton, 438 

Vancoit, 246 
Veal, 296 
Vermilye, 57 

de la Vergne, 390 

Wadsworth, 121, 494 
Wagenseil, 437 
Wakeman, 539 
Wales, 391 
Walker, 441 
Walter, 437 
Walters, 538 
Walton, 121 
Wakeman, 539 
Wanser, 246 
Wanzer, 120 
Ward, 191 

Warner, 121, 296, 390, 441, 442 
Watson, 58, 391 
Webb, 190 
Webber, 191 
Webster, 587 
Wedge, 247 
Weeks, 247, 297 
Welch, 442 
Wellman, 539 
Wells, 121, 346, 586 
Whaley, 349 
Wheaton, 188 
Wheeler, 190 
Wheelock, 587 
White, 189, 297, 437, 442 
Whitmore, 390 
Whitney, 346, 390, 441 
Whittemore, 391 
Whittlesey, 192 
Wilcox, 347, 494, 586 
Wildman, 189, 296, 297 
Williams, 246, 247, 346, 347, 441, 
442, 539 
Withey, 442 
Wolcott, 391 
Wood, 189, 296 
Wooden, 439 
Woodruff, 57 
Woodward, 247 
Woster, 246 

Wright, 57, 192, 347, 389, 390, 
493, 494, 585 

Wyman, 120 

Yemans, 540 
Younglove, 437 

Vol. V 

January, 1899. 

No. 1. 

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Connecticut Magazine 


Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History, 
Literature, Science, Art and Industries. 

JANUARY, \ 899. 

Vol. V. 


No. U 


I. Illustrated. 

Prologue. Sonnet. Illustrated by H. Phelps Arms, 

Bristol. Illustrated. .... 

Iron Mining in Connecticut. I. Ores and Ore-Beds. Illus. 

Song of the Tree-Top. Poem. 

The Mayoralty in Connecticut. 

Travel. Poem. Illustrated. 

Fifteen Love. Story. Serial, I. 

Backward Glances at Hartford. 

Sherman W. Adams. A Biographical Sketch. Illus. 

Thomas R. Trowbridge. A Biographical Sketch. Illus. 

Departments.— Genealogical Department. 

Editorial Notes. 

Publishers' Notes. 

Current Events. 

Book Notes. 

Elizabeth Alden Curtis, 
Milo Leon Norton, 
W. II. C. Pynchon, 
Herbert Randall, 
Amos A. Browning, 
Richard Burton, 
Mrs. William Edgar Simonds, 
Julius G. Rathbun, 
Edwin Stanley Welles, 
Francis Bacon Trowbridge, 


George C. Atwell, Editor. 

H. Phelps Arms, 
Milo L. Norton, 
William A. E. Thomas 

Associate Editors. 

Edward B. Eaton, Business Manager. 
Elliott J. Perkins, Advertising Manager. 
Henry S. House, Subscriptions. 

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Published at 66 State St., Hartford, Conn, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 

Copyright, 1898, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. ( A llrights reserved.) 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn, as mail matter of the second-class. 


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A History of the 

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To the American Citizen— The Father 
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In this Holiday season, when the whole 
nation is rejoicing over the outcome of the 
recent stirring events of our history, and congratulating itself on the final settlement in accordance 
with the American idea, it is well to think of the citizen that is to be, as well of him who is. Your 
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1898 is, and what will be expected of the greater American citizen that is to be. 

The great questions which confront us today are simple in comparison with those which will 
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The greater American citizen must know more about American Statesmanship, American 
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The Messages and Papers of the Presidents are the original sources for this education, and 
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" History always repeats itself." 

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and HOflftE. 

(~)UR preparations for the Christmas 
trade have taken wide proportions 
this year. Everything of a useful and 
ornamental nature that comes under the 
head of ... . 

Christmas Gifts 

has been arranged for your convenience 
and prices with great consideration for 
your purse. 




HEN there's the . . . 












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A S stated in " Publishers' Notes," in this issue, The Connecticut 
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TUn© @'cD>imim©<sttn<santt Mag}si^ninie 

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TIT C DAP HP that we sel1 the 
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The Connecticut Magazine 

Vol. V. January, 1899. No. 1. 



Out of the chaos of dead dreams and fears. 
Dead joys, dead promises and dead desires, 
New hope, the Phoenix of the smouldering pyre: 

Of men's dead acts, with New Year re-appears. 

Now the Recording Angel all arrears 

Blots out, and with a faith that never tires 
Turns a fresh page. Alas, the crucial fires 

Of fate shall scorch it. and our salt, salt tears. 

Say, sweet, what largess shall we ask the brave 
New season on its 'special day of fame? 
Come, write, here is the book ! Your lovely name 

Shall be my legend — your love all I crave — 

What, gentle sweetheart, you have writ the same — 
Love from the young year's cradle to his grave ! 

'0 an Englishman the idea 
of American antiquity must 
necessarily seem ludicrous. Two, or at 
the most three centuries, are all that we 
may historically claim for New England, 
or indeed for any portion of the country ; 
youthful indeed when compared with the 
history of many English towns antedating 
the Norman, and even the Roman con- 

But we have our antiquities none the 
less ; and we shall continue to celebrate 
our first, second, and in rare instances 
third centennial anniversaries of towns, 
cities and institutions, with as much eclat 
as we choose, without consulting our 
respected cousins across the pond. In 
other words, we shall make the most of 
what antiquity we have, knowing that time 
will remedy all defects in this line, if we 
are only patient. 

Bristol can boast of no such accumula- 
tion of years as that English town upon 

the Avon to which it is indebted for a 
name, having but recently celebrated its 
hundredth anniversary, which occurred in 
1885. Prior to its incorporation as a 
town it enjoyed the distinction of being 
an ecclesiastical parish under the name of 
New Cambridge. Perhaps the change of 
name from classical Cambridge to com- 
mercial Bristol, was a prophecy of the 
town's future, for the first century of its 
existence was yet young when manufactur- 
ing began to engage the attention of its 
citizens, and to attract capital and labor 
from other communities. 

In 1721 that portion of Farmington 
now embraced in the towns of Bristol and 
Burlington, known as the West Woods, 
ten miles in length by five in breadth, was 
surveyed into five tiers of lots, separated 
by highways running north and south, 
connected by east and west highways at 
intervals. The survey also included one 
tier of lots now lying along the western 



This chart was made by James Shepard, of New Britain, by enlarging the map of 
Bristol on the Hartford County map of 1855, and drawing the roads as shown upon the 
map upon the chart prepared by Roswell Atkins, for the report of the Centennial of 
Bristol. The Burlington town line was located upon the Atkins chart by Mr. Shepard, 
who took measurements from ascertained bearings upon Chippen's Hill, and then en- 
larged the Atkin's plan to correspond proportionately with the county map. Absolute 
accuracy is not claimed, yet in locating lands by lot numbers, in the Farmington records, 
the writer has found the plot sufficiently exact to be of great use. 



C-Iff %■ 

"If 1 






§; ; 



\..l'- "" 


border of Plain ville and Farmington. 
These tiers of lots were a mile each in 
width, less the highways, which varied 
from twenty to forty rods in width. The 
tots were apportioned to the eighty-four 
proprietors of Farmington according to 
their rating, or tax 
list, the minister re- r 
ceiving a double por- 
tion, and were num- 
bered from one to 
eighty-four in each 
tier, except the two 
eastern divisions, 
which contained 
twenty-one lots each, 
each lot being set off 
to four proprietors. 
These lots were occu- 
pied by the original 
owners, their heirs, 
or, as in numerous 
instances were sold 
by them. 

In 1727 Daniel 
Brownson bought the 

first lot sold in Bris- 
tol. It was lot 71 
in the fifth division, 
extending westerly 
from Goose Corner. 
Upon it was prob- 
ably built the first 
house erected in 
Bristol. In 1728 
Ebenezer Barnes 
built the central 
part of the Pierce 
house, which is con- 
sequently the oldest 
building now stand- 
ing in town. It 
was kept for forty 
years by the Barnes 
and Pierce families 
as a tavern. In the same year Nehemiah 
Manross, and Daniel Buck settled in the 
eastern part of the town, and during the 
years prior 
to 1744, 




others came from Wallingford, Hartford, 
and other towns in Connecticut, Massa- 
chusetts, and even New Hampshire, and 
built upon Fall Mountain, Chippen's Hill, 
and various other localities. 

It is noteworthy that the early settlers 
regarded what is now the center of the 
town as worthless for agricultural purposes, 
and settled upon the outlying hills, which 
they cleared of the primeval forests, and 
occupied for farming purposes. Later 

ble. So long as the settlers were content 
to ride on horseback to Farmington every 
Sabbath day, over the old beaten trails of 
the Indians, no separation was contem- 
plated from the parental household. But, 
as the population of the western forest 
increased, and the long, tedious ride of 
nine miles was made perilous by spring 
freshets at Eight Acre, and by fierce 
storms and deep snows in winter, what 
was at first a murmur became a voice, 
and the privilege of 
holding divine ser- 
vices at home dur- 
ing the winter 
months was asked 
of the -General As- 
sembly and granted. 
This was in 1742. 
Thomas Canfield, a 
student for the min- 
istry, was employed 
for the six months 
ending in the spring 

of 1743, 
In 1744 


manufacturers naturally sought the water- 
courses, and upon every available stream 
small mills and factories were erected ; 
and the hum of whirling pulleys, gaining 
their impetus from cumbrous overshot 
wheels, mingled with the monosyllabic 
commands of the plowman to his lusty 
oxen as he furrowed the stony soil of the 
adjoining fields. 

The early history of the town is so 
closely interwoven with the history of the 
Congregational church as to be insepara- 

and was 
the first 
in Bristol, 
by act of 
the General Assem- 
bly, an ecclesiastical 
society was formed, 
under the name ot 
New Cambridge. Thus 
was organized the Bristol Congregational 
Church and Society. 

From 1745 to 1747 a young Yale grad- 
uate, a resident of Southington, was em- 
ployed with others to minister to the 
infant church. Samuel Newell was a 
man of pronounced views, stern and in- 
flexible. He held to the doctrines of 
John Calvin, and advocated them con- 
scientiously and fearlessly. When there- 
fore in 1747 a vote was taken to settle 
him as pastor, there were those who, un- 




(Built by Bbenezer Barnes, 1728). 

able to accept the harsh doctrines of 
Calvinistic theology, dissented, and ten 
withdrew from the society. In order to 
avoid the payment of church rates, and 
to avoid compulsory attendance upon 
objectionable services, they declared 
themselves of the Church of England, and 
under the Bishop of London. This was 
the beginning of the original Episcopal 
church in New Cambridge, which in 1754 
crystalized into the formation of an 
ecclesiastical society, ministered unto by 
missionaries of the Church of England, 
under the auspices of the "London Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts." 

In 1747, after having met at private 
houses, the Congregational society 
erected a meeting-house. The spot 
chosen for the new edifice, which was 
near the present church,was well selected, 
for it was very nearly the center of the 
parish, which in size was identical with 
the present town, being an exact square 
of five miles, except for a small amount of 
territory recently annexed from South- 

Near the church was afterward located 
the parade ground of the militia company, 
organized in 1747 ; opposite was built the 
Episcopal church, and farther south, the 
first school-house, both constructed about 


1754. Sabbath-day houses were built 
upon the highway on the east side of the 
'•green," which, in cold weather, served 
as places of resort for the worshippers at 
the noon intermission, where they could 
warm themselves and chat with acquaint- 
ances, from distant parts of the town. 
The introduction of stoves into the 
church against strong opposition, banished 
these little " sabba-day houses " which 
disappeared early in the century. 

Parson Newell served his church faith- 
fully until his death on February 10. 

genitors of the ( iuilford branch of the Nor- 
ton family in Bristol. The family is of 
very ancient lineage, tracing its ancestry 
to Normandy prior to the Norman Con- 
quest in to66. Another very ancient 
family also settled at an earlier date upon 
Fall Mountain, the Gaylords. They too 
are of Norman French extraction, dating 
back to the year 1248. In the sixteenth 
century, having embraced the Protestant 
faith, they were, together with other 
Huguenots, driven out of France, finding 
a refuge m hospitable England. It is one 
of the romantic episodes of history that 
these two old families, who fought 
shoulder to shoulder in the Crusades, en- 
dured persecution for their faith, and 
sousht an asvlum in the new world, should 

1789. His tomb in the 
South cemetery has the 
distinction of being the 
only grave of a Congrega- 
tional minister in Bristol. 
Following the lengthy in- 
scription upon the tomb- 
stone are two lines of majestic pen- 
tameter : 

" Death ! Great Proprietor of all! 'tis thine. 
To tread out Empires, and to quench ye 

Mr. Newell was a chaplain in the Revo- 
lutionary war. Near their beloved pastor's 
grave rest the remains of some of his 
faithful parishioners, among them Isaac 
Norton and his wife, Mary Rockwell, 
early settlers of Fall Mountain, and pro- 


as neighbors together help to subdue the 
wilderness, and fight valiantly for their 
country's independence in the Revolution. 
Of the Revolutionary epoch it may be 
said that for the most part the people of 
New Cambridge were intensely patri- 
otic. It is thought that fifty or more 
served in the American army. No more 
touching incidents of that struggle have 
been recorded than the escape of two 
Bristol women from AYvoming, after the 


massacre. Among the early settlers 
of the Wyoming valley were Aaron 
Gaylord, and his wife Katherine ; and 
Elias Roberts, and his wife Fallah. 

naming of the local-xhapter of Daughters 
of the American Revolution for her. 

When the first call for troops came, and 
the Farmington company was mustered 
into the service in July, 1775, 
Lieutenant Thomas Brooks, of 
West Britain, declined to fight 
against Great Britain and 
the king, and was dis- 
missed from the service 
in disgrace. The same 
conscientious loyalty to 
the English church and 
state, characterized the 
little band of churchmen, 
who lived, for the most 
part, upon Chippen's Hill, 
and the adjacent territory 
in Plymouth, Harwinton 
and West Britain, now 
Burlington. One of them, 



Both these men 
we re killed. 
Katherine Gay- 
lord made her way 
back to Bristol, 
undergoing almost 
incredible dangers 
and hardships, 
with three chil- 
dren. Fallah Rob- 
erts also returned, 
on foot, carrying 
an infant child in 
her arms. She was 
the mother of 
Gideon Roberts 

the first dock-maker. Katherine Gay- 
lord's memory has been preserved by the 


Moses Dunbar, was arrested while at- 
tempting to enlist troops for the British 


i i 

cause, and was tried and 
hung as a spy. Another was 
hung to a tree on the green, 
but was cut down and resus- 
citated by a kind-hearted 
patriot. Still another was 
sentenced to remain on his 
farm under penalty of death 
if found away from it. So 
hot was the persecution that 
the church was closed, and 
the rector, Mr. Nichols, suf- 
fered the indignity of being 
tarred and feathered. At 
one time seventeen of these tories were 
confined in Hartford jail, but were re- 
leased upon taking the required pledge of 
neutrality. During those troublous times 
a cave in the ledges to the north-west of 
Chippen's Hill, afforded the tories a safe 
retreat. It was so securely hidden that it 
never was discovered by the patriots until 
after the restoration of peace. To this 
day it is known as the " Tory's Den." 

The war had not yet ended when trouble 
of a milder nature broke out between the 
residents of this section and of the parent 
town. The spirit of independence was in 
the air. Nor was the cause of complaint 


:N S hili.. 

(Built by Abel Royce. Removed 185 

less reasonable or just in tne case of the 
West Britain and New Cambridge socie- 
ties, as set forth in their petition for separa- 
tion from Farmington, than was the cause 
of complaint of the Colonies against the 
mother country. Of course the cases 
were not analogous. Farmington had 
been an indulgent parent. She had 
granted her consent that the pioneers 
upon her western frontier should have 
" winter privileges." Then again, she had 
not strenuously opposed the formation of 
the separate ecclesiastical societies of New 
Cambridge and West Britain. The dis- 
tance from Farmington, and the difficulties 
attendant upon travel over 
such roads as then existed, 
were the moving causes. 
Numerous conferences be- 
tween the societies of West 
Britain and New Cam- 
bridge, some of them held 
doubtless under the old 
historic oak opposite " Bar- 
tholomy's Tavern," finally 
resulted in an agreement, 
upon terms of consolida- 
tion, and a petition to be 
set off as a town was sent 
to the General Assembly 
and granted in May, 1785. 
) The first town meeting was 




held in the meeting-house in New Cam- 
bridge, June 13, 17S5. Town meetings 
were held alternately in the two sections 
of this twin township for twenty-one years, 
and then the old independence spirit 
again asserted itself. Like the old dispute 
between man and wife as to which was 
the one of the twain, so this dispute as to 
the supremacy of the two societies waxed 
more and more vehement, until an agree- 
ment to dissolve partnership was the re- 
sult. This was accomplished in 1806, the 
southern society retaining the township 
name of Bristol, that had been bestowed 
upon the new town at its incorporation, 
and the northern section taking the name 
of Burlington. 

Who were responsible for suggesting 
the name of Bristol does not appear. 
Without the slightest knowledge, doubt- 
less, of the meaning of the word and its 
peculiar fitness to the locality which it 
was made to designate, on the part of its 
legislative christeners, it was nevertheless 
peculiarly appropriate. The name is a 
very ancient one, as is the English city 
that bears it, and comes from the Anglo- 
Saxon, meaning the place of the breach 
or chasm, referring to the chasm through 
which the river Avon finds its way to 
Bristol Channel. 

To the east of Downs' mill the Pequa- 
buck makes its exit through a chasm cut 
through the solid rock in past ages. The 



volume and force of the torrent that once 
flowed through this chasm may be conjec- 
tured by observing the peculiar formation 
of the valley east of Pierce's bridge, where 
it spreads out towards Forestville, skirted 
on the north by the bluff extending to Hub- 
bell's shop and beyond ; and on the south 
by the bluff beginning at the Y and run- 
ning eastwardly, including the Bohemia 
banks, and terminating at Plainville pond 
just over the town line. Until the moun- 
tain barrier was worn away, undoubtedly 
a lake of considerable extent, covered 
the "flat" portion of the town. A 
similar barrier, on a smaller scale, known 
as the " Devil's Backbone," which was 
also cut through by the pent-up waters 
behind it, is now a picturesque gorge near 
the Plymouth line. 

Bristol is one of the famous " hill 
towns " of Connecticut. Its eastern half 
reaches well out upon the " Great Plain " 
that extends from mountain to mountain, 
broken by occasional hillocks and ridges, 



but, for the most part, comparatively level • 
but its larger western half takes in the cen- 
tral elevation known as ' Federal Hill,' 
upon which the Congregational church is 
situated ; its southern frontier reaches to 
the summit and well over upon the plateau 
at the top of Wolcott Mountain ; its north- 
western section embraces what is known 
as Chippen's Hill, divided into north, south 
and east sections ; its south-west corner 

Born among these noble hills in Har- 
winton, the Pequabuck river flows south- 
erly to the village of the same name, 
thence easterly through a narrow valley, 
above which Chippen's Hill rises on the 
north, and Fall Mountain on the south. 
The north branch, rising on the eastern 
slopes of Chippen's Hill empties into the 
river in the very heart of the borough. 
At Forestville, Mine brook, a considerable 


occupies a spur of the Wolcott elevation, 
called Fall Mountain. Chippen's Hill is 
really the easternmost of those noble 
Litchfield County hills, that make that 
pastoral paradise of the state famous the 
world over. Long, smooth, rounded 
ridges, extending north and south, with 
rivulets trickling down their slopes to the 
streams in the vales between them. Such 
are the beautiful Litchfield hills. 

stream, joins it near the railroad trestle. 
A large reservoir on Wolcott Mountain, 
feeds a small mill stream, which joins the 
river at Spring's shop : and Fall Moun- 
tain and " Cuss Gutter " brooks are also 
tributary to the principal stream. 

Poland brook is only made famous by 
reason of its indicating the locality of 
lands reserved in the original survey, for 
the use of the Indian, Poland, for hunting 



purposes. Bohemia, 
another Indian, had re- 
served lands adjoining. 
These European names 
were doubtless conferred 
upon the noble red men, 
because their real names 
were unpronounceable 
or unknown to the pale- 
faces. Fall, whose name 
is attached to the moun- 
tain which he made his 
hunting preserve, and 
Morgan, whose tragic 
death is one of the cher- 
ished traditions of the 
town, are instances. But an attempt to 
preserve the Indian name of Cochipianee, 
was made in naming Chippenny, after- 
ward corrupted to Chippen's Hill. 

L&fc^ £HW 

T Vjjfr, 






These Indians were of the Tunxis tribe, 
of Farmington, usually peaceable and 
friendly to the whites, to whose credit it 
may be said that they were true to their 





i \\i 

§k»j*, k 


' /• <SK 









promises and obligations to the red men. 

Well denned Indian trails led from 
Farmington through the West Woods and 
beyond to Mattatuck, in the Naugatuck 
valley. Over these trails the first settlers 
rode on horseback every sabbath to 
church. Over these trails provisions, 
tools, and building materials were labori- 
ously transported. The first road, now 
almost obliterated, connecting Chippen's 
Hill, and the North Side, with Farming- 
ton, followed one of these trails, a small 
section, near the north cemetery, now 
alone remaining. 

In building roads, the early settlers 
followed as closely as the nature of the 
ground would permit, the original surveys, 
or "king's highways." Where natural 
obstacles interposed, roads were built as 

near the surveyed 
line as possible, land 
in the original road- 
way being exchanged 
for that taken. Some- 
times when the road 
followed the original 
survey, it veered from 
side to side of the 
twenty-rod layout, to 
avoid obstructions. 
Gradually all roads 
came to be laid out 
without regard to 
original surveys, and 
with regard solely to 
utility. Within a few 
years the very un- 
satisfactory condition 
of the roads has im- 
pressed itself upon 
the townspeople, and 
"state roads" of 
crushed stone have 
been constructed. 
Recently the town 
has acquired by pur- 
chase a bank of red earth and gravel, 
which has proved to be one of the best of 
road materials, almost if not quite equal 
to crushed trap. At this bank, near the 
Waterbury bridge, the town has located 
its stone-crushing plant ; and, as fast as 
circumstances will permit, the roads of 
Bristol will be made as good as those of 
any sister town. 

Religiously, as we have seen, the town 
followed in the line established by New 
England Puritanism, of making secular 
affairs secondary to spiritual duties. The 
plain church edifice first erected in 1 747 
gave place to a larger structure in 1771, 
which by vote of the society was painted 
" Spruce yellow," the roof '•' Spanish 
brown," the doors and windows white. 
A steeple was added in 1797, and then 



for the first time, the tones of a church bell 
rang out over hills and valleys, calling to 
divine service, and tolling requiems for 
the dead. In 1831 the present church 
edifice was erected, a model of the New 
England church architecture of that 

Following the secession of the origina- 
tors of the Episcopal church in 1747, 

Many of the Episcopalians lived upon 
Chippen's Hill, and adjacent territory, and 
an agitation looking to the building of a 
church that would better accommodate this 
membership resulted in the selection of 
East Plymouth. Here in 1792-3 the 
"second society of Northbury " (Ply- 
mouth) erected the present East church, 
the parent society of New Cambridge 
having effected a sale of their 
church building and contributed 
the avails to the building fund. 
The church was dedicated in 
1795 by Bishop Seabury, first 
Bishop of Connecticut, as St. 
Matthew's Church. The original 
New Cambridge church was after- 

and the building by 
them of a small 
church edifice in 
1754, the revolu- 
tionary antagonism 
to loyalist church- 
men caused the 
abandonment of 
services in the little 
church. After the 
revolution, services 
were again resumed, 

in 1784 the record declaring them willing 
again to meet in the old church, " which 
had lain desolate for some time on account 
of the violence of the times." Under the 
laws of the state a reorganization took 
place that year, and within a year or two 
forty-six members were recorded. 


(The Edifice built in 1881. ) 

ward destroyed by fire. The windows 
were preserved, however, and until its 
demolition, lighted the gambrel-roofed 
house, facing the north end of the green, 
which was originally Abel Lewis' store. 

The present Trinity society was organ- 
ized in 1834, and built a church on Maple 


street below Federal street. In 1862 the 
present Gothic church was erected on the 
site of Linstead's block, to make room for 
which it was removed to its present site on 
High street. The old building was sold 
to the Methodist society of Forestville, 
and was taken down and rebuilt in 1864. 
Following the Episcopal society in 
order of time is the Baptist society, whose 


founders, bringing the germs of that sect 
from the southern part of the state, 
planted them upon the rugged soil of 
Wolcott and Fall Mountain. At the 
neighborhood known as Indian Heaven, 
just over the Plymouth line, in a barn, 
was organized in 1791 the Bristol Baptist 
Church. It erected a church edifice in 

1802, corner of School and West Streets; 
then on the same site in 1830, a new 
edifice; and in 1881, the present elegant 
brick structure. The first organ in 
Bristol was installed in the Baptist church 
in 1820, and was built in town by Basil 
Treat. Sherman Treat was the first 
organist. The first church edifice was 
removed in 1830, by Irenus Atkins, and 
converted into a factory. 
Both the first and second 
I buildings were consumed by 

Next followed the Meth- 
odists who erected a church, 
since burned, at the North 
Side. The time of building 
extended from 1834 to 1837, 
the date of its dedication. 
The new brick edifice was 
erected in 1881, enlarged 
through the beneficence of 
John H. Sessions, to its 
present magnificent dimen- 
sions in 1895. The growth 
of this church from the origi- 
nal class in 1833, to its pres- 
ent proportions, having the 
largest membership and 
finest church edifice in 
town, is phenomenal. 

The Advent society, or- 
ganized in 1858, grew out of 
occasional lectures by believ- 
ers in the second advent, in 
the early forties. After the 
abandonment of the old 
Methodist church at the 
North Side, it was purchased by this de- 
nomination, and occupied by them until 
its destruction by fire in 1890. The 
present chapel was erected the following 

St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church 
was built in 1855, and the parish was 
made an independent one in 1866. 



Besides these churches 
there are the Forestville 
Methodist church, organ- 
ized in 1855 ; the Roman 
Catholic church recently 
built adjacent to it ; 
German, and Swedish 
Lutheran, Swedish Con- 
gregational and Swedish 
Methodist churches. A 
Swedish Baptist society 
exists, but without a 
church edifice. 

Bristol has been repre- 
sented in every war in 
which the United States 
has been engaged, not 
excepting the recent skir- 
mish with Spain. The 
call to arms in 1861, re- 
sulted in the enlistment 
of 250 men. Two com- 
panies, K, of the 1 6th, 
and I, of the 2 5 th, were re- 
cruited in town. The soldiers' monument, 
bearing the names of 54 of those who 
laid down their lives for their country was 

erected in the 
West Cemetery 
in 1866, and 
was one of the 
first erected in 
the country. It 
is a noble shaft 
of freestone, 
surmounted by 
an eagle. 

ADVENT CHURCH. £^ w£^'v'fc £l- 

Modern Bristol, its development and in- 
dustries, will be made the subject of 
another article. 



I. Ores and Ore-Beds. 


IT is rather a pleasant change to turn 
from the geological features of Con- 
necticut which are of scientific interest 
only, to those other geological features 
which are of general interest — which not 
only concern the structure of the region 
itself, but are intimately connected with 
the life of its inhabitants and with the de- 
velopment of its industries. This twofold 
interest is possessed in a marked degree 
by the iron deposits of Connecticut. 

Our forefathers found that their prom- 
ised land, like the Canaan of the Israel- 
ites of old, was " a land whose stones are 
iron and out of whose hills thou mayest 
dig brass." The industries connected 
with the mining of copper, which flourish- 
ed in Connecticut until the opening of 
richer fields in other parts of the United 
States made the undertaking unprofitable, 
have been fully treated in a previous ar- 
ticle in the Connecticut Quarterly by Mr. 
E. M. Hulbert.* Accordingly, these 
papers simply undertake to give a short 
sketch of the rise and decline of the iron 
industries of the State, which at one time 
had a wide spread and well deserved 
fame. Although it is a temptation to 
begin at once with the early history of 
iron smelting in the " land of steady 
habits," it may be well to stop a moment 
to consider briefly the conditions .under 
which the irons occur and the chief steps in 
the process of the reduction of ore to pig- 

iron and of pig-iron to wrought-iron or to 
steel, in order that we may see just what 
problems presented themselves to the 
new world disciples of Tubal Cain. 

Native Iron, that is, metallic iron — 
iron as we commonly know it— is of the 
very rarest occurence on the earth. 
Most of it is to be found in meteorites 
and is therefore not of terrestrial origin. 
Small grains of it have been found in 
basaltic and other related rocks, while 
masses found imbedded in similar rocks 
at Ovifac, Greenland, supposed at one 
time to be of meteoric origin, have since 
been fully proved to be terrestrial. This 
makes the sum total of occurences of 
native iron, as far as known. 

As a matter of fact, metallic iron has 
such a strong tendency to unite chemi- 
cally with other substances, notably 
oxygen, that it is only in combination 
with these that we find it, and the work 
of the iron-smelter is to break up these 
compounds and to isolate the iron from 
these substances with which it is united. 
Even then we have difficulty in keeping 
it pure, for as soon as it becomes wet it 
rusts ; that is, it begins to take up oxygen 
again and to return to the form of a com- 
pound. Iron ore, then, is simply iron in 
natural chemical combination with other 
substances, and the various iron ores 
receive different names in accordance 
with the different substances with which 

*Vol. III. No. i. 


it is united. The commoner ores, those 
which are of commercial value as sources 
of iron are as follows : 

Magnetite. The richest of the ores is 
magnetite or magnetic iron-ore, a com- 
pound of iron and oxygen possessing 
about 72 per cent, of pure iron. 
It is black and heavy, usually massive or 
granular, and has the power, when in large 
lumps, of attracting to itself small pieces 
of iron. It is to the presence of magnet- 

always red or reddish and this is enough 
to distinguish it from the next ore. limo- 
nite, which sometimes quite closely resem- 
bles it. It is a very widely distributed 

and valuable ore. The red ochre of the 
painter is powdered hematite. 

Limonite. This is a compound similar 
to hematite, except that there is incorpo- 
rated with the iron and oxygen a certain 
amount of water. This, of course, lowers 
the proportion of iron in a criven amount 


ite that lode-stone owes its power. The 
ore occurs in some places in the form of 

Hematite. This is also a compound 
of iron with oxygen, but in different pro- 
portions from magnetite, although the per- 
centage of iron is but little lower. The 
color is variable. When massive, it is often 
of a dark steel gray ; when earthy, it is 
red. The powdered mineral, however, is 

of ore, so that the metal only reaches 
something over 50 per cent. Though 
various in appearance, it may be readily 
distinguished from hematite by the fact 
that the powdered mineral is always yellow 
or yellowish. It should be noted that 
limonite is often somewhat loosely called 
brown hematite in distinction from red 
hematite which is a true hematite. A 
loose and porous form of limonite found 



in marshy places and often containing 
very considerable organic remains is 
commonly known as bog iron or bog 
ore. The yellow ochre of the painter is 
a powdered limonite, and the yellow rust 
which forms when iron is exposed to 
water is simply a return of metallic iron 
to this ore. These ores are all oxides of 
iron, the next most common form is a 

Siderite or Spathic Iron Ore. This is 
a compound of iron, carbon and oxygen, 
giving 62 per cent, of the pure metal. It 
is usually brownish or yellowish and, to 
the ordinary observer, suggests anything 
but an iron compound. It looks more, 
perhaps, like an impure limestone. 

Very impure clayey or earthy forms of 
these last three ores are rather indiscrimi- 
nately known by the name of clay iron- 
stone. It should be remembered that 
the proportions of iron given above for 
each mineral are the proportions for abso- 
lutely pure ore. Earthy impurities may 
exist in great quantity immensely modify- 
ing the percentage of metal. 

It must not be understood that these 
are the only iron minerals that occur, but 
these are the principal ores which are the 
source of the metallic iron of commerce. 

The ore deposits of Connecticut lie 
principally in the western part of the 
state and extend over into the neighbor- 
ing portions of New York and Massachu- 
setts. These deposits many years ago 
gave rise to a most flourishing industry 
along the general line of the Housatonic 
river, until the iron produced in that 
region had a reputation above that of the 
iron from any other section. The open- 
ing of new deposits in portions of the 
country, where conditions were vastly 
more favorable to a cheap production of 
metal, long ago carried the center of the 
industry far from New England. But the 

superiority of Salisbury iron for special 
castings requiring great strength, notably 
car wheels, still makes it profitable for 
certain manufacturers to pay the higher 
price which the difficulty of production 
makes necessary. The Barnum Rich- 
ardson Company are now the sole pro- 
ducers, but the deserted furnaces 
scattered throughout the region tell of the 
period when it was expected that Western 
Connecticut would contain the Birming- 
ham of the New World. 

Of the several varieties of iron ore 
found in Connecticut, the most important 
on account of its quantity, accessibility, 
and the excellence of the iron produced 
is the so-called brown hematite, a hard 
dark form of limonite. Of the three 
towns, Salisbury, Sharon and Kent, within 
which this ore has principally been mined, 
the former has the more important de- 
posits, in fact, these are the only beds 
from which ore is being taken at the 
present day. 

The town of Salisbury occupies the ex- 
treme northwest corner of the state and 
has been probably more identified with 
the iron industry than any of the neigh- 
boring towns. It contains within its limits 
three beds of brown hematite of which the 
bed at Ore Hill, or, as it is quite as often 
called, "Old Hill," is by all means the 
most important. This bed lies to the 
southwest of the village of Salisbury and 
hardly more than a mile from the New 
Yoik state line. In former times it was 
worked as an open quarry, there being 
quite a number ot " pits " carried into the 
side of the hill. The first ore was taken 
from this bed probably between 1730 and 
1735 and it has been worked constantly 
ever since. In 1837 Dr. Shepard * states 
that the amount of ore raised during the 
previous forty years averaged about five 
thousand tons annually. At that time the 

Report of the Geological Survey of Connecticut." By Charles Upham Shepard, M. D. 1837. 



surface diggings had become exhausted 
in all directions except at the western 
edge, though it apparently continued in 
depth indefinitely. During the period 
between the close of the Civil War and 
the year 1873 a verv great deal more ore 
was taken out annually than during many 
years previous. 

In the earlier days of working the mine 
a double method of organization was in- 
augurated among those interested in the 

prietors and the Mining Company, and 
now own the mine. The company is at 
present (summer of 1898) sending about 
eighty tons of washed ore daily to its 
furnace at East Canaan. 

Surface work at the mine ceased long 
ago and the great pit, which must be fully 
a quarter of a mile across, is for the most 
part deserted. The work is now carried 
on at a distance of from 150 to 200 feet 
below the surface, and the ore under the 


undertaking. There was an association of 
" Proprietors " who owned the land, and a 
"Mining Company" who took out the 
ore. The former received a certain 
" duty " on every ton of ore taken out, 
while the latter sold the ore to the furnace 
owners. This arrangement continued 
until the early part of 1898, when the 
Barnum Richardson Company bought the 
shares of both the Corporation of Pro- 

abandoned pit is honeycombed with gal- 
leries. The ore is finally hauled to the 
surface up an incline at the west side of 
the pit, and is dumped automatically into 
a second car which carries it to the washer, 
where it is screened as it is dumped. An 
ingenious device of a pointer traversing a 
dial indicates to the engineer in the power 
house the position of either car at any 
time, and he is thus enabled to attend to 



the whole matter of raising the ore and 
dumping the cars single handed. 

At the washer the dark, porous ore is 
broken up in an ordinary stone crusher 
and is passed down to the washer proper, 
where it is cleansed of earth and other 
adhesions and is loaded on flat-cars, — 
about twelve tons to a car, — and is shipped 
direct to the furnace at East Canaan. 

On the floor of the old pit is the build- 
ing containing the pumping engine which 
raises the water from the mine and dis- 
charges it into a small pond on the bank 
above the washer. It is this water from 


the mine which is again used for washing 
the ore. The mine employs at present 
about thirty men under ground. 

The next nearest mine and probably 
another part of the same deposit is Chat- 
field's Bed, This lies about a quarter of 
a mile southeast of Ore Hill. The mining 
was done entirely at the surface and sixty 
years ago about eight hundred tons of ore 
were taken out annually. The bed has 
been abandoned and no ore has been 
mined there for fully five years. 

The third ore bed near Salisbury is 
known as Davis' Bed. It lies about two 

and a half miles northeast of Ore Hill on 
the road from Lakeville to Salisbury. 
The bed is still worked at the surface and 
an enormous pit shows how long the min- 
ing has been going on. This mine has 
long been leased by the Barnum Rich- 
ardson Company, and the washed ore, 
averaging from twenty to twenty-five tons 
a day is sent to their furnace at East 
Canaan. Here the ore is mixed with 
that from Ore Hill, the mixture giving a 
more satisfactory grade of iron than either 
used singly. The ores from these beds 
yield about 45 per cent, of pig iron. 

These are the impor- 
. • tant mines of the town 

of Salisbury, and the 
amount of ore taken 
from these is vastly in 
excess of all that has 
been raised from all the 
other Connecticut beds 
taken together. From 
these beds were supplied 
„gj furnaces at Chapinville, 
Mt. Riga, Cornwall, 
*W" % Canaan, Lakeville, Fur- 

nance Village, LimeRock 
and other places, to say 
nothing of the ore 
smelted at Ancram Fur- 
nace in New York state. 
Shepard reports two other deposits 
of ore in the town of Salisbury, known 
respectively as Scovill's and Chapin's 
Beds, but he states that at that date 
(1837) they had been abandoned for 
eight years, as it was impossible to get a 
good grade of iron from them. 

Another important deposit of brown 
hematite is found on the east side of 
Indian Lake in the town of Sharon. In 
1837 about two thousand tons of ore were 
raised annually, being used mostly in the 
furnaces of Sharon. A furnace was in 
blast at Sharon Valley until the winter of 



1897-8. At the present time no mining 
is going on there. Shepard states that 
the iron produced is somewhat " less mal- 
leable than that of Salisbury, and is prin- 
cipally used for castings." 

Going toward the south the next im- 
portant deposit of brown hematite is to 
be found in the town of Kent at a point 
about two miles to the east of the village 
of South Kent. 

This bed used to be very important ; it 
supplied ore for Kent Furnace and also 

lent for manufacturing machinery and 
locomotive parts. 

A remarkable deposit of siderite or 
spathic iron ore occurs in the town of 
Roxbury about four miles east of New 
Milford. Shepard in his geological re- 
port of 1837 considers this so important 
that he devotes far more space to its de- 
scription than to that of any other bed. 
The ore is deposited in a vertical vein 
from six to eight feet wide outcropping at 
intervals for a distance of half a mile in a 


for the furnaces at Bull's Bridge and 
Macedonia, all in the town of Kent, 
though the last two smelted New York 
ore to a great extent. The mine was 
originally worked at the surface, but later 
a shaft was sunk to a very considerable 
depth. The last ore was taken from this 
bed about January, 1892. The iron pro- 
duced from this ore had too great shrink- 
age for making car wheels, but was excel- 

low mountain known as Mine Hill. The 
mine was opened as early as 1750, but, 
curiously enough, the metal sought for a 
number of years was silver. It was not 
until considerably later that its value as a 
source of iron was recognized. While the 
ores previously described furnish excellent 
cast and malleable iron they are not good 
steel ores. The Roxbury ore was the 
same as that furnishing the well known 



German steel and much was expected of 
it. Shepard's expectations seem to have 
been disappointed. There was trouble 
with the work in early times from faulty 
methods, and, though good steel was pro- 
duced afterward, the enterprise seems to 
have declined, till at the present day the 
steel works, which shut down twenty years 
ago, are in ruins and what is perhaps the 
largest deposit of spathic iron in the 
United States has been utterly abandoned. 

In the eastern part of Connecticut 
another variety of limonite, known as bog 
ore, has been mined and smelted since 
very earlv times, notably at New Haven 
and North Branford. Deposits have been 
found at " Colchester, Hebron, Tolland, 
Willington, Westford (in Ashford), Staf- 
ford, Union and Woodstock." The prin- 
cipal furnaces were at Stafford and Hebron, 
the latter getting its ore from Colchester. 
In 1837 the output of the Stafford furnace 
was 350 tons of castings annually. These 
industries have been dead for many 

It should be mentioned as a matter of 
nterest that magnetite has been mined in 

several places, chiefly at New Preston, at 
Buck's Mountain in Sharon, and at Win- 
chester. These ores have been smelted, 
but the undertaking never remotely ap- 
proached the dignity of an industry. A 
considerable quantity of magnetite is to 
be found as an iron sand along the shore 
of Long Island Sound, especially from 
New Haven to Stonington. This sand 
was successfully smelted at Killingworth 
in Middlesex County as early as 1761 by 
the Rev. Jared Eliot, and a forge at Vol- 
untown in New London County used a 
considerable quantity of this sand as ore. 
Although there is a great deal of in- 
terest connected with the history of iron 
mining in Connecticut, it is only when 
studied in connection with the history of 
iron smelting in the same state that the 
subject reaches its greatest importance. 
It is hard to keep the two subjects sepa- 
rate, so closely are they interwoven, but 
the aim of this paper has been to give 
some account of the mining, referring to 
the furnaces but incidentally. A history 
of these furnaces will be given in the next 



My love is the wind and his heart is mine ; 

Here under the midnight sky 
We sleep and we dream in the starlit gleam, 

And wake to the sea-bird's cry, 
When the day comes back and the sails unfurl, 

As blue billows fluff into foam ; 
We laugh in delight at the hurricane's flight, 

And kiss when the ships come home. 



OUR national system of government 
has been highly commended both 
at home and abroad. The foremost Eng- 
lish statesman of this generation has re- 
ferred to the Constitution of the United 
States as "the most wonderful work ever 
struck off at a given time by the brain and 
purpose of man." But the government of 
American cities, judged by its fruits, has 
been pronounced a failure. A reform 
school has sprung up which has taught 
that our municipal system is ill-adapted 
to existing conditions and has advocated 
as a remedy the vesting of larger powers in 
the mayor and casting upon him a corres- 
pondingly greater responsibility for the 
good order and efficient government 
of the municipality. While the national 
and state governments in their main 
features have remained the same, our city 
governments during a hundred years have 
undergone essential changes, none more 
radical than those which have recently 
been in progress. To describe these 
changes, to outline the growth and de- 
velopment of the mayoralty under Con- 
necticut city charters, and especially to 
indicate the effect of the movement now 
going on in enlarging the mayor's preroga- 
tives and duties, is the writer's inviting 

Until the times of the Revolution, the 
town meeting held unbroken sway in the 
Nutmeg state. The elaborate govern- 
mental machinery of our larger cities, 
with the systematic division of duties and 
powers, of care and control, was as far 
from the thought of the colonial fathers 

as the electric wagons that are now ap- 
pearing upon our streets. But in 1784, 
the demand of certain growing sections 
for more highly organized local govern- 
ment was recognized. In that year the 
General Assembly incorporated the cities 
of Hartford, New Haven, Middletown, 
New London and Norwich. For half a 
century they remained the only represen- 
tatives of municipal government in Con- 
necticut. In 1836 Bridgeport was added 
to the roll and Waterbury in 1853. The 
number has since increased to eighteen. 

To Connecticut belongs the distinction 
among the New England states of being 
the pioneer in municipal incorporation. 
Boston, the oldest chartered city in Mass- 
achusetts, was not incorporated until 
1822. Portland and Providence became 
cities in 1832, Bangor in 1834, Lowell 
and Salem in 1836. Newport undertook 
city government in 1784, but soon aban- 
doned it and did not try the experiment 
again for more than sixty years. 

The five original Connecticut charters 
were substantially alike and conferred but 
little power. They made the cities cor- 
porations and defined their limits ; created 
the offices of mayor, treasurer, clerk, 
sheriff, and inspector of produce ; em- 
powered the municipality to lay taxes ; 
created the court of common council and 
the city courts ; and authorized the com- 
mon council to pass ordinances or by- 
laws for certain specified purposes. But 
the latter power was doubly safe-guarded, 
for no such ordinance could take effect 
until approved in city meeting, and it 



might be repealed within six months after 
its enactment, by the superior court, if 
found on hearing to be unreasonable or 

None of these cities had then a popula- 
tion in excess of five thousand. Repair 
of highways and care of the poor re- 
mained still for the town, which retained 
its jurisdiction over the territory within 
city limits. Police were unknown. Wa- 
ter works, fire companies, sewer systems, 
parks, boards of health, electrical com- 
munications, and street railways were 
non-existent or independent of ciiy gov- 
ernment. All that was practically effect- 
ed by these original charters might be 
summed up in the statement that they 
created the court of common council 
and the city court, the mayor being the 
head of each. There were none of those 
commercial and administrative depart- 
ments and bureaus which form so impor- 
tant a feature of modern city government. 

The authority of the mayor was small, 
his salary nothing. He received com- 
pensation as judge of the city court at the 
same rate as the county judges, which at 
first was fixed at two dollars per day, but 
was increased in 1802 to three dollars 
and a half. Assistant judges received fifty 
cents a day less. This surely was not 
large pay according to present-day stand- 
ards. But in those times the fees of all 
officials were small. The chief judge of 
the superior court in 1784 received 
twenty-seven shillings and his assistants 
twenty-four shillings per diem, "as a rec- 
ompense", in the language of the law, 
"for their services while attending the du- 
ties of their office." 

The mayor's duties may be classified 
as two-fold. He was a member and the 
presiding officer of the court of common 
council, in which the aldermen and coun- 
cilmen met as one body, and he presided 
at city meetings. He was, secondly, a 

judicial magistrate, and this may have 
been regarded his chief distinction 

The exercise of both executive and ju- 
dicial functions by the same person, a 
practice as old as the time of Solomon, 
and indeed coeval with government itself, 
was still customary. The mayor was 
made the chief judge of the city court, 
having cognizance of civil causes, not in- 
volving title to real estate and arising 
within the city, of the same magnitude as 
those triable by the county court. It had 
no criminal jurisdiction. Two aldermen 
made up the other members of the court 
and a jury was drawn from the city jury 
list when required. The mayor or any 
alderman might severally hold court for 
the trial of civil causes, having the juris- 
diction of a justice of the peace. 

The mayor was chosen by the freemen 
of the city but held his office during the 
pleasure of the General Assembly. This 
prerogative of the assembly it rarely if 
ever exercised and in consequence the 
terras of office of the early mayors were 
terminated either by death or resignation. 
The first mayor of New London held the 
office for the continuous term of twenty- 
one years ; the first mayor of Hartford 
for twenty-eight years. The mayor had 
no power of veto, appointment or nomi- 
nation, and no authority or commission to 
enforce the laws. There were no depart- 
ments or bureaus to be administered. 

While the office had no salary attached 
and the powers of the mayor were few 
and restricted, yet as the position was an 
honorary one and the duties far from bur- 
densome, the foremost citizens did not 
decline to fill the office. The mayors 
first chosen were Thomas Seymour of 
Hartford, Jabez Hamlin of Middle- 
town, Roger Sherman of New Haven, 
Richard Law of New London, and Benja- 
min Huntington of Norwich. They 
were all leading and representative men 



in their respective communities. Benja- 
min Huntington was a member of the 
Continental Congress and of the conven- 
tion which adopted the United States 
Constitution, and was for many years a 
judge of the superior court. Richard 
Law was chief justice of the state. Roger 
Sherman was a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence which he assisted in 
drafting, a judge of the superior court, a 
congressman and United States Senator. 

As years passed by the powers of the 
court of common council, especially in 
the larger cities, greatly increased. But 
for fifty years following the original acts 
of incorporation the character of the 
mayoralty remained essentially the same. 
The first change thereafter was a curtail- 
ment of authority. In 1836 Hartford 
procured an amendment of its charter by 
which the judicial functions of the mayor 
were taken away and conferred upon a 
new official styled a recorder, and in a 
few years this change was embodied in 
the fundamental law of the other cities of 
the state. He was simply the presiding 
officer of the court of common council ; 
he might not administer an oath or take 
acknowledgment of a deed. 

But about this time, as though to 
compensate in some measure for the loss 
of judicial functions, the mayor was given 
a new character and importance as a 
peace officer. As early as 1834, Hart- 
ford's charter punished resistance or 
abuse of the mayor in the execution of his 
office, a provision which has been gener- 
ally followed in other city charters. In 
1842 a most important amendment was 
made to the city charter of New Haven, 
which has since been embodied, with little 
change in phraseology, into the charter 
of every city of the state and has been re- 
tained with slight modifications to the 
present time. It made the mayor the 
chief executive officer of the city, imposed 

upon him the duty of seeing that the 
laws were faithfully executed, and de- 
clared him the conseivator of the peace. 
It gave him not only the authority of 
sheriffs under the Riot Act. but the arbi- 
trary power, very near the danger line, of 
arresting without warrant and committing 
to prison, for not more than twenty- four 
hours, revelers and disturbers of the 
peace. He might enter the resorts of dis- 
orderly persons and disperse those as- 
sembled, on pain of immediate imprison- 
ment. He might, when necessary, re- 
quire the aid, not only of the police and 
militia of the city, but also of private per- 
sons, and any one refusing or unneces- 
sarily neglecting to assist him when com- 
manded was punishable with fine or im- 
prisonment or both. These powers, de- 
signed especially to enable the mayor to 
suppress riot and high-handed violence, 
were ample for the execution, against 
open resistance, of his supreme 
trust as the chief executive of the city 
and the one upon whom the enforcement 
of the law and the preservation of the 
public peace was by the act imposed. 

Until 1850 and later, the council sys- 
tem, as it has been called, characterized 
all our city governments. It was much 
like the borough system of England in 
making the central council the repository 
of all authority, and seemed not out of 
harmony with the government of this 
state in which powers both executive and 
judicial have from the first been exercised 
by the general court. But from this 
date on, the larger cities have been in- 
creasing the power and patronage of the 
mayor, until the charters of some of them 
may be compared, the difference in size 
being considered, with those of Boston 
and Chicago, or even greater New York. 
The smaller cities still retain with 
more or less modification, the council 



This change began with the creation of 
boards, placed over the different adminis- 
trative departments, New Haven leading 
the way by several amendments to her 
charter in the 6o's. These boards, which 
have become a prominent feature in the 
government of all the larger cities of the 
state, generally embody the principle of 
minority representation and supercede, 
wholly or in part, the superintendence of 
the court of common council. They 
confer authority upon a large number of 
citizens outside of the latter body, and in 
whose selection the people have no voice. 
Their members usually serve without pay. 
At first they were appointed by the court 
of common council; then by nomination 
of the mayor and confirmation of the 
council or board of aldermen ; and lastly, 
as the reform progressed, by the mayor 
alone. The latter is at the same time a 
member ex-officio of many of them. New 
Haven has gone still further by placing in 
the hands of the mayor not only the ap- 
pointment of these boards, but of the 
more important executive officers in the 
departments which the boards control. 

This advance along the line of confer- 
ring greater power on the mayor can be 
shown iu no way better than by examining 
and comparing the charters of two repre- 
sentative cities. None differ more in 
this respect than those of Norwich and 
New Haven, the former belonging to the 
council system and the latter having taken 
the most advanced position in the direc- 
tion of the reform movement. 

By the charter of the city of Norwich, 
now in force, the mayor is the presiding 
officer of the court of common council 
and is given the customary power as a 
peace officer. But here his authority and 
duties, so far as conferred by the city 
charter, come to an end. He has no veto 
power over acts of the council. He has 
no connection with the administrative de- 

partments ex-officio, and no power of ap- 
pointment, nomination or removal of im- 
portance if we except the nomination of 
the health officer as provided by a recent 
statute. The common council appoints 
the heads of the fire, street, and police 
departments, the police force, a mem- 
ber of the water board, the corporation 
counsel, board of compensation, superin- 
tendents of cemeteries and other minor 
officials. Commercial or administrative 
questions relating to street improvements, 
water works, health, sidewalks, building 
lines, fire apparatus, number and pay of 
policemen, lighting of streets, and kindred 
matters come before this board for deter- 
mination. It takes land for public pur- 
poses, makes or approves the rules of the 
different departments, fixes the pay of 
members and officials, makes the yearly 
estimate of expenses, administers disci- 
pline, passes upon all bills and accounts 
against the city, and superintends by 
committee or otherwise all work done. 
If a tree is to be cut upon the highway, 
the court of common council must ap- 
prove of the innovation. The mayor has 
no part in these matters of appointment 
and administration except as a member 
of the body in which the power resides. 

The charter of Middletown differs little 
from that of Norwich. The mayor however 
is given a veto power over acts of the coun- 
cil. In New London, the mayor has a 
veto power, is a member of the boards of 
park and sewer commissioners, and is the 
chief of police, in so far as he needs their 
services for the execution of the duties 
of his office. 

The revised charter of the city of New 
Haven, which was granted in 1897 and 
has gone into operation auspiciously 
under the administration of Mayor Fred- 
erick B. Farnsworth, shows most of any 
of the cities of the state the influence of 
the new school of municipal reform. The 



position of the mayor is indicated in the 
charter's declaration, embodying the spirit 
of the reform movement, that he is re- 
sponsible for the good order and efficient 
government of the city. The common 
council is divested of nearly all save legis- 
lative functions, the administration being 
confided to the mayor and his appointees. 
The instrument is worthy of examination 
as the ripest product of municipal reform 
in the state. 

By this charter the mayor must be 
thirty years of age and for five years pre- 
viously to his election a resident of the 
city. His salary is thirty-five hundred 
dollars per annum and his term is two 
years. He has the most effective veto 
power over acts of the council given to 
any Connecticut mayor. The first city 
to confer this power was Hartford in 
1859. Bridgeport followed in 1864 and 
New Haven in 1868. It could be over- 
ridden by a majority of the court of com- 
mon council upon reconsideration, and 
such is still the general rule. Meriden, 
Waterbury, and some other cities, how- 
ever, require a two-thirds vote for that pur- 
pose. But under New Haven's new 
charter, not only is it necessary that there 
should be a two-thirds vote of all the 
members of each house of the common 
council, present or absent, but the mayor 
is given the exceptional power of approv- 
ing part of any vote, order or resolution, 
making such part effectual and binding 
while the remainder is void, unless passed 
over the veto in the customary manner. 

The principal salaried officers holding 
their appointments directly from the 
mayor are the corporation counsel, with 
salary of $3,500, superintendents of police 
and fire departments and director of 
public works, each with salary of $2,500, 
the mayor's secretary, with salary of 
$1,000, the sealer of weights and meas- 
ures, with salary of $700, and the super- 

intendents of streets and sewers and the 
civil engineer, each with salary fixed by 
the common council. 

The different departments of adminis- 
tration — finance, police, fire, parks, pub- 
lic health, public library, and education — 
are under the general direction of boards 
of five to nine members each, appointed 
with few exceptions by the mayor from 
different political parties, and serving 
without pay. They in turn choose the 
executive officers of the different depart- 
ments, excepting such as are appointed 
by the mayor, make rules of adminis- 
tration and oversee the management. 

But to understand the large patronage 
and control vested in the mayor it is 
necessary to examine these departments a 
little more in detail. The finance de- 
partment is one of first importance. This 
board meets weekly, passes upon all 
claims and accounts against the city, 
borrows money for current expenses, and 
regulates the method of payment of all 
officers and employees. ■ Among its 
various duties is that of making the yearly 
estimate of expenses, which no officer or 
department can exceed, and determining 
the rate of taxation, subject in these two 
respects to be overridden by the court of 
common council, but only by a two-thirds 
vote of each branch. The mayor and his 
appointees control the board, as he is the 
presiding officer and appoints three of 
the other members. 

The boards of police and fire com- 
missioners make appointments, adminis- 
ter discipline, fix the pay of members, 
prescribe the duties and ordain the rules 
in their respective departments. They 
are appointed by the mayor who is also 
the chairman of each. Add to this the 
fact that the police and fire superin- 
tendents are his appointees and the 
paramount influence of the mayor is 



Of the board of park commissioners, 
having the exclusive control, preservation 
and adornment of the large park at East 
Rock, the most beautiful in Connecticut, 
besides other parks and public grounds, 
the mayor is chairman and appoints five 
of the other eight members. 

The board of health, with its great and 
summary powers, exercising jurisdiction 
over the city and adjacent waters, the 
board of library directors, controlling the 
public library with its large yearly donation 
from the city, the board of education, 
having the exclusive management of all 
the affairs of the city school district, with 
none to molest since school district meet- 
ings for any purpose are strictly forbidden, 
are all appointees of the mayor. 

The department of public works is ex- 
ceptional in not being under a board. At 
its head is a director, and it has bureaus 
of streets, sewers, engineering, and com- 
pensation or appraisement. The director 
and the heads of the several bureaus are 
all appointed by the mayor. 

But the power of appointment does not 
bound the mayor's authority in the ad- 
ministration of affairs. It is made his 
duty to bring together monthly or oftener, 
for consultation and advice, as a kind of 
cabinet, the heads of the different depart- 
ments, the controller and corporation 
counsel, when he may call for such reports 
as he deems proper. He may at any time 
appoint three disinterested persons to 
examine without notice and report to him 
the affairs of any department, officer or 
employee of the city. He may call upon 
the sheriffs and constabulary and make 
requisitions upon the National Guard to 
assist him in preserving the peace and 
executing the laws, and may in case of 
emergency, for periods of not more than 
five days, assume the entire direction and 
control of the fire and police forces and 
exercise all the power conferred on those 

departments. He has power at any time 
to remove for incompetence or unfaithful- 
ness, upon hearing, any of his appointees. 
They may appeal to the superior court for 
review but are suspended in the meantime. 

To be set over against these powers of 
appointment, oversight, and control are 
the duties of causing the laws and ordi- 
nances to be executed, the peace to be 
conserved, and good order and efficient 
government to be maintained. The power 
is commensurate with the duties and 
responsibility of the office. At least such 
is the ideal. 

The charter of the city of Bridgeport, 
revised in 1895, is but little behind that 
of New Haven. Like the latter, it places 
the different departments of administration 
under the control and direction of boards, 
ofwh.chthe mayor is in most instances 
the presiding officer and whose members, 
taken from different political parties, are 
nearly all appointed by him. There are 
boards of fire, park, building, sinking fund, 
and police commissioners ; of appraisal, 
assessment, relief, public works, charities, 
and apportionment and taxation, all 
serving without compensation. But un- 
like the New Haven city charter, the 
mayor makes no appointment of con- 
sequence to salaried positions, the city 
attorney excepted, and the board of edu- 
cation is elected in city meeting. The 
aldermen and councilmen sit as one body, 
of which the mayor is the presiding officer. 
In Meriden, the principal departments of 
administration are under boards appointed 
by the mayor, without restriction as to the 
party preference of appointees. The board 
of apportionment and taxation makes the 
yearly estimate of expenses and lays the 
taxes, without question or review by any 
other person or body. 

By the present charter of the city of 
Hartford, the boards at the head of the 
different departments are appointed by 



the mayor with the advice and consent of 
the board of aldermen. This is likewise 
true of Waterbury, but with this statement 
should be coupled the explanation that in 
the latter city the common council con- 
sists of a board of aldermen only. 

Such has been the radical change in 
the character of the mayoralty in our 
larger Connecticut cities. Has the re- 
form, here and elsewhere in America, the 
swing towards municipal despotism, as it 
has been called by its opponents, reached 

its maximum, and may there yet per- 
chance be a reaction towards the earlier 
system? This is indeed an interesting 
question. One thing we may confidently 
assume, that the new order of things will 
bring its own evils. Perhaps it may be a 
safe forecast of the future to prophesy 
that there will be advance rather than 
recession, and that these evils must be 
met by new checks and devices rather 
than by a return to any system of the 



I sit in mine house at ease, 

Moving nor foot nor hand ; 

Yet sail through unchartered seas 
And wander from land to land. 

And though I may travel far, 
It is always well with me ; 

I can come from an outmost star 
At a touch, at a call from thee. 



A sequel to " In Satan's Kingdom." * 





U H)UB him 
1 \ down and 
give him four quarts of oats." Throwing 
the lines across his horse's back, as he 
gave this order to Reuben Wiswall's hired 
man, Frank Medbury hastened toward the 
house whose wide veranda dotted with 
willow rockers, divans and pillows repre- 
senting the varying colors of the rainbow, 
seemed fragrant with invitation to the 
weary traveller. 

As he entered the grounds his ear 
caught the sound of merry laughter and 
" fifteen love " rang out clear and round 
in one of the sweetest voices he had ever 
heard. At that moment he caught sight 
of — as he thought, — the most fascinating 
girl he had seen that summer, which he 
had been spending at Lenox, from 
whence he was now on his roundabout 

way to New York by way of boat 
from Hartford. Another step and 
he was in full view of the tennis 
court where a gay party were 
having a game, while lookers-on 
grouped about here and there on 
the lawn. 

" By Jove ! I have struck luck," 
said Medbury to himself, as he 
walked along and turned a corner 
of the veranda where were various 
card tables and gay players seated 
thereat. They looked at him with 
some surprise as he seated himself 
with a very much at home air. 
Frank Medbury did not notice 
this ; he was busy with the thought 
that he had struck a " soft snap " and in 
making up his mind that he would stay a 
few days provided the inn had room for 
him ; his drive through the different towns 
had not found him a hotel with guests as 
many or as merry as these. 

At this point in his reflections Reuben 
Wiswal] entered the grounds and Frank 
Medbury, hastening toward him, made 
known his wish to see the proprietor of 
the place. Reuben Wiswall responded 
that he himself answered to that designa- 
tion, whereupon the young man explained 
that he was on his way to Hartford and 
would like a room and supper. Good, 
kind Reuben Wiswall thinking he de- 
tected a look of weariness on the young 
man's face, at once said " certingly," and 
went in search of Jane Maria, his wife, 
who, on Reuben's representation, was 

* Published in The Connecticut Quarterly, Vol. II, Nos. 3 and 4, and Vol. Ill, No, 



equally in sympathy with the young man. 
Xo weary traveller prince or pauper was 
ever turned away from Reuben WiswalPs 

Frank Medbury soon found himself in 
one of the neatest and most tasteful old 
fashioned rooms. The furnishings were 
all in blue, and the walls were covered 
with a paper of a blue morning glory- 
pattern, the vines of which ran up to and 
on the low ceiling in an artistic fashion 

before it gazing long and intently upon 
the beautiful features, when another 
•' fifteen love *' rang from outside, and so 
near as to seem almost to come from the 
picture itself. At that moment he caught 
a glimpse of some writing underneath 
which proved to be " Reubena McDon- 
ald at the age of fifteen " " Fifteen 
love, fifteen love " rang now and again 
from the outside, and " fifteen love, fif- 
teen love'" rang through Frank MedbmVs 




which he unconsciously associated with 
the sweet voice that had rang out so 
merrily with " fifteen love.*' On the floor 
was a cool looking matting over which 
were thrown pretty rugs, with blue 
dominant in the colors. Muslin curtains 
with blue dots hung at the windows. 

A few pretty pictures adorned the 
walls, one of which quickly drew Med- 
bury' s attention, for he felt sure it was 
the owner of the sweet voice. He stood 


thoughts as he gazed upon the picture, 
unable or at least unwilling to tear him- 
self away from the fascinating object. 
Another " fifteen love" from outside 
led him to look out upon the gay party, 
where he saw the proprietor of the place 
in rather earnest conversation with the 
original of the picture. Reuben Wiswall 
stood with his back to the window, the 
voung girl facing it. Frank could see 
that a few years had passed since the 
picture of "Reubena McDonald at the 
age of fifteen " had been taken, but they 
had oniv heightened the beautv of face 



and features and deepened the expression 
of the wonderful eyes. Reubena was 
looking into the old man's face with a 
little air of hesitancy. Before long a 
satisfactory conclusion seemed to be 
reached, Reuben Wiswall started for the 
house on a little jog trot peculiar to him, 
and the young girl turned to join her 
friends. As she did so her eyes seemed 
drawn as by some magnet and were 



slowly raised to the window where Frank 
Medbury stood. Their eyes met and 
were held to the meeting by an invisible 
force for one short second until Reubena, 
blushing deeply, withdrew her gaze and 
joined her friends. 

It may be well at this point to en- 
lighten the reader as regards Frank Med- 
bury and as to how it happened that he 
came to be a guest in this fashion at 

Reuben Wiswall's hospitable farm house. 
William Medbury, Frank's father, was a 
New England boy born in a quiet little 
hillside town, and left an orphan at an 
early age. With the interest on a few 
hundred dollars of inheritance and a 
willingness to work, he was enabled to 
secure a good education at Professor 
Steele's high school in Tunxisville, a few 
miles from his native town. Soon after 
his graduation at this 
school, he met and 
loved Margaret Brown, 
but was unable to win 
her for her love had 
been given to another. 
This episode in- 
fluenced him to go 
west. There fortune 
favored him and in a 
few years he married 
a sweetly pretty girl to 
whom he was first at- 
tracted by her resem- 
blance to his early 
love, Margaret. They 
were married, and for 
a wedding trip paid a 
visit to Mr. Medbury's 
old home, and to the 
village where he had 
obtained his education, 
meeting there again 
Margaret Brown who 
had now become Mrs. 
Kenneth McDonald. 
Years passed, fortune continued to 
smile on William Medbury until at last he 
became known as many times a million- 
aire. This fact did not change him ; he 
always maintained the same sterling 
characteristics which had won him friends 
at the high school in the village already 
named. The same could not be said of 
his wife, who was unable to bear prosper- 
ity. She became proud, haughty and 




supercilious ; her chief desire, that of be- 
coming a leader in society, was speedily 
realized. A beautiful country house at 
Lenox was bought, and there Mrs. Med- 
bury's parties were of the finest, her turn- 
outs the most stylish and her diamonds 
the costliest. 

One son had been born to them, 
Frank Medbury, a central figure of this 
story, a son worthy of his father. Mrs. 
Medbury's society was much sought by 
many young ladies, and by many mammas 
of such, and no wonder, for her son was a 
magnificent specimen of young manhood, 
every inch the gentleman, and his ex- 
pectant millions of inheritance were at 
least no drawback. He was himself as yet 
heart whole. The family was spending 
this summer at Lenox. Extensive busi- 
ness interests had recently called Mr. 
Medbury to Europe, and it was with 
feelings of great disappointment that the 
young ladies of Lenox, some of whom 
were his mother's guests, learned of 
Frank's decision to join a party of college 
friends who were camping in the wilds of 
Maine near Moosehead Lake. 

This was, on Frank's part, merely the 
carrying out of plans made before going 
to Lenox, but Mrs. Medbury was disap- 
pointed nevertheless, that with all her 
maneuvering, she had been unable to bring 
about an understanding between her son 
and the richest young lady in Lenox, for 
Mrs. Medbury was like Oliver Twist, — she 
sighed for more. Now anyone with plenty 
of money, possessed all the virtues, in her 
eyes. She had not been successful in her 
plans ; at least there did not seem to be 
sufficient attraction in Frank's case to 
offset the camp life in the woods, and 
Frank Medbury left the gaieties of home 
behind him. 

He decided to take a pleasure drive 
through the country as far as Hartford, 
where lived a college chum, and from that 

point take his horse to training quarters 
in New York by boat. To this end he 
sent his man to Hartford by rail with his 
luggage and other traps, there to await his 
coming. One bright September morning, 
Frank Medbury drove away from beautiful 
Lenox amid much fluttering of handker- 
chiefs that would have wailed their regrets 
if they could have spoken, and went forth 
to meet his fate. His first stopping place 
was Norfolk, where he had arranged to 
pass the night with friends ; here, to his 
agreeable surprise, he met two college 
mates. There is a fraternity and fellow- 
feeling among college boys that neither 
age nor time diminishes : there is always 
the same hearty hand shake and the 
homely " How are you, old boy?" that 
means worlds to both speaker and hearer. 
Norfolk had not at that time attained its 
present vogue, its palatial "Gym," its 
gem-like library, its sweetly pealing chimes 
in the old, old church, its " Hillhurst " 
views, its lordly dwellings or tasteful 
cottages dominating the heights, but it did 
have the Lake Doolittle drive, the Ball 
Mountain views, the Tipping Rock, the 
Campbell Falls and the bracing air that 
heals weak lungs. 

Medbury was made well acquainted 
with Norfolk's natural beauties by his 
college mates, and then drove on 
down through Winsted, not then grown to 
its present industrial importance, but a 
beautiful valley long extended between 
the hills and alongside the little river well 
named li Mad " if one traces its course 
down the mountain into this valley ; and 
thence his course took him to New Hart- 
ford where he found occasion to make 
pleasurable delay for two or three days. 
Here he found interest in the spindles and 
the looms which weave sails for 
white-winged ships. He had occasion to 
admire in all the beauty of her young 
womanhood the songstress whom the 



American public held to their heart so 
long, Clara Louise Kellogg. He never 
afterward forgot the face of Chloe Lankton, 
bedridden sufferer for almost half a cen- 
tury, bearing her burdens in such fashion 
that a beauty beyond that ot the flesh 
shone from her face. He fished in 
Shepherd Pond or, according to its ordi- 

behind it the far view one gets there of 
mountains without end and in all direc- 
tions, not omitting to take interest in the 
near-by spot where Gail Borden's experi- 
ments resulted in the invention which has 
sent his name to the ends of the earth. 
Frank Medbury had seen little of this sort 
of thing. His winters were spent in the 

A w ' 

i»' . • 

! && 


"**.--_-, *■■■■■> 


\ VI- \ 


nary appellation, " West Hill Pond " 
which then had all its present natural 
beauty, though none of the present cot- 
tages had come. He climbed Town Hill, 
admired its wide and well kept highways, 
heard from the belfry of the old church 
the sweetest toned bell possibly in America, 
and enjoyed from the ancient graveyard 

big bustling city that was his home, and 
his summers at some fashionable resort. 
He was charmed with what he was now 
seeing. In due course he made ready 
to depart in order to reach " Canton 
Village" in time for supper at " Hawkin's 
Hotel." He procured minute directions, 
even writing them down to avoid mistake, 



and these directions he followed accurately 
until he arrived at a point in his drive 
where he should have taken the " left " 
but did not, keeping straight ahead and 
taking the next "left" which brought 
him to the old fashioned farm house of 
Reuben Wiswall, whose grand neice 
Reubena McDonald from California, was 
there, and then having a lawn party. The 
location of the house corresponded so well 
to that given him for " Hawkin's Hotel " 
that Frank Medbury never for a moment 
doubted that it was the place, particularly 
as here and there about the grounds were 
the horses and carriages of the guests who 
had come from a distance. 

He accordingly drove up and throwing 
out his lines, greeted Reuben WiswalPs 
" hired man " as we have seen at the 
beginning of this story. The " hired 
man," thinking him a guest bidden to the 
party, proceeded to follow directions, 
remarking sotto voce "that young man has 
considerable cheek." The guests on the 
veranda were somewhat surprised at the 
arrival of the stranger but took him to be 
a friend of the family, an idea which was 
confirmed as they saw him go forward to 
meet Reuben Wiswall and disappear with 
him into the house. To Reuben and his 
hospitable wife, with their old fashioned 
notions of hospitality, it did not seem 
strange that a young man, taking a long 
drive, should wish to stop somewhere on 
the way and they were only too glad to do 
all in their power for his comfort. 

The most surprised of anyone was sweet 
Reubena McDonald, who, in returning her 
ball and calling out " fifteen love," en- 
countered the stranger. Later, she saw 
him follow her uncle into the house and 
after a short interval her advice was sought 
as to bidding the young man to the feast 
that was to follow, which question being 
decided in the affirmative, the good uncle, 
on " hospitable thoughts intent," jogged 

off and Reubena's eyes were drawn up- 
ward to the window as we have seen. It 
was no wonder Frank Medbury thought he 
had struck a " soft snap." 

Reuben Wiswall had become a well-to- 
do farmer through years of hard labor. 
He was born and for many years lived in 
in a locality known as "Satan's Kingdom," 
so called from the wildness of its scenery. 
The few families who had lived in this 
place had gradually died or moved away 
until Reuben WiswalPs were left the sole 
inhabitants of the " Kingdom," where his 
Satanic Majesty was said to reside. Two 
lines of railway were laid through this 
locality and when the second one was 
built the property of Reuben Wiswall 
was needed and bought for the purpose. 

It had been with sad hearts and many 
misgivings that Reuben and his wife, Jane 
Maria, prepared to leave the home endear- 
ed to them which had changed the cur- 
rents of their lives and linked them fast to 
dear ones in the great beyond. Reuben 
sobbed aloud as, in reminiscence, he dwelt 
lovingly upon the memory of his twin sis- 
ter Reubena who had married Edward 
Brown, the son of their nearest neighbor, 
and gone to California to live, and dying 
there, had left the beautiful daughter Mar- 
garet who came to them, after her moth- 
er's death. It was to her sweet influence 
both Reuben and his wife acknowledged 
that they owed all that had made the life 
of their later years full of meaning and 
quiet happiness. Here their one child 
had been given and taken, and here some 
of life's richest lessons had been learned. 

Reuben would gladly have purchased a 
farm at ' k Cherry's Brook," (Cherry Brook 
the railroad calls it, while the post office 
department calls it Canton Center), a 
sweetly quiet and peaceful little hamlet. 
(The writer of this story confesses to many 
delightful recollections of this her native 
place — and remembers not so very many 



years ago she visited the little stream of 
water which runs in the ravine behind the 
church, divested herself of shoes and stock- 
ings and waded in just to see if for one 
short moment she could in fancy be once 
more the child that spent here so many 
happy hours in that and like diversions. 
Alas ! the mood of childhood would not 
thus be wooed and now sunshine and 
shadows had chased each other through 
too many years in her life and memory 

r if 


V \ 


would not forget that in the yard just 
across the way from the old church two of 
her own little ones were sleeping, heedless 
of winter storms and summer suns.) 

A farm near the village of Tunxisville 
was bought by Reuben Wiswall but he 
never sought to break away from " going 
to meeting " at Cherry's Brook. The old 
people soon became attached to their new 
home and a very attractive place they 

made it. Jane Maria had become an 
adept at raising flowers ; they readily re- 
sponded to every touch she gave them. 
Her garden became each summer a glory 
of color and later a source of income, inas- 
much as not only the townspeople bought 
her plants, her flowers and her seeds, but 
her fame went out to the neighboring 
towns so that her orders were more than 
she could fill. 

Reuben was not only a successful farmer 
but for years taught singing schools in all 
the region roundabout which were so well 
attended as to materially increase his in- 
come. He was by nature a musician, a 
fine singer, leader of the choir and player 
of the bass viol at "Cherry's Brook" 
church. He was first selectman of the 
town for a long period and though an un- 
learned, or rather an unlettered man, his 
keen observation and sound judgment 
gave him weight in the community. His 
tenderness to the unfortunate and to an- 
imals was known wherever he was known. 

When Reuben and Maria were well set- 
tled in their new home, Reuben's tenderly 
loved neice, Margaret McDonald, with her 
two daughters, came from the far away 
Pacific coast to visit them, and repeated 
the visits with the regularity of the seasons. 
This particular season when Frank Med- 
bury took his drive from Lenox, Reubena, 
Margaret McDonald's elder daughter, had 
come on from her home in California in 
the early springtime to spend the summer 
at " Uncle Reuben's." Her family were 
to join her later when all were going to 

Reubena McDonald was as beautiful as 
the mother and the grandmother for 
whom she was named and that is saying a 
very great deal. The golden hair of the 
mother and the chestnut brown of the 
grandmother blended for Reubena in a 
rich auburn, waving like rippling water all 
over her head ; little curls here and there, 



refusing to be bound, flew about her face 
and neck making one envious of their 
privilege. The clearest of complexions, 
the pinkest of cheeks, the whitest of teeth, 
these with blue grey eyes fringed with jet 
black lashes, made a picture that ravished 
the vision of the beholder. She was 
highly educated and accomplished, but 
her greatest attraction was her sweet 
simplicity. Her love for the plain uncle 
and aunt was only equalled by that her 
mother bore them. 

be ashamed of the uncle so dear to her 
heart, and, unmindful of the attention of 
which she was the center, she laughed 
and chatted gaily as they walked along or 
stopped to gaze into the shop windows. 

Jane Maria often said " Reubeny " 
could make her uncle do anything she 
wanted to, but it was none the less a fact 
in her own case ; indeed both the old 
people would have turned the house topsy 
turvy had Reubena hinted at such a thing, 
which she did not, but on the contrary 


k i 

tSiifililill^ M 1 

If! v v 



Reubena and uncle Reuben on 
occasions visited Hartford where those 
they met rarely failed to turn and 
look at the old man in his homespun suit 
with pantaloons so brief in length that a 
zone of the blue stockings which Jane 
Maria had knit were visible between them 
and the heavy shoes, Reubena by his side 
in bewitching attire, with fashion well 
acquaint. It never occurred to her to 

her exquisite taste was visible everywhere 
about their home, which made it the 
prettiest place in all the town. Reubena 
had acquired acquaintance for miles 
around, a goodly number of whom she 
had bidden to a lawn party on the after- 
noon when Frank Medbury appeared 
upon the scene. 

{To be continued.} 



The former resident of Hartford, even 
though he may have been absent for a 
decade, would on his return be surprised 
at the change in the business section, but 
should he have been absent a generation 

ing on the corner of Main and Asylum 
streets, and looking about him in a be- 
wildered way. Elbowing my way through 
the crowd I put my hand on his shoulder 
and called him by the "nick name" of our 


he would be at first unacquainted with his 

Such an one I discovered one pleasant 
Saturday afternoon in the summer, stand- 

schoolboy days, when he turned to me 
with the query, "Is this Hartford?" 
When he left Hartford, soon after the 
Civil War, there were two lines of street 

[Many of the illustrations in this article, and those to come on Hartford were made from photo- 
graphs taken by Mr. R. S. DeLamater, through whose courtesy we are enabled to use them. They 
were taken over thirty years ago. — Ed.] 




cars, — bob tail cars — drawn by horses. 
Now there are twenty-one trolley lines 
centering on the north side of City Hall 
Square. And on this particular Saturday 
afternoon there was a hurry and bustle 
about the square that would have done 
credit to a much larger city than Hart- 
ford. He found a population of from 
8o,oco to 85,000, instead of 29,152 in 
i860, and elegant modern buildings 

Wadsworth residence on Pearl street ; old 
Melodeon building and the Woodbridge 
house on Main street, and more to follow. 
From May, 1796, until transferred to 
the City of Hartford, by the State of Con- 
necticut, in March 1879, the present City 
Hall had been the State House, where on 
alternate years the Legislature had met 
to make laws, and incidentally feast on 
Connecticut river shad. 


(Present site of Post Office.) 

erected for banking, insurance, dry goods 
and other kinds of business, not only 
about the "Square" but also on Main, 
Pearl. Pratt, Asylum and Trumbull streets. 
Tall business blocks, fitted with every 
modern appliance, have been erected 
within the past two years, where formerly 
stood old landmarks, such as the Catlin 
building, Main and Asylum ; Trumbull 
House, north side of State House Square ; 

When relatives, or friends of relatives, 
or old neighbors, or some one who knew 
one of our old neighbors, visited the Capitol 
for the first time and stayed at our house, 
they of course must be shown the places 
of interest : the Charter Oak. Wadsworth 
Atheneum, the State House, and if per- 
mitted to climb into the belfry, even 
though we carried off state property in 
the shape of cobwebs and dust, we were 



amply repaid by the views of the surround- 
ing country and the nearness to "Madame 

I recall distinctly an incident that oc- 
curred upwards of a half century ago, 
which caused much excitement and scan- 
dal. Bustles had become fashionable as 
a part of woman's dress, and during Sat- 
urday night or early Sunday morning an 
enormous bustle was affixed to the figure 
of Madame Justice, with a placard marked 
"a la mode" where it remained the great- 
er part of the day, in full view of church 

(Present site of the Capitol.) 

goers. The perpetrators of the joke were 
not known, but it was generally attributed 
to students at Trinity College, who 
were addicted to many pranks. At any 
rate, there was more bustle about the old 
State House than was usual. 

Other points of interest to be shown 
were the big bridge over the Connecticut, 
and the little bridge (or Market Bridge, 
as it was called at the time of its erection 
in 1832-3) on lower Main street. The 
County Jail, which stood where we now 
have the fine buildings of the Y. M. C A. 

and the railroad station at the foot of 
Mulberry street. Yes, there was another 
which interested the children, the Chinese 
figure which stood in the window of Ga- 
briel's shoe store on Main street, just 
south of Christ church ; on its out- 
stretched arms were suspended samples of 
goods, while the head kept bowing to the 
outside world. 

The great central point to which all 
roads tended was the State House. Dis- 
tances were measured from it by mile 
stones on the roads leading from Hart- 
ford, one of which may 
l|§ still be seen in front of the 
:,\ ^ Dixon place on Farmington 

avenue, — one mile. The 
State House was the cen- 
tral rallying point for polit- 
ical and other gatherings ; 
military parades, firemen's 
musters, etc., until it passed 
into the possession of the 
city. What a familiar sight 
it was to visitors, with its 
handsome iron fence inside 
the public walk, and the big 
stone posts placed at in- 
tervals of about twenty feet 
around the whole square 
outside the walks, the cor- 
ner posts being double the 
size of the others. 
Nicholas Harris' Commercial Academy 
was in Union Hall building on the north 
corner of Main and Pearl streets, and 
during recess the boys were accustomed 
to jump over the posts, leap-frog fashion, 
and it was a iunny sight to see a score of 
boys attempting to do this, during the 
fifteen-minute recess. There is quite an 
interesting story connected with the iron 
fence and the posts above-mentioned. 
Certain citizens of Hartford having 
applied to the legislature for a charter 
for a new bank, to be known as The 



Exchange Bank, were granted the charter, 
but were required to " expend not ex- 
ceeding $8,000, under the superin- 
tendence and direction of the Court of 
Common Council of the City of Hartford, 

the state treasury the further sum of 
$2,000, in two installments. A portion 
of this fence is now in use about the 
grounds of the West Middle school. 

But the greatest day in the city's 
history was election day, which occurred 
on the first Wednesday in May, in 
alternate years. Then the people of the 
commonwealth owned Hartford. It was 
a red letter day for the oyster and peanut 
out-doors, and for the toothsome shad 

One of the greatest inducements to 
many who were sent as representatives to 
the legislature, aside from the honor, was 
the opportunity to partake of the luscious 


in erecting an iron railing around the 
State House, in making suitable walks, 
well flagged, setting up stone posts and 
paving the gutters around said railing :" 
and the bank was required to pay into 

shad, fresh each morning from the 
Connecticut river, cooked as nowhere 
else in the United States. Those who 
could afford to board at any of the 
numerous taverns, indulged in shad three 

4 6 


times a day. When the legislature met in 
New Haven, while the members could 
have all the shad they wished, they never 
tasted quite as good as those taken just 
below Hartford in the ' w Cove." 

But no one ever excelled " Uncle Sam 
Shipman " down in Rocky Hill, in cook- 
ing and serving this delicious fish, with all 
its accessories. His famous hostelry, 
situated about seven miles south of the 
city, just a pleasant drive, had a reputa- 
tion for the excellence of its table extend- 

during the Revolutionary war. In 1792 
the Glastonbury Lodge of F.& A. M. had 
a grand ball and supper there in honor of 
St. John's Day, and at the close of the 
war of 1812-14 a grand peace ball was 
given by prominent citizens. " Uncle 
Sam" took possession in 1837 and kept 
its reputation up until his death, several 
years since. His son Andrew now lives 
in the old house. 

It was not my intention to recall any 
incidents prior to my own recollections, 


ing far beyond Hartford. It was patron- 
ized by sleighing parties, hundreds of 
business men, and many legislative 
suppers were enjoyed with the oft men- 
tioned shad as the principal dish. For 
more than a century it had a reputation 
for excellence of cooking, but never so 
much so as under Sam Shipman. 

The hotel was built about 1770. The 
hall which adjoins was built in 1780, 

or about 1840, but having come into the 
possession of a rare book entitled ''The 
Pocket Register For the City of Hartford," 
which gives the names of all persons doing 
business in the city, and their places of 
business, and also a very interesting ac- 
count of the visit of Gen. Lafayette in 
1824, I will briefly give some extracts. 

This book was published in 1825 by 
Benjamin H. Norton, Times Office, No. 3 



Central Row, up stairs. At that time the 
houses and places of business were not 
numbered as they now are. One row of 
buildings on Central Row was numbered 
beginning at Main street. James T. Pratt, 
wholesale dry goods, was No. 3 Central 
Row, and Oliver E. Williams, No. 8 ; east 
of that, Gurdon Fox, grocer, and Benoni 
Shepard, cabinet warehouse, were adver- 
tised as south side State House Square, 
east of Independent ( Universalist ) 

five located on Ferry, Commerce and Mor- 
gan streets, many being the leading men 
of the city. A large proportion dealt in 
West India goods which included molas- 
ses, sugar, St. Croix and West Indian rum, 
and various other liquors, which occupa- 
tion was considered eminently respectable. 
I am informed that at the time of the 
great Washingtonian Temperance move- 
ment, a half century ago, H. & W. Keney 
were the first of the leading grocers to give 


Church. Among the dry goods dealers, 
Julius Catlin, Main street, ten rods north, 
James B. Hosmer, Main street, fourteen 
rods south of State Street Square, and A. 
& W. Isham, five rods north of Central 
Brick Meeting house, were prominent. 

There were no less than seventy-two 
dealers in West India goods and groceries, 
more than half the number located east of 
the State House, and no less than thirty- 

up the sale of liquors, although it meant a 
great loss in profits, while other merchants 
predicted their failure in business in con- 

Many well known streets had other 
names in 1825 North Main was Burr, 
Market was Dorr, Temple was Theatre, 
Kinsley — Lee. Wells — Maiden Lane, Arch 
— School, Gold was Nichols Lane and 
Trinitv — Bliss street. 

4 8 


The Post Office was situated on the 
south corner of Main and Grove streets 
and Jonathan Law was postmaster. There 
was a daily mail each way between Hart- 
ford and New York and between Hartford 
and Boston, but as the arrival and depart- 
ure of the stages were early in the morn- 
ing, merchants could not send replies the 


same day. Mails were forwarded to 
Windham, Norwich and many other points, 
only once a week. 

I have before me a post office bill made 
out to my father for one quarter's box- 
rent and postage in 1845, signed by G. 
Wolcott for Joseph Pratt, Postmaster. 
The total amount is 38 cents, — 25 cents 

for the box- rent and 13 cents for postage 
which was on newspapers. 

The most notable event connected 
with the State House, within the memory 
of some of our citizens, who as children 
took part in the proceedings, was the recep- 
tion to Gen. Lafayette on Saturday, Sept. 
4,1824. Daniel Wadsworth and Henry L. 
Ellsworth met him 
at the state line and 
after passing the 
night at Stafford 
Springs, he was the 
following morning 
escorted to Kings 
Tavern in Vernon 
by a troop of horse, 
where he was met 
by the First Com- 
p a n y Govenor ' s 
Horse Guards un- 
der Major John E. 
Hart and escorted 
to Hartford. 

Messrs. Nathan- 
iel Terry, Mayor of 
Hartford, John T. 
Peters, Thomas 
Day, Cyprian Nich- 
ols, Gaius Lyman, 
Henry L. Ellsworth, 
John Russ, Noah 
A. Phelps and 
Charles Siguurney 
met the General at 
East Hartford and 
conducted him to 
the city, where he 
arrived about half past 11 o'clock amid 
the roar of cannon and ringing of bells. 
At the foot of Morgan street was a large 
arch across the street with the inscription 
" Our Illustrious Fellow Citizen, La Fay- 
ette." He was escorted to Bennett's 
Hotel (where the City Hotel now stands) 
and received by the Mayor, Aldermen, 



and Common Council, the Mayor making 
a welcoming address to which the General 

City Corporation at which were present 
Governor Wolcott and suite and other 


(Present site of Courant Building. From an old print, courtesy of Hartford Courant.) 

made a verbal reply. Soon afterwards he 
partook of a breakfast furnished by the 

gentlemen of distinction ; among the 
number Hon. John Trumbull and John 
Caldwell, Esq. After the re- 
past was over the general ac- 
companied by the governor, 
in an open carriage drawn by 
four white horses, and a dis- 
tinguished company, was es- 
corted by the First Company 
of Foot Guards, under Major 
Lynde Olmsted, to the east 
yard of the State House where 
were arranged under the 
superintendence of Dr. J. L. 
Comstock about eight hun- 
dred children from six to 
twelve years of age, the girls 
dressed in white and all wear- 
ing badges with this motto : 

La Fayette." 


(We Love You, La Fayette.) 


At the upper section of the yard the gold medal suitably inscribed and inclosed 
deaf and dumb pupils of the American in a paper containing an address written 
Asylum, (the first institution in America for by Lydia H. Sigourney, the poetess. 


(Original in Mayor's office, City Hall.) 

the care of such children) were gathered After an address of welcome by the 

wearing badges inscribed, "We Feel what Governor in the Senate Chamber he was 

our Country Expresses." Dr. Comstock conducted to a platform erected in front 

presented him, in behalf of the children, a of the State House yard beneath a civic 



arch beautifully decorated. Then passed 
in review nearly a hundred veterans of the 
war of the Revolution, and a marching 
salute was given by the military, about 
1,200 in number, under command of 
Gen. Nathan Johnson, after which he was 
escorted to his quarters and at 4 o'clock 
he embarked on the steamboat "Oliver 
Ellsworth," for New York. 

Noah A. Phelps, county sheriff, was 
chief marshal, his assistants being Joshua 
P. Burnham, Joseph G. Norton, James M. 
Goodwin, Henry Kilburn, George Beach, 
Samuel G. Chaffee, Charles Sheldon, 
William Johnson, Charles Babcock, Bar- 
zillai Hudson, Oliver E. Williams, Benja- 
min H. Norton and William H. Morgan. 
( To be continued.) 


(may 6, 1836 — oct. 19, 1898.) 

THE late Judge Sherman Wolcott 
Adams was in many ways a re- 
markable man ; more so, indeed, than even 
his acquaint- 
ances re- 
alized. It 
was only the 
friend with 
similar inter- 
ests and stud- 
ies, who could 
measure him 
at his real 
worth. For 
he was a man 
who did not 
carry his 
knowledge in 
sight ; he was 
not eager to 
impart his in- 
formation or 
to proffer his 
own opinions. 
Yet to those 
who had the 
privilege o f 
his friendship 
what a rich 
and generous nature he revealed ! 

Were you interested in some ancient 
Wethersfield family, he could give you 


more information than any other person. 
Probably he could tell you not only the 
location of the old homestead, but even 

the outlying 
lands with 
their proper 
It is scarcely 
an exaggera- 
tion to say 
that he knew 
ersfield better 
than even a 
native knows 
h i s modern 
year by year, 
he had made 
these micro- 
scopic exam- 
i n a t i o n s of 
her historic 
past, until the 
early settle- 
ment lay 
clear in every 
detail before 
his eye. But this was only one depart- 
ment of his historical knowledge. It 
broadened from Wethersfield to Connec- 



ticut, and from Connecticut to New 
England, while the historic aspect of all 
lands was attractive to him. 

Yet strong as was his love of history, 
his love of nature was even stronger. His 
frail, delicate figure was a familiar image 
in the streets of Hartford, but our typical 
picture of him is roaming through some 
wood, or gathering flowers in some field, 
or sauntering through his beloved Bush- 
nell Park. He loved the native flowers 
and shrubs and trees of Connecticut. The 
lilac, he once remarked, was one of our 
oldest door-yard flowers, and still one of 
our best. Passing by a noble oak while on 
a drive one day in the country he observed 
that it was the right species to plant for a 
shade-tree. He was just the companion 
to drive with along our country roads. 

The historic, the natural and the artistic 
all appealed to him, and one could not be 
his associate without becoming wiser and 
better. At all seasons he was gathering 
"The harvest of a quiet eye." 

He could give you the Latin names 
like a professor of botany, but he could 
give you far more— the virtues of herbs, 
the qualities of trees, the significance of 

For a number of years, he was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Park Commissioners 
of Hartford, and Bushnell Park became 
the object of his dearest affection. He 
enjoyed nothing better than bringing some 
tree or shrub or flower from its habitat, 
and transplanting it in the Park. 

One day meeting the Judge near the 
water garden, the creation of which was 
at his suggestion, a friend inquired if a 
certain flower growing on its margin was 
the rose-mallow. 

"Yes," he modestly replied, "I brought 
it from the shore." And so he was con- 
stantly adding to the varied beauty of the 
Park by gathering from far and near 
whatever attracted his discerning eye. 

For readers of this Magazine it is inter- 
esting to know, that in the first issue of 
the Connecticut Quarterly, Judge Adams 
wrote a historical sketch of Bushnell Park 
which was concluded in the following 
number. In a wholly different vein is his 
poem, What the Drinking Fountain Said, 
which appeared with illustrations in the 
second number of 1897. Articles of his 
on The Andros Government, The Militia, 
The Settlement of Hartford, The Bench 
and the Bar, Wethersfield and Rocky Hill, 
can be found in the invaluable Memorial 
History of Hartford County. 

For over twenty years, he was an 
honored member of the Connecticut 
Historical Society where his exceptional 
abilities were highly appreciated. He was 
fond of sauntering into the Society's 
rooms, picking up information here and 
there, and learning with genuine pleasure, 
of every new acquisition to its library or 

A glance at the yearly donations to the 
Society, will show what a constant contrib- 
utor he was. 

He was a regular attendant at the 
monthly meetings of the Society, and 
took a leading part in the discussions there, 
besides furnishing a number of scholarly 
papers on congenial themes. Though 
modest and shrinking from the conflict of 
debate, he did not hesitate to utter his 
convictions, when the time came for him 
to express them. 

Slow and diffident of speech, he made 
no attempts at oratory, but was con- 
tent to lay his opinion quietly before his 
hearers who could accept it or not. But 
his views always came with the authority 
of one who had carefully mastered his 

He was a lawyer, but he was more fond 
of studying the law than of practicing it. 
He revelled in poring over odd and quaint 
volumes of lore. 



What a fascination books had for him ! 
The manifold life of nature was dear to 
him, but so was the manifold life of books. 
He was no mere bibliophile, miserly 
hoarding books. Few really took a keener 
delight than he in getting hold of rare 
volumes and pamphlets, but beyond their 
rarity, their historic and intrinsic value 
appealed to him. It was always a treat to 
chat with him in his office, lined with his 
rich collection of books. 

In his boyhood, he was known as a 
walking dictionary, and all his life he was 
extending his vast range of knowledge. 
The flora and fauna of this state were 
known to him, as well as its ancient history. 
Yet other fields of investigation allured 
him, and he spent a year abroad, studying 
the French and German languages, while 
the Dutch and the Danish, the Spanish 
and the Portugese tongues were familiar to 
him. He was interested in art, in civil 
government and in science. He might 
explain to you the workings of the French 
municipal system which he admired, and 
later on in the conversation tell you how 
to destroy the insects that might be ravag- 
ing your shrubbery. 

When symptoms of the malady began 
to appear which was, after long months of 

pain, to prove fatal to him, he made an 
exhaustive study of its nature, and as 
thoroughly understood it, as the disease 
which might be injuring some favorite tree. 

He was at all times philosophical, and 
none more so than at the approach of 
death. It had no terrors for him ; it was 
the key which would unlock many a 
mystery he would fain know. He had that 
rare quality of regarding personal matters 
with the disinterestedness of an outside 

His friends can only tell of a certain, 
indefinable winsomeness of character 
which has vanished with his death. He 
was so gentle, so tender-hearted, so 
simple • at home with all but the artificial ; 
so chivalrous in all social and business re- 
lations ; so free from the taint of self-seek- 
ing ; so pure in all his tastes. The fresh, 
sweet feelings of childhood, he kept un- 
sullied to the end. He was humble with 
the humility of a great nature, reverent 
before the eternal mysteries of life. And 
so we leave him, thankful for all that he 
was, confident that in other realms, he is 
still advancing in knowledge and the love 
of truth. 

Edwin Stanley Welles. 










BRIDGE was the son of Thomas 
Rutherford and Caroline ( Hoadley ) 
Trowbridge of New Haven, and was born 
in that city 

Mar. 3, 1839. 
He died Oct. 
25, 1898, at 
h i s summer 
home in 
L i t c h fi e Id, 
and was 
buried on the 
28th in the 
family plot in 
Grove Street 
New Haven. 
He was a de- 
scendant i n 
the eighth 
gene ration 
of Thomas 
who emigra- 
ted as early as 
1636 fro m 
Taun ton, 
England, t o 

Massachusetts, and removed in 1639 to 
New Haven, where his eldest son settled 
and the direct ancestors of Thomas 
Rutherford Trowbridge were born, lived 
and died. 

Mr. Trowbridge received his early 
education in his native city at the well 


known schools of Amos Smith, Lewis M. 
Mills and Stiles French. After leaving 
school he became identified with the firm 
of Henry Trowbridge's Sons, which had 

been founded 
by his grand- 
father, was 
one of the lar- 
gest and best 
known ship- 
ping houses 
in New Eng- 
land , and 
owned a large 
fleet of sailing 
vessels that 
carried on a 
fl ou r i s h i n g 
trade between 
New Haven 
and the West 
Indies. From 
the earliest 
days of the 
Colony his 
family had 
been identi- 
fied with the 
West India 
business, and 
the firm Mr. Trowbridge entered may be 
considered the successor of those of which 
his ancestors and relatives were members. 
The offices were on Long Wharf, New 
Haven, and it was in them, with his father 
and uncles, that Mr. Trowbridge began 
his business career. At the age of nine- 



teen he was sent to the West India branch 
of the firm, and lived in the Islands of 
Barbados and Trinidad five years, re- 
turning to New Haven in 1863. A few 
years later the business was transferred to 
New York, as that city offered a more 
convenient port, although the main orifice 
still continued in New Haven. The firm 
was finally dissolved by mutual consent in 
1892. During all that time, thirty-six 
years, Mr. Trowbridge had been one of its 
most active members and in later years a 
partner. Since his retirement from busi- 
ness he had been occupied with his private 
interests and those of the institutions with 
which he was connected. 

Mr. Trowbridge was always interested 
actively in whatever concerned the welfare 
of New Haven, and, although never taking 
a very prominent part in the politics of 
the city, held several public orifices of trust. 
He served in both branches of the City 
Council, and was President of the Board 
of Aldermen. In 1 S86 he was a candidate 
for Mayor on the Republican ticket, but 
was defeated, although he reduced con- 
siderably the usual large Democratic 
majority. He was also for several years 
President of the Board of Harbor Com- 
missioners, and was the first President of 
the Republican League Club. At the 
time of his death Mr. Trowbridge was 
President of the Mercantile Safe Deposit 
Company, a director of the Mechanics 
Bank, and a trustee of the New Haven 
Savings Bank ; President of the New Haven 
Colony Historical Society ; a trustee of 
the Grove Street Cemetery and the New 
Haven Orphan Asylum ; a member of the 
Society's Committee of Center Church 
and of the Chamber of Commerce ; a 
vice-president of the Connecticut Humane 
Society ; a member of the New York 
Produce Exchange, American Historical 
Association, Society of Colonial 'Wars and 
Sons of the American Revolution, and an 

honorary member of several historical 
societies in different parts of the country. 

In the field of archaeological and his- 
torical research Mr. Trowbridge's contri- 
butions are well known and will always be 
valued. It was by his efforts that the 
funds were raised for the many memorial 
tablets set in the walls of Center Church 
and the crypt below restored. He more 
recently made similar improvements in 
the Grove Street Cemetery. He was a 
leading spirit in planning and carrying 
through the celebrations which during the 
past twenty-five years have commemo- 
rated the city's growth and history, and 
many of the tablets which mark historic 
spots were placed as a result of his re- 
searches and under his personal super- 

Mr Trowbridge was connected with the 
New Haven Colony Historical Society 
for thirty years as a director, Secretary 
and President, and rendered important 
service to the Society in contributing and 
securing additions to its collections. He 
also compiled a number of papers which 
he read before the Society. He was at 
great pains to investigate the facts con- 
nected with the subjects upon which he 
wrote, and his papers are regarded as 
trustworthy records of early New Haven 
history. These papers contain many val- 
uable references to the business, commer- 
cial and social life of the colony and city. 

Mr. Trowbridge was an authority on 
Connecticut shipping interests, and was 
familiar with their history from the earliest 
records to the present time. His writings 
are preserved in the published " Collec- 
tions " of the Society, those on the " An- 
cient Houses of New Haven " and the 
" Ancient Maritime Interests .of New 
Haven " being the most important. 
Among his other papers were " A Sketch 
of the History of the New Haven Colony 
Historical Society," written for the open- 



ing of the present building, in 1892, and 
" The Action between the Chesapeake 
and the Shannon." He also contributed 
articles for several histories and historical 

Mr. Trowbridge married in 1864 Kath- 
erine, only child of General Francis and 
Elizabeth Sheldon (Dutcher) Bacon of 
Litchfield, who survives him with a son 
Francis Bacon Trowbridge ; an only 
daughter, Miss Edith Champion Trow- 
bridge, having died three years ago. 

F. B. T. 


An old citizen of this city, a neighbor of Mr. 
Trowbridge both in this city and in Litchfield 
who knew him well pays him this tribute : 

THE business and public life of Mr. 
Trowbridge has been set forth by 
those better able to do it, and I would but 
add a brief word of his personal qualities 
as they appeared to a friend's eye. He 
had a noble personality. He was a whole 
souled man. His heart and hand were 
open as the day. He was of a generous, 
manly nature, but did good modestly and 
his good actions were not always recorded 
in subscription lists or newspapers. Many 
a young man was aided along in life by 
him. Many a poor widow's heart was 
made to sing with joy by his timely bene- 
factions. He was quick in his sympathies 
with the joys and sorrows of others. He 
judged men albeit shrewdly, but kindly 
and genially. While ardently attached, 
traditionally so, to his own church, he was 
broad minded towards other religious de- 
nominations and had friends in them all, 
whether Protestant or Catholic. A New 
Haven man to the core, he was also be- 
loved in Litchfield where he had his 
country home. None knew better than 
he the whole region of Litchfield County 
and its pleasant drives. He had an eye 

to nature and scenery. Among his dying 
requests was to be moved to the window 
where he might see the eastern hills on 
which lay the sunrise light — his last morn- 
ing on earth. 

Mr. Trowbridge had a great love for 
historical researches, and much that is 
curious in the history of his native city 
and state, picked up by him in odd cor- 
ners and ways, will die with him. His 
library, which was a fine one for a private 
collection, was composed largely of books 
relating to American and English history, 
and, above all, the naval and maritime 
history of the country. The papers which 
he read before the New Haven Colony 
Historical Society on these and kindred 
topics, and published in the records of the 
Society are, in their carefully collated 
facts, ol real value. His personal obser- 
vations also in regard to the West Indies 
were exceedingly interesting, mingling as 
he did in writing and conversation the 
narrative and the general in his remarks. 
He was the type of a good citizen, awake 
to every popular interest, not seeking his 
own advancement nor jealous of the ad- 
vancement of others, but working on the 
lines of sound sense and honest politics, 
whether of a local or national character. 
He was a man who disliked controversy, 
and while ready to defend his own opin- 
ions with spirit, was willing to give others 
the same chance and thus he avoided 
bitter strife. There was something sweet- 
hearted about him which prevented him 
from having enmities, or arousing ill-will. 
He would rather be the anvil than the 
hammer, to take than to give offense. He 
was a loyal unselfish friend, a man of 
absolute integrity and honor. And so 
another pilgrim of us on life's dusty road 
has gone to his everlasting rest. 

J. M. H.* 

♦Professor James M. Hoppin,in the New Haven 
Register of Oct. 26, 1808. 


wm. a. e. thomas, Editor. 

Querists are requested to write all '"names of persons and places so that they cannot 
be misunderstood, to write on only one side of the paper, and to enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope and ten cents in stamps for each query. Those who are subscribers 
will be given preference in the insertion of their queries and they will be inserted in the 
order in which they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent 
to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked, Genealogical Department. Give 
full name and post office address. 

It is optional with querist to have name and address or initials published. 


i. (a) Woodruff. — Hannah wife of 
Matthew Woodruff, Sr. of Farmington, 
1640. When were they married ? Who 
were her parents ? When did she die ? 
She was living in September, 1682 at 
death of her husband. 
(b) Wright. — Thankful (perhaps of 
Wethersfield) m. July 7,1709; Capt. 
Nathaniel Woodruff of Farmington and 
later of Litchfield. Who were her 
parents? Any information will be 
gladly received. E. E. S. 

2. Newbury. — Eli (or Edi) my gr. gr. 
grandfather was married (recorded in 
hist, of Warwick, Orange Co. N. Y.) to 
Ruth dau. of David Burt who went 
from Conn, to Orange, Co. Did New- 
bury come from Conn.? What was 
ancestry of this Newbury ? K. C. K. 

3 Stim(p)son of Tolland, Conn, and 
Vt. Mr. Edward P. Stimson of West 
Randolph, Vt. is collecting data on this 

4. {a) Chase. — Dean, Stephen and Wm. 
"suffered" on account of their active 
support of the " Republic of Guilford," 
Vt., 1765-89 and later fought for the 
supremacy of N. Y. against Vt. Dean 
probably went to Bainbridge, N. Y., and 
was a recipient from N. Y. of pay for his 
"suffering." Who were parents of these 
Chases? What brothers, sisters and 
children did they have ? 


(b) Harrington. — James, 1 b. abt. 1774 
near Chatham, N. Y. ; d. 181 2 Her- 
kimer, Co. ; m. Sarah Purdy, b. 1772 
and had James 2 b. 1810 : James 1 had 
three bros., William, Isaac and John 
and two sisters, Elizabeth and Mrs. 
Long. Who were parents of James 1 
and what their ancestry ? 

(<r) Purdy. — Sarah had two bros. and 
one sister who m. Richard Lane. 
These Purdys were probably from 
Dutchess Co. N. Y. Who were parents 
of Sarah ? 

{d) Chase. — Paul is said to have intro- 
duced in 1 761 the Chase name in the 
Republic of Guilford, Vt. What 
children and gr. children did he have? 
Who were his parents? D. C. H. 

5. (a) Terbush (Terbos.) — Benjamin, 
bp. Feb. 2, 1744, Fishkill, N. Y. ; m. 
June 13, 1767, Rondout, N. Y., Mary 
Ann Fox. In 1770 they had two chil- 
dren bp. in Mt. Ross. N. Y., church. 
Benjamin was son of Hendrikus Ter 
Bosch, bp. May 28, 1704, N. Y. ; m. 
May 5, 1728, Kingston, N. Y., Rachel 
Freer. Hendrikus was son of Johnnes 
TerBos bp. Oct. 18, 1665, N Y. ; m. 
April 6, 1688, Kingston to Lysbeth 
Henderixen. Johnnes was son of Jan 
and Rachel (Vermilye) Ter Bosch. 

(b) Fox.— Mary Ann (above) who 
were her parents? Tradition says she 



was a Quaker ; and a widow Fox, her 
maiden name having been Fish. 
(c) Terbush.— When and where did 
Benjamin, Hendrikus and Johannes 
die? Was Benjamin in the Revo- 
lutionary War ? Was Johannes the 
one of this name in N. Y. General As- 
sembly from Dutchess Co. and who 
died in 1725 ? 
6. Root— Jonathan, b. Dec. 20, 1707, 
Farmington, Ct. ; prominent in town 
affairs in Farmington and Southington, 

i75o-- x 78o; m. Ruth — she d. 

Feb. 17, 1749, aet 38. What was Ruth's 
maiden name and who were her ances- 
tors? S. W. 
7. Ailing— John, jr., b. Dec. 13, 1663, 
son of John sr. of New Haven ; m. before 
Feb. 1686-7 a dau. of Nicolas Ellsey. 
His father gave him a farm of 43^ acres 
at Homes' Race bounded on the west by 
the Milford town land ; he had land at 
Oyster Point and in the suburbs quarter 
by the cherry trees. What became of 
him ? What children did he have. 

G. P. A. 

8. Beckley — Benjamin, b. Jan. 27,1650, 
New Haven; d. April 27, 1736; m. 

Oct. 7, 1685, Rebecca , who 

were her parents? 

{a) Blinn— Rhoda, b. Jan. 7, 1756 ; d. 
June 5, 1818; m. Joseph North, both 
probably b. at Wethersfield or Berlin, 
Ct. Who were her parents ? 
(Y) Ctf^<?.--Thomas, jr., d. 1701 or 3; 
m. April 15, 1677, Sarah Mason of 
Saybrook, Guilford, Conn. Who were 
his parents? She d. July 6, 1701. Who 
were her parents? H. N. S. 

9. Doane— Capt. John. Ancestry 
wanted. Born perhaps in Litchfield 
Co. Conn. June 24, 1769, and d. Aug. 
1832 in New York city ; m. 1st March 
21, 1793 ; Eunice Tuttle, m. 2nd, Aug. 
1805 ; Eliza Todd. Went to Catskill, 
N. Y., about 1793 where he was one 
of the first to organize a Presbyterian 
church; lived 1826 at Tompkinsville, 
Staten Island ; one son, Edward T., 
was missionary to Caroline Islands ; 
was related to Reeve, Hammond, Hil- 
dreth and Topping families of New 
York. A. A. D. 

10. Squire— Ens. Samuel" son of George 1 
had Sarah 3 bp. April 16, 1704; Serg. 
Thomas 2 Squire son of George 1 had 

Sarah 3 bp. Aug. 1607, (see records of 
Fairfield, Ct., parish). Was either of 
these the Sarah Squire who m. about 
1730 Lemuel Raymond, (b. Jan. 7, 
1702, son of John and Elizabeth) of 
Norwalk and New Canaan, Ct? If 
not, who was she? She was a member 
of New Canaan Congregational church 
1752 and 1773. P. E. R. 

n. (a) i?/w£//z--Nathaniel, of Mansfield, 
served as a private in the Connecticut 
troops. Rev. War, for twelve months 
under Capt.Waterman and Col. Durkee. 
(b) G a lluj>— Samuel, served as a pri- 
vate in Col.Lippitt's reg' 1 776 and in 
Col. John Topham's R.I. regt. in 1778- 
9 Rev. W r ar. 

(e) J Vats on— Samuel, served 18 months 
as a private in the R. I. troops under 
Capt. Gorton and Col. Lippit, Rev. 
War. Desired, ancestry ; wife's name 
with ancestry and Lames of children of 
each of the above. 
Nathan R. Gardner, Baltic, Conn. 

12. Clin ton— Lawrence, d. about 1810 
to 18 1 5 ; lived in Clinton ville near the 
Wallingford line. Is there any one in 
Fair Haven who owns the Bible of 
Lawrence Clinton? G. E. S. 

13. (a) Bloomfieht. — Smith, lived in or 
near Metuchen, N. J., had two wives, 
1st Hannah — 2nd Susan; had a son 
Wm. Bloomfield d. aet 72 ; m. Catharine 
Van Mater Croes and had a son 
Thomas Blanch Bloomfield m. Ellen 
Bidwell Luther and have a dau. 
Catharine Van Mater Croes Bloomfield. 
Who were parents of Smith Bloomfield ? 
And what were maiden names of his 

(b) Luther. — Levi had a son John m. 
Lucy Lord (d. act 104) and had a son 
Monroe Luther, m. Catharine dau. of 
Benjamin and Clarissa (Beck with) 
Banning. Who were parents of Levi 
Luther, Lucy Lord, Benjamin Banning 
and Clarissa Beckwith? 
(e) Croes. — Rt. Rev. John, 1st Bishop 
of N. J. had a son John, m. Van Mater. 
Who were parents of Rt. Rev. John 
and this Van Mater? C. V. C. B. 

14. Paine. — Mary 1735 m. Noah (1730) 
son of Stephen and Jemima (Bronson) 
Hopkins, ail of Nine Partners, N. Y. 
Who were parents of Mary Paine? 

L. C. H. 




WHAT would appeal the most strik- 
ingly to the attention of our 
forebears, it seems to us, were 
they to revisit the scenes of their earthly 
habitations, would be the vast improve- 
ments made in transportation. 

* * 

Unrest is sometimes looked upon as a 
failing, as something to be deplored, as a 
disease. If such be the case no people 
on earth are more afflicted with this 
malady than the people of the New 
England states, especially of Connecticut. 
We do not so regard it, however. Were 
we, as a people, to erect statues to our 
impelling motives, as did the ancient 
Greeks, we should deify Unrest as a beau- 
tiful goddess, beneficient and inspiring to 
mankind. Unrest is the motive power 

that impels the Car of Progress. 

The specific manifestation of this all- 
pervading power, to which we wish to 
allude, is the desire to conquer space. 
Space is an evil not to be endured, nor to 
be tolerated, but to be circumvented, 
abridged, annihilated. To this end steam 
lends its potent aid, and the very lightning 

is harnessed, and made to do our bidding. 


* * 

Great as the progress of the age has 
been in the subjugation of space, one very 
important facior has been almost over- 
looked. Steam roads only reach prom- 
inent cities and towns, and such smaller 
villages as happen to lie in the way ; and 
the same mav be said of the third-rail 
electrics. The trolley reaches many 


points inaccessible to the steam road 
Still there are many other villages and 
hamlets not yet reached by the trolley, 
which depend, and will long depend, 
upon the noble animal, the horse, for the 
transportation of men and merchandise. 

It has just dawned upon the minds of 
the rural population, after much practical 
and mathematical demonstration, that 
Connecticut needs better roads. Some- 
times a mathematical demonstration, 
though it be as simple as that two and 
two make four, fails to influence the rural 
mind. " Figgers " may not lie, but they 
are susceptible to extensive juggling, and 
the figures that have been set before the 
farmers in the press and on the lecture 
platform, have only partially convinced 
them. But hauling a heavy load of 
produce over a "stun" road, and then 
slumping axle deep into the ordinary 
mud road of the country towns, is an 
object lesson that the dullest mind can 

* # 

To the average farmer the bicycle is an 
object of contempt. He deprecates the 
invention of a steed that lures his boys and 
girls away from the field and the kitchen, 
and sends them kiting about the country, 
wasting their time and unfitting them for 
work. Yet in another way the bicycle is 
the friend of the farmer, and tends to 
amply compensate for the loss occasioned 
by the disinclination to labor on the part 
of his sons and daughters. Successful 
bicycling necessitates better roads. The 
votaries of the wheel have made their 



influence felt in this direction. They 
have convinced opponents that they have 
rights, and knew how to defend and 
maintain them. They have convinced 
thoughtful men everywhere that really the 
interest of the bicyclists in good roads is 

identical with that of all who use roads. 


* * 

Not far away in the future the hum of 
electric motors propelling automobiles 
over the common roads, will be as fa- 
miliar a sound as the click of the telegraph, 
or the "hello" of the telephone maiden. 
Horseless carriages are coming, and we 
might as well begin to clear the way for 
them. They will call for the best of roads 
and obtain them too, for back of them are 
millions of money and unbounded in- 
fluence. And these roads will enchance 
the value of rural property, and lighten 
the burden of the farmer, as no other 
agency can accomplish. 

* * 

It is a hopeful sign that our State 
Legislature has taken hold of the matter, 
and is devoting a generous annual appro- 
priation, in conjunction with reciprocating 
townships, to the building of permanent 
substantial roads. Already long stretches 
of macadamized roads, with hills cut down 
and hollows filled up, extend their bless- 
ing to the traveling public, and save to 
team owners a substantial sum every year 
in the wear and tear and exhaustion of 
vehicles and draft animals, to say nothing 
of the tempers sweetened, and the pro- 
fanity unuttered on the part of teamsters. 

"State roads" are no new innovation, 
no socialistic experiment calculated to 
plunge the commonwealth into the vortex 
of untried Utopian schemes. State roads 
exist to-day wherever the Roman Empire 
held sway, two or three thousand years 
ago. Figure up, if you will, the amount 
of money necessary to keep an ordinary 
country dirt road in repair, annually, and 
multiply that by two thousand years. 
Then take the same distance upon one of 
these magnificent Roman roads, and figure 
out how much has been saved in two 

thousand years by the thorough construc- 
tion of that road, good yet, and in some 
instances good for a thousand years to 


* * 

To be sure our state roads are not built 
with the solidity of the Roman thorough- 
fares, yet they are durable and serviceable, 
and no money ever expended by the 
state for the public good, hardly even for 
education, has proved of more real useful- 
ness than that expended for this cause. 

* * 

The expenditure of state funds for road 
improvement too, is a subject for congrat- 
ulation. The state derives its revenue 
largely from taxes levied upon corpora- 
tions, especially the grasping, monopolis- 
tic corporations that have girdled our state 
with bands of steel, until the map of Con- 
necticut looks like a rectangular grid-iron. 
These corporations have held, and still 
hold, the people of the state, to whom 
they are indebted for the very right of 
existence, in supreme contempt. They 
have extorted exhorbitant rates for both 
freight and passenger traffic. They have, 
serpent like, stung the hands that fed 
them. What can be more satisfactory to 
the tax-paying, and tribute paying citizen, 
than to know that some of the spoils ex- 
torted from him is being returned in the 
shape of permanent roads? Under an 
improved system of taxation and finance, 
roads could be built of the finest material 
and in the most substantial manner with- 
out imposing any burden whatever upon 
the citzens ; but that is far ahead. 

* * 

The time will come when our succes- 
sors will wonder how we ever submitted to 
such burdensome and unequally balanced 
conditions as those imposed upon us by 
our own stupidity and folly. Yet it is a 
satisfaction to think that the splendid 
roads, that our progressive state is con- 
structing, will pave the way to better con- 
ditions ; and that our people will march 
over them some day, singing the glad song 
of emancipation. 


TO the subscribers and readers of the 
Connecticut Quarterly who have, 
during the past four years, enjoyed 
its methods in handling various matters of 
State interest, historical, genealogical and 
the like, we regret to say the Quarterly is 
no more, and yet we feel gratified in mak- 
ing our initial bow to the public as the 
Connecticut Magazine — the old Quar- 
terly in new dress. But under a new 
exterior, we can assure our readers that at 
heart our interests are the same as of old. 

We have been asked if our reading 
matter will be of the same high standing 
as before. Assuredly it will. We adopt 
the monthly issue because we are con- 
vinced by numerous requests during the 
past two years that the general public 
have preferred a more frequent issue than 
a quarteily. 

If our readers could peruse the letters 
of commendation and congratulation we 
are receiving daily from all parts of the 
State, they would feel that we are warrant- 
ed in our endeavor to cater to a popular 

Our motive is to give our readers such 
an abundance and variety of matter as will 
insure an unabated interest in the maga- 

We have every confidence that the 
change will prove a welcome one, and we 
express our gratitude to those who 
have encouraged and appreciated our 
efforts during the last four years. 


* * 

It has been a matter of favorable com- 
ment that the Quarterly has unvaryingly 
interspersed its pages with good illustra- 
tions, and yet we always strive for improve- 
ment whenever opportunity offers. We 
are glad to announce that we have 
secured the valuable services of the artist, 


Mr. H. Phelps Arms, who will supervise 

our illustrative department. 


The tide of migration is never ending. 
From time to time we learn of persons 
who had once been residents of our 
State, but who, perchance, have gained 
business interests elsewhere, and have 
sought new fields for their endeavors 
in other parts of the country. Almost in- 
variably those persons (especially if Con- 
necticut is their native state), retain an in- 
terest in the doings at home. We have 
on our subscription books no small num- 
ber of names of such persons who look 
with interest to each issue of the maga- 

If any of our subscribers have in mind 
the name of any friend in another state, 
who perhaps might wish to subscribe, and 
will forward us the proper address of such 
person, we will be glad to mail the neces- 
sary literature regarding our magazine. 


Too often it is the case that the busi- 
ness man expends money fruitlessly to 
remind the public that he is in business, 
or is offering some special sale of goods 
Too often his advertisement is utterly un- 
productive of results, so far as he can 
determine directly, and who is to blame? 
It's the publication— says the advertiser. 
Not always so. The business man is often 
overburdened with the cares incident to 
his business, and is hasty and careless in 
submitting the copy of his advertisement. 
The advertisement is not attractive, and 
is overlooked. Perhaps it is the publica- 
tion that is at fault. Its facilities for pro- 
ducing good work are limited — poor 
paper, poor press work — the ad. falls flat. 



This does not hold true in the make-up 
of The Connecticut Magazine. Note 
the quality of paper used, observe the 
fine class of half-tone engravings and the 
care bestowed in printing them, and it 
will be seen that the publishers are mak- 
ing their best endeavors to deserve the 
most liberal encouragement of the 

We shall make an effort to present our 
advertisement pages in such an interesting 
form that they will be of as much interest 
as the pages of reading. 

Look over the advertisements, notice 
the merchants who are encouraging us in 
the hope of getting a dollar back, through 
the observance of some of our readers. 

If you see an advertisement and think it 
is an especially attractive one, or if you 
are reminded thereby of some article you 
find necessary to purchase, just tell the 
merchant how you happened in. . He will 
appreciate it more than you can begin to 

Remember that we are trying to give 
our readers good literature at a reasonable 
figure, the merchant is helping us through 
his advertisement to get up an attractive 
magazine. He is helping you indirectly. 
Turn around and help him whenever you 

can. Let us have it a mutual enterprise. 

* * 

Prizes have been given by some of the 
patriotic societies of the state for essays 
by school children on historical subjects, 
in order to encourage the spirit of patriot- 
ism and familiarize the children with 
events of local history. We recognize the 
value of this and believe it to be a step in 
the right direction. We believe that the 
work of this magazine during its four years 
of existence has aroused an interest in 
this field, and helped to bring to attention 
many things which would otherwise have 
been lost. Our state history is too sig- 
nificant, too vital and too important to be 
thought lightly of or treated with indiffer- 

In an address , " Historical Estimate of 
the State," delivered in 1851 by Horace 
Bushnell, the learned doctor, himself a 
profound student on history, quotes Ban- 
croft as saying " There is no state in the 

Union, and I know not any in the world, 
in whose early history, if I were a citizen, 
I could find more of which to be proud, 
and less that I should wish to blot." And 
Dr. Bushnell adds, " My own conviction 
is that this early history, though not the 
most prominent, is really the most beau- 
tiful that was ever permitted to any state 
or people in the world." 

To still further aid in the cause of local 
history, The Connecticut Magazine has 
decided to offer prizes to undergraduates 
of the high or preparatory schools in Con- 
necticut that fit pupils for a college or 
university, as follows : 

First. A cash prize of $10 for the 
best article on Major General Israel Put- 
nam, the article to be not less than 3000 
or more than 4000 words. 

A framed picture of Gen. Putnam will 
also be given to the school to which the 
successful competitor belongs. 

Second. A cash prize of $10 will be 
given for the best article on any local his- 
torical subject. Choice of subject, such 
as biography, town history or description 
of local place or occurrence, to be option- 
al with competitor. Length to be not 
fewer than 2000 or more than 4000 words. 

Illustrations, either photographs or 
drawings, or both, may be furnished in 
either of the above competitions and will 
be taken into consideration in the awards. 

The manuscript must be submitted on 
or before March 1, 1899, signed with a fic- 
titious name and accompanied by the 
name and address of the author in a sepa- 
rate, sealed envelope, which will not be 
opened until the decision has been made. 
The manuscript must not have been pub- 

The editor, at his discretion, may with- 
hold the award in any class in case no 
manuscript is thought worthy of the prize. 

The successful competitors will be an- 
nounced in the April number and their 
articles published sometime during the 
year. In case of no award, no article 
will be published. 

The Connecticut Magazine reserves 
the right to print any of the prize manu- 
scripts upon the payment of $2 for each 
one used. 


I^HE Congregational Church of Preston 
City celebrated its bi-centennial on 
November 16th. There was an at- 
tendance of nearly five hundred people. 
Addresses were made by Prof. Hewitt of 
Williams College, Rev. R. H. Gidman, 
Amos A. Browning, Rev. John Avery Judge 
Samuel O. Prentice and others. The town 
was organized in 1687 and the church 
built the following year. 

* * 

Hon. David Ames Wells, one of Con- 
necticut's foremost citizens, died at his 
home in Norwich, Nov. 5 th. He had an 
international reputation as an economist, 
was author of many books and treatises, 
had held various important offices and was 
a member of several prominent societies 
in this country and Europe. 

A man of most signal ability, his service 
to his country as " special commissioner 
of the revenue of the United States," 
a special office created for Mr. Wells by 
congress, to run for four years (from 1866 
to 1870), elicited from James A. Garfield 
in a speech in congress the following 
tribute : " I don't believe any man 
appointed by the government in the civil 
service has done this country more work, 
or more valuable work, than David A. 
Wells Into the financial chaos, resulting 
from the war, he threw the whole weight 
of a strong, clear mind, guided by an 
honest heart, and during the last three 
years he has done more, in my opinion, to 
bring order out of chaos than any one 
man in the United States." 

When one is cognizant of Mr. Wells' 
great work in this and other directions, 
he can appreciate that this high praise is 
not an exaggeration 

A monument to Lieutenant Thomas 
Leffingwell was unveiled on Saturday, 
^November 12, on the site of the old fort 


of Uncas at Mohegan, overlooking the 
river Thames. The granite tablet bears 
the following inscription : " Here stood 
the Fort of Uncas. Sachem of the Mohe- 
gans, and friend of the .English. Here, 
in 1645, ne was besieged by the Narragan- 
setts and relieved by the bravery of 
Lieut. Thomas Leffingwell." 

It was erected by the Connecticut 
Society of Colonial Dames. 

This Society recently appointed an ex- 
ecutive committee to select, pJaces and 
erect landmarks throughout the state to 
the memory of noted men of colonial 
days, and in places of historic interest. 

It was through an interesting sketch by 
Mrs. Bela P. Learned, a member of the 
executive committee, of the life and deeds 
of Lieut. Leffingwell that the building of 
the Mohegan Memorial was brought 

# * 

The First Congregational Church of 
East Hampton celebrated its one hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary on Nov. 30th, 
having been organized on that date in 

1 748, with Rev. John Norton as pastor. 


* # 

Judge Samuel A. York, a prominent and 
well known citizen of New Haven, died at 
his home in that city Nov. 5th. He was 
born in North Stonington in 1839 an d 
prepared for college at the Suffield Acad- 
emy. He graduated at Yale in 1863. He 
had been mayor of New Haven, Judge of 
Probate for over ten years and held other 
offices of trust. He was highly esteemed 
and honored by all. 

Miss Larned, the historian of Windham 
County, read a paper before the Rhode 
Island Historical Society. Nov. 1st. upon 
" Old Time Militia Service," which was 
timely and suggestive, and heard with 
much interest by a large audience. 


"A Puritan Wooing," by Frank Samuel 
Child, author of "An Old New England 
Town," "The Colonial Parson," "A Colo- 
nial Witch," etc., 12 mo. cloth, gilt top, 
#1.25. The Baker & Taylor Co., 5 and 7 
East 1 6th Street, New York. Smith 6° 
McDonough, Hartford. 

Of absorbing interest throughout, giving 
a remarkably fascinating picture of the 
religious life of Connecticut in the time 
of the Great Awakening in New England 
under the preaching of Edwards and 
Whitefield, is this historical novel. Mr. 
Childs, always careful to give a true pic- 
ture of the times of which he writes, has, 
we think, excelled his previous efforts, in 
this, his most recent work. The thread 
of romance which makes the book so in- 
teresting, the physicological study intro- 
duced, and the changes of heart in one 
family, brought about, which mentioned 
as bare facts would seem impossible, are 
all so cleverly handled as to make the se- 
quence of events entirely natural. 

"A Cape Cod Week," " Rod's Salva- 
tion " and " A Christmas Accident and 
Other Stories." Three books by Annie 
Eliot Trumbull. Each 16 mo. cloth. 
Price $1.00 each. A. S. Barnes & Co., 
Publishers, New York. Smith &* 
McDonough, Hartford. 

In the first of these books by this 
talented author of Hartford, a narrative 
account of a visit to the Cape, the inter- 
spersion of various thoughts and sugges- 
tions, always a difficult subject to handle 
artistically, is most cleverly done. The 
descriptive work and character sketching 
are admirable and we longed for more of 
it when reading the book, even though 
introduced at the expense of sacri- 
ficing some of the personal allusions. 

"Rod's Salvation" and "A Christmas 
Accident" are collections of short stories 
that have appeared in various magazines 
and many will be glad to avail themselves 
of the opportunity to procure them in 
book form. They can well be classed 
aTjong the best of such works. 


* * 

"Down in Porto Rico with a Kodak," 
by Hon. James D. Dewell. A fine map 
of Porto Rico, lithographed in colors, 
accompanies the volume. Price 50 cents, 
postpaid. Record Publishing Co., New 
Haven, Conn. Smith &* McDonough, 

This is an interesting account of a 
business man's impressions of the island 
told in a straightforward way. It is illus- 
trated with sixty-five half tone engravings 
from Mr. Dewell's snap shots. 


* * 

Gravestone Inscriptions at Salisbury, 
Conn , Royal 8vo., paper, pp. 16. Price, 
postage paid, 50 cents a copy. Malcolm 
D. Rudd, Lakeville, Conn. Smith 6° 
McDo?iough, Hartford. 

This pamphlet contains a complete 
alphabetical list of inscriptions (epitaphs 
not included) in the old burying-ground 
at Salisbury. Inscriptions at Lime Rock, 
(previous to 1800) and some others, in 
all three hundred. 

Simsbury, Conn., Births, Marriages 
and Deaths transcribed from the Town 
Records, is the title of a volume of 347 
pages just published by Albert C. Bates. 
It contains a full copy of all the vital 
records on the town's books, from the 
earliest entry to 1832, and is thoroughly 
indexed. The edition is limited to 150 
numbered copies. 



There is perhaps no business with which 
the public is so unfamiliar as with the 
manufacture of flavoring extracts. Vet 
there is no article so necessary to modern 
cookery or so indispensable to the success- 
ful housewife who realizes that the charm 
of her table lies in its variety. The Ameri- 
can people are noted for taking things as 
they come. They are told " eggs are 
eggs" and extracts are extracts. So great 
is their faith that they accept the state- 
ment without question. A striking ex- 
ample of this is seen in vanilla flavoring 
extract. At present the supply of vanilla 
beans is not equal by one-half to the 
demand. Many manufacturers have made 
a clever imitation by the use of chemicals. 
This spurious extract is being sold at a 
much lower price than the genuine vanilla 
extract. The chemicals used are extremely 
injurious to the stomach, the delicacy of 
the genuine vanilla is entirely wanting and 
a larger quantity has to be used to bring 
out the desired flavor. Many housekeep- 
ers do not stop to consider that a smaller 
quantity of the honest kind of extract 
gives far better results and in the end is 
more economical and healthful. 

One of the best known houses engaged 
in the manufacture of flavoring extracts is 
The Williams &: Carleton Co., Hartford, 
Conn. The business was established in 
1825 by A. H. Bull, who gave most of his 
attention to the drug business. In 1854 
Geo. W. Williams bought the business 
and added to it the manufacture of flavor- 
ing extracts. He used only the best 
material, and insisted that the name 
" Williams" should be put upon goods of 
only recognized strength and purity- 

The vast growth of the business can be 
readily realized when the fact is taken 
into consideration that back in 1854 a 
two-gallon jar was found of ample dimen- 

sions in which to make a batch of extract, 
while at the present time a thousand gal- 
lons are made at one time and the cost 
alone of the genuine vanilla beans used 
in the manufacture of Williams' Extract 
Vanilla amounts to over ten thousand 
dollars annually. It must not be supposed 
that this company enters solely into the 
manufacture of vanilla flavoring extract : 
such is far from the case, the fact is they 
are largely engaged in the manufacture of 
all kinds of flavoring extracts, the famous 
Williams' Root Beer Extract, Williams' 
Extract Jamaica Ginger, Williams' Per- 
fumes and a full line of Pure Coffee and 
Spices, necessitating a plant occupying 
fifty thousand square feet of floor space 
and the employment of a large force of 
help. Several travelling salesmen are 
kept constantly on the road, as the com- 
pany's business extends over this entire 
country. They also sell several of their 
specialties in foreign countries. So pop- 
ular have their goods become that thou- 
sands of jobbing houses carry a stock of 
them to supply the demands of the trade. 

The present managers, Messrs. Williams 
& Carleton, have been actively connected 
with the business for the past thirty years. 
They have added a large wholesale trade 
in the Drug, Medicine and Sundry line, 
to the manufacture of a large line of pro- 
prietary goods. The growth of the busi- 
ness has been of a steady, healthy char- 
acter from the first. In 1882 the company 
was cramped for room and had to take 
on the adjoining building. Again in 1893 
it was found necessary to increase the 
capacity of their plant by raising the roof 
and adding two more floors. 

The growth of this great business simply 
shows what modern enterprise can ac- 
complish when coupled with honest goods 
and honorable business methods. 


The accompanying engraving depicts 
the spacious establishment of The Chas. R. 
Hart Company in the new Sage, Allen build- 
ing, Hartford, Conn. Few concerns doing 
business in this city to-day can point back to 
as successful a business career as this old firm. 

The business was first established back 
in 1846, by Sugden & Company, in the old 
Catlin Block, and continued under that firm 
name until 1865, when Chas. R. Hart (who 
became a partner in 1863) and L. B. 
Merriam, with William E. Sugden, (the 
present senior member of the company) 

a vice-president and commissioner of trust 
funds of the Spring Grove Cemetery 
Association and a director of the National 
Exchange Bank. 

The company's spacious quarters occupy 
28,000 sq. ft. of floor space, being the 
largest carpet house in New England out- 
side of Boston. 

They are exclusive jobbers for Connecti- 
cut for the Continental Wall Paper Company, 
which includes all the leading wall paper 
manufacturers in the country, which places 
them in a position to sell wall paper lower 

formed the firm of Hart, Merriam & Co., 
and continued the business until 1888, when 
Mr. Merriam retired, and the firm name 
changed to Charles R. Hart & Co., with 
William E. Sugden, Chas. R. Hart, G. W. 
Curtis and S. A. Bacon as partners, which or- 
ganization continued in force until 1897, when 
the change to a stock company was made 
under the name of The Chas. R. Hart Co. 

William E. Sugden, the senoir member 
of the concern, is easily the dean of Hart- 
ford business men, having been actively 
engaged in business in this city for 56 years. 
Mr. Sugden is president of the Hartford 
County Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 

than any other concern in the State. In ad- 
dition to their carpets and wall papers the 
company also handles full and complete lines 
of window draperies/portieres, furniture cov- 
erings, feather and down pillows, etc., neces- 
sitating a corps of thirty assistants. 

The company's long experience in the busi- 
ness,and theirfacilitiesfor purchasing for cash, 
enables them to take advantageofalldiscounts, 
places them in the front ranks and enables 
them to offer their goods at bottom prices. 

It has always been the aim of this house 
to deal with all upon fair and honorable 
principles, and it has thus built up an en- 
viable reputation as a reliable business firm. 

Since putting the above in type we regret to have to record the death of Charles R. Hart, of the above-mentioned 
company, Mr. Hart had been a sufferer from asthma for several years, but this fall seemed in excellent health, when he 
contracted a hard cold, 'which developed into bronchial pneumonia, and he passed away on Nov. 22. 


Many a boy has left his father's poor, but cheery cottage, " way back in New 
England," and made a name and a place for himself in the great world he went to see 
and to conquer. Our story is about one of these New England boys. 

He was born, in lowly circumstances, in a cabin in Manchester, Conn., and 
though he rose from poverty to wealth, and to the love and esteem of his fellowmen, 
yet that is not our theme, for as a young man he had such a tendency to consumption 
that it was doubtful how long he could live, but he did live, and to a good old age, 
and that in fact has proven his true New England origin, in that he rose above circum- 
stances, however hard, and not only was cured himself, but was all his life curing 
others with the remedy that saved his life. Early trying showed him that ordinary 

physicians could not help him, 
so he went to a then famous 
doctor in the city of Boston, 
who gave him a prescription 
that cured him ; not only 
cured him until he got home 
again, but that kept him well 
all his life. So much did he 
value this remedy that he used 
to buy it by the quart of his 
nephew, who was in the drug 
business, so as to have it on 
hand in his factory to give to 
any of his employees that 
needed it. That is how we came to know about it, for "we" are his nephew and his 
nephew's partners, and by the special request of our friend and uncle we started, 
several years ago, to put up this remedy in bottles, to retail at twenty-five cents, calling 
it Williams' New England Cough Remedy. The first year we sold one hundred dozen, 
mostly in Hartford County. Those who took our remedy were so well pleased with 
the Cures it brought about that they recommended it to their friends and the sale 
soon extended over a larger section of the country. In fact the demand became so 
large that we were soon compelled to put up one hundred gross at a time, in order to 
be prepared to fill orders promptly. 

Why should you go to a doctor and pay him for a prescription when you can cure 
your coughs and colds with a bottle of Williams' New England Cough Remedy that 
costs you only 25 cents? It cures a hard cold in one day if you take it before the 
cold settles on your lungs and causes a cough. It cures a cough quickly — is very 
pleasant to take. Children like it and will cry for it after they have once tasted it. 
There are no harmful ingredients used in it. 

The prescription from which we have made this remedy for more than 25 years, 
was written by an honest doctor, who believed in curing those who called upon him 
rather than "keeping them on the string" for more fees. The good doctor is dead, 
but his prescription will be filled throughout all time. It has cured thousands and 
will cure you. You should always keep a bottle of it on hand, so as to commence 
taking it promptly when you get a cold. Don't wait for the cough to follow the cold 
and you will save lots of money. It takes longer to cure a cough than it does the 
cold that leads to the cough and, perhaps, to consumption. One 25 cent bottle often 
cures a whole family. Will you try a bottle and be cured ? If your dealer does not 
keep this Great Remedy he will get it for you if you insist on having it. Prepared 
only by The Williams & Carleton Co., Wholesale Druggists, Hartford, Connecticut. 


Who Were Your Ancestors? 


The Continuous 
Family Genealogy 
Records of Family 

Family Lineage 

Adapted for the use of 

any family. 
A Valuable Holiday Gift. 

Sold by Booksellers or the Publishers. 
Send for Circular with Full Information. 

Arms Pub'g Co., 336 Asylum St., Hartford, Conn. 


were well represented in the Arnold and Andre 

The Crisis of the Revolution 

tells the story of the treason, for the first time in minute detail, 
with numerous original illustrations. Quarto, 10 x 12, large 
paper, 250 pp. EDITION LIMITED TO 250 COPIES. 

Price — $15,00 for Advance Subscriptions, 
$20.00 after Publication. 

Send for Illustrated Prospectus. 

WILLIAM ABBATT, Pub., 31 Nassau St., N.Y- 

" I think it invaluable. As a comprehensive account of 
Andre's journey, nothing has ever been written equal to it." 
— Says Mr. Wm. L. Stone, the historian. 



can you find than a nicely 

Water Color, Engraving 
or Etching. 

We Carry a Full 
Line of 

Artists' Materials, 

and the Largest Line of 

Frame Samples in the 


L. A. Wiley & SOn, Dealers, Wholesale 
and Retail. — 251 Pearl Street, Hartford, Conn. 

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etc., for Half Tone Photo Engravings and Catalogue 

Developing and Printing for Amateurs. 

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Correspondence Solicited. 

25 Mather Street, 


A nappy thought. Who wouldn't appreciate a camera as a 
gift ? We have them for as little as $53-98, and up as high as 
you wish to go, and every one perfect and reliable. 

Opera Glasses, Gold Spectacles and Eye Glasses. 
HAKVEY & LEWIS, Opticians, 865 Main St. 

■Soppano, Centpe Chupch Ghq/p. 

(&?ceri Soloist,. ***-&""« S y/Z,rro*a, &nn. 



and we will perform a Dental Operation that will be 
THOROUGH, without being a shock to your nervous system. 

A Test Will Convince Yon. 

DR. POMEROY, Dentist, 721 Main St., Hartford, Ct. 


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With only one change of cars 
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The shortest, cheapest and most 
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press over O. W. and Wabash 
road, arriving at Chicago next 
day 9 P. M. Only one night 
on road. 

For information apply to 

W. J. MARTIN, Gen'l Pass. Agent, 

Hartford, Conn. 




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wards off these diseases. It's AN APPETIZER, 
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We Will Submit a Bottle on 
Trial for 20 Cents* 

Address F, F. STREET, 
118 Asylum St., HARTFORD, CONN. 

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Booksellers and 

Dealers in Newspapers and Periodicals, Card 
Plates, Address Dies, Monograms. Wedding 
Invitations a Specialty. 

301 Main St., HARTFORD, CONN. 

Phoenix Bank Building 


FOOT FAMILY, or descendants of 
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We shall give dur- 
ing 1899 more 
interesting read- 
ing matter than 
in any other year. 

Hartford, Conn. 


; : 

. iiiv.Mfn,: • 

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Science, ! 
Art and 





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r Industries 

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Insurance Company IN THE WORLD. j* ^ 

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W. L. WAKEFIELD, General Agent, 


The Connecticut Building and Loan Association, of 
Hartford. Conn., receives money for investment in sums 
! rom $5.0n per month upwards, for various terms of years. 
B20.00 per month for 120 months will produce $4,u0u at 
inatarity. It aJso pays for a policy of life insurance, upon 
:he life of the investor ( under age 46 ) so that in the event 
)f his prior death his family, or legal representatives, will 
receive the $4.00n. together with the full book value of his 
nvestment in the Association's shares. This proposition 
s based upon income-producing Real Estate Security, and 
s guaranteed by the paid-in Capital of the directors and 
heir associates, amounting to $lu.00n0.< 0. 

Special Rates are made for investors over age 46, and 
nher forms of investment, for longer and shorter terms, 
ire provided by the Association. Address Edgar C. Linn, 
secretary and Treasurer 252 Asylum Street, Hartford, 





tide is with us 

Let this store 
help you in 

for men. 


Here are some suggestions that properly fit the 
occasion — Xeckwear, Gloves, Mufflers. Fancy 
Hosiery, Underwear, Fancy Shirts, Collars, Cuffs, 
Hat or Fur Cap, Bath Robes, Pajamas, House 
Coats, Sweaters, Handkerchiefs, Tailor made ready- 
to-wear clothes — Suits, Overcoats, Reefers, Separate 
Trousers, Faacy Vests, Full Dress Protectors, 
Mackintoshes, Umbrellas, Walking Sticks, Dress 
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It will pay you to look over our new patterns, they are 
the handsomest papers in the market and sold at one-half 
the regular retail price. New Floral, Damask and Stripe 
effects, 5 cents to 12% cents per roll. Elegant Tapestries, 
Silks, Burlaps, Beautiful New Greens, Reds, Blues, &c, 
12^ cents and up to 50 cents per roll. 

AN AGENT WANTED in every town to sell our Wall Papers on 
Commission. A profitable business requiring no capital or 
experience. Write for particulars. 

844 Chapel Street, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

It's an Art 

to produce a 
that depicts a 
natural self. 


is famous for 
this class of 


5 TR^ T5 


Copykight 1899. 
Caramels and Chocolates made fresh every day. Novelties 
and Favors of all kinds. Mail and express orders promptly 5 
atteidedto. 941 Main St., Jacobs, Hartford, Conn. Tel. 963. i 

Semi-Weekly Courant 

$1.00 a year. Send for Sample Copy. 
Address THE COURANT. Hartford, Ct. 


Bristol, Conn., Nov. 12, 1896. 
Mr. E. C. Linn, Sec'y and Treas., 

The Connecticut Building and Loan Association, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Sir: I am just in receipt of the check of the 
Association for $1,091.00, in payment of the maturity value 
of ten shares (insured class), held by my late husband, 
which also ihcludep the reserve accumulations of the shares. 
I wi«h to thank you for your promptness in the settle- 
ment of this claim, Yours truly, 

Clara J. < layton. 

$10 a month for 120 months produces $2,000, which 
will be paid in cash upon maturity of shares, or at prior 
death the proceeds of the life insurance wil be paid to 
heirs together with cash withdrawal value of shares. 

Assets, Oveb, - 

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Connecticut Magazine 


Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History, 
Literature, Science, Art and Industries. 

FEBRUARY, 1899. 

Vol. V. 


No. 2. 

The Hanging Hills of Meriden. From a painting by Nelson A. Moore 

Hubbard Park. Illus. from photos, by A. F. Evarts. 

Earth's Master Workman. Poem. 

.Fifteen Love. Story. II. Illustrated. 

We Pulled a Rose in Summer Time. Poem. 

Constitutional History of Connecticut. 

The Minister's Life Mask. 

A Winter Ride. Poem. 

Woman's Education in Connecticut. 

Backward Glances at Hartford. II . Illustrated. 

An Unwritten Tragedy. Illustrated. 

Walter Hubbard. A Sketch. 

Her Dream of Me. Poem. Illustrated. 

A Valentine. Poem. Illustrated. 

Picturesque Connecticut. Photographs. 

List of Burials, Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. 

Annotated by Mary K 

Departments. — Genealogi c al Departm ent . 
From the Societies. 
Current Events. 
Editorial Notes. 
Publishers' Notes. 
Book Notes. 

H. Phelps Arms, 67 

Henry Rutgers Remsen, 76 

Airs. William Edgar Simonds, 77 

Elizabeth Alden Curtis, 
Roger Welles, 
Charles W. Burpee, 
Francis H. Tabor, 
Airs. Henry Wallerstein, 
Julius G. Rathbun, 
Frederick E. Norton, 
II. Phelps Arms, 
Claude Fayette Bragdon, 
Laurence C. Woodworth, 





George C. Atwell, Editor. 

H. Phelps Arms, "") 

Elizabeth Alden Curtis, | 
Milo L. Norton, 
W. H. C. Ptnchon, I 

William A. E. Thomas, 

Associate Editors. 

Edward B. Eaton, Business Manager. 

Elliott J. Perkins, Advertising Manager. 
Henry S. House, Subscriptions. 

All communications should be addressed to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, Conn. Remittances 
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Published at 66 State St., Hartford, Conn, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 

Copyright, 1899, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. (All rights reserved.) 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn, as mail matter of the second-class. 



Eye Specialist and Optician. 

Room 45, Sage, Allen Bldg., Hartford. 

SPECIAL:— For 30 days 
I will make those $3.00 
Warranted Gold Filled Eye- 
glasses and Spectacles fitted 
with the celebrated Diamond 
Crystal Lenses and mail them 
postpaid to any address for 

Old Glasses Repaired, Duplicated or Improved Upon. 
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Hartford in History 


17 Resident Authors. 

Tells Interestingly of Hartford's place in the 
History of the State and Nation. 

Price, $1.00. 

For sale at the book stores or may be ordered 
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Principal of Arsenal School. 






Booksellers and 



The Adventure of Lady Ursula, 
Down in Porto Rico with a Kodak, 
The Fall of Santiago, 
The Beginnings of New England, 

By Anthony Hope 

By Jas. D. Dewell 

By Thomas J. Vivian 

By Juhn Fiske 

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and Retail. — 251 Pearl Street, Hartford, Conn. 

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for all purposes 


were well represented in the Arnold-Andre drama. 

The Crisis of the Revolution 

tells the story for the first time in minute detail, with fifty 
original illustrations. A portrait of Andre, from painting by 
himself, and one of Joshua Hett Smith, by Trumbull, both 
hitherto unpublished, are of rare interest. EDITION 
LIMITED TO 250 COPIES. Quarto, large paper, 10 x 12, 

$15.00 Now, $20.00 After. 

125 Copies are taken, ( 75 unsecured.) 
Prospectus, with Andre drawing free. 


" I think it invaluable. As a comprehensive account of 
Andre's journey, nothing has ever been written equal to it." 
— Mr. Wm. L. Stone, the historian. 

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Messages and Papers 
of the Presidei 

Edited by the HOIl. JAMES D. RICHARDSON, Under the direction of Congress, 

"I regard 'Mes- 
sages and Papers 
of the Presidents' 
as one of the most 
solid and valuable 
contributions to 
our political and 
historical litera- 


■ Ex-Poslmaster General. 


: -«f«fc 


HISTORY of the United States should form the nucleus of every American citizen 
With grave questions of public policy to be settled at the ballot box within the next : 
it will be found necessary to study closer than ever those crises from which the nati 
the past emerged ever triumphant. This history should be as authoritative as possible 
arily we get the story of our country from the point of view of one man, and one whose i 
never influenced the events of which he writes. 

In MESSAGES AND PAPERS OF THE PRESIDENTS we have word for word from tb< 
our history the burning sentences which have declared wars, the thoughtful, profound utteran 
have guided the Ship of State into the quiet waters of Prosperity and Progress — all of tl 
stones marking the path of our progress toward the grand destiny which unfolds before us as 
What could be more sublime — more prophetic — than the words of the immortal Lincoln, whe 
" We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strains 
not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memorv, stretching from evefv battlefield 2 
grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of theU: 
again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature."— First Inaugural Address. 

Is it not an advantage— a power— to have TEN VOLUMES of this sort of history at your c 

Congress had tins in mind in authorizing the publication of this great work, and in appi 
the necessary amount to defray the initial expenses. 

The Hon. Ainsworth R. Spofford, of the Congressional library, has accepted the p 
General Secretary of the Committee appointed to distribute the work. The Committee on Di; 
has undertaken to distribute the work at a trifle over the cost of manufacture and distributi 
is necessary to increase the price to meet expenses, it will be done later, but not on ap 
received at once. 

A postal card request for full particulars, addressed as below, will bring ample descriptive matte 
instructions for making applications. 

On all requests accompanied by a deposit of ONE DOLLAR a set of the books will be laid aside an 
pending further investigation, and if you decide within ten days not to make a regular application for 
the amount will be refunded. Address 

AINSWORTH R. SPOFFORD, Gen. Sec'y, Committe TA D smNGTON% De c pt ' 

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JiO.Bm, mrz 

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Hon. D. J. Brewer, Justice of U. S. Supreme Court, says : 
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of Mie^efief 





46 fate •// 


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The Connecticut Magazine 

Vol. V. 

February, i 

No. 2. 



Illustrated from photographs by Albert F. Evarts. 

the stran- 
ger, upm 

Me rid en, 
Conn., it is 
a matter of 
able sur- 
prise to 
learn that 
here is located the largest single public 
park in New England, and that it is, ac- 
cording to Olmsted Brothers, the cele- 
brated landscape architects, the most 
striking and interesting reservation of 
natural scenery for the use of a public 
park that is possessed by any New Eng- 
land city. We naturally expect that to 
our cities of the first class would belong 
the honor of § possessing, at least, the 
largest, if not the most picturesque parks. 
but here we have a moderate-sized city 
of only some thirty thousand population 

that has this superiority, both as to area 
and as to picturesque features. 

To one man is this splendid example of 
public spirit and far seeing philanthropy 
largely due. It is to Walter Hubbard to 
whom the people of Meriden and the 
State of Connecticut owe their most pro- 
found gratitude, as a beneficient friend, 
who, by his untiring efforts, his great 
judgment and forethought has provided 
for them, and for their children's children 
for all time, a beautiful garden for rest and 
recreation. The rich and poor alike may 
here breathe the same air, enjoy the same 
scenery, walk side by side along its by- 
paths, ascend the same lofty peaks, stroll 
through the same ravines and enjoy in 
common its well-shaded grounds. 

Hubbard Park, so named after its 
founder, is a beautiful tract of land of some 
eight hundred acres, abounding in features 
that suggest to the mind the wildness of 
the primeval period ; at the same time, 
all around you are to be found charming 



spots of sylvan beauty. Brooklets go 
rippling down its mountain sides ; wild 
flowers of every hue greet the stroller up 
hill and down dale • shaded nooks tempt 
tired limbs to pause and rest, while over 
all, the great, blue, clear and health-giving 
air lends its master stroke to complete the 

" With all its rocks at random thrown, 
Rough crags, bold cliffs and banks of stone. 

"Crags, knolls and mounds confusedly 

The fragments of an earlier world." 

The scenery of the hills is exceedingly 
picturesque, the crags being partly, and 



most charmingly, draped with evergreen 
and deciduous trees and bushes of the 
most interesting species. 

The trap ledges are softly tinted with 
various delicate hues, merging into a gen- 
eral effect of warm gray that harmonizes 
most admirably with the broad stretches 
of different shades of green of the all-per- 
vading deciduous woods. Here and there 
groups of dark green hemlocks, pines and 
cedars occur, especially on the steepest 

ponds and varied topography, crowned as 
it is with extensive tracts and irregular 
patches of woodland, interspersed with 
green pastures and dotted here and there 
with picturesque villages and hamlets. 

To the ordinary observer, the land 
which now forms the major part of this 
park was considered almost worthless, but 
Mr. Hubbard perceived the great possi- 
bilities it held out as a public park. 
Realizing that the rapid growth of cities 

' ;': ,"r*- 

'.' -i"-> -«K.v, 

and least accessible parts of the mountain- 
side, and serve to divide almost as strik- 
ingly as the cliffs the ever-recurring 
masses of deciduous foliage. 

A tour among the peaks well repays 
the effort to climb them. The scene is 
remarkably bold and picturesque in its 
varying forms of crags, cliffs and precipi- 
tous hillsides. The view of the surround- 
ing country is more than usually beautiful 
and interesting because of its many hills, 

means the diminishing in equal ratio of 
the opportunity for the full enjoyment of 
out-door life. Mr. Hubbard conceived, 
and at once proceeded to put into execu- 
tion, his plan for a park to meet all pos- 
sible demands of the future. He asked, 
and received permission of the city 
authorities, to develop that portion of the 
land belonging to the municipality, and 
going deep into his own pockets to pur- 
chase additional parcels of territory, and 



adding further tracts donated by friends, 
he was enabled, in the short space of two 
years, to present to the city its now price- 
less pleasure ground. The work on the 
park was commenced in 1897, and soon 
the scarcely known natural beauties of the 
scenery were brought to view. The beau- 
tiful reservoir lake, lying so picturesquely 
between the peaks, was a most delightful 
place, but the approach thereto was so 
uninviting as to deter any but the most 
persevering to undertake the journey to 
see it. Now all this is changed. A wide, 
hard roadway leads 
up to, and enters the 
park, at the entrance 
of which can be seen 
a beautiful fountain, 
the "Maid O' the 
Mist." A short dis- 
tance from here is a 
lake in which a large 
fountain is contin- 
ually playing. Across 
the dam is a wide 
driveway, the beauti- 
ful cascade being 
spanned by a hand- 
some iron bridge. 
Near by is the pa- 

vilion — a Grecian temple — 
invitingly cool, between the 
white columns of which you 
catch glimpses of the fine 
scenery beyond. In this 
locality is the main lawn of 
the park which slopes grad- 
ually down to the water. On 
the knoll, immediately back of 
the pavilion, and surrounded 
by handsome floral decora- 
tions, is a huge mortar guard- 
ing the entrance to the park. 
This mortar was presented to 
Merriam Post, G. A. R. of 
Meriden, by the United States 
government, and later was placed in the 
park, where it now stands, very appro- 
priately, under a large flagstaff from which 
floats the stars and stripes. 

From this point, drives and paths wind 
in and out in every direction and all lead 
to new and delightful surprises that nature 
has here in store for the visitor. Mirror 
Lake, so called, because it is so well pro- 
tected by the surrounding hills that its 
surface is rarely disturbed by the wind, is 
a beautiful body of water in which can be 
seen nearly always the most beautiful re- 



- ■ 


7 2 



flections of the surrounding peaks. The 
old " Notch " road, one of the oldest in 
this section, (at the corner of which once 
stood the toll-gate house on the Meriden 
and Waterbury turnpike) carries one 
through woodland scenes of exquisite 
loveliness, and brings us to the junction 
of the main drive at Merimere. Here 
in all its native wildness, filling the 
space between two precipitous mountains, 
is the beautiful sheet of water, Lake 
Merimere, with its wooded island and 

witnesses of the activity, the rush and go, 
of our New England towns. 

Peaceful looking little hamlets can be 
seen on every side, with here and there 
picturesque homesteads, with their barns, 
gardens and fields ; here dark patches of 
green forests, and there bright green of 
meadow-land — all these lend their aid in 
the designing of the grand mosaic that is 
before you. The drive west from Fair 
View carries one past great crags of rocks, 
huge masses of which are detached from 

fine shore drives. Near this point you 
take the cliff drive, which gradually and 
almost imperceptibly ascends the moun- 
tain side, until you reach a point called 
Fair View. Here a most beautiful 
and impressive panorama greets you. 
Far away, framed on all sides by 
purple hills, can be seen, spread out before 
you like an immense map, one of the most 
beautiful of valleys. Here and there are 
towns and cities sending up their myriads 
-of smoke and steam columns — eloquent 

the mountain precipices, and lie around in 
wild confusion, and not inaptly give the 
name of" Giant's Play Ground " to the 

" Huge as the tower which builders vain 
Presumptuous piled on Shina's plain, 
Those rocky summits, split and rent, 
Formed turret, dome or battlement. 

" And oft both path and hill were torn, 
Where wintry torrents down had borne, 
And heaped upon the cumbered land 
Its wreck of sf ravel, rocks and sand." 



This particular place has been of great 
interest to geologists and to students from 
our leading colleges. The elder Prof. Silli- 
man said that he had measured some of 

section of the State, and are designated as 
the Hanging Hills of Meriden. From the 
summit of West Peak you can obtain a 
view not to be equaled anywhere in Con- 
necticut. After 
a short drive 
down the 
mountain w e 
Brook, "a name 
given to a very 
wcodland spot, 
d e 1 i g h t f u 1 1 y 
cool and rest- 

the largest rocks and, climb- 
ing up the face of the crags, 
located exactly where they 
had broken away. From 
here a pleasant drive brings 
us to more restful scenes ; 
pretty forest views, little 
brooklets lined with mosses 
and ferns, and all forms of 
flora that go to show Nature 
as she is in her quieter 
moods. If we turn from 
here, however, and visit 
" Boulder Bluff," only a 
short distance hence, we 
are ushered to more wild- 
ness of scenery and get 
magnificent views toward the west. From 
here we enter upon a path which leads us 
to West Peak, the highest point in the park. 
The peaks here are also the highest in this 

In his plan for the park Mr. Hubbard 
has not forgotten the little folk. They 
have their playground, with its wading 
pool, where, with chubby little legs and 



pink toes they may disport themselves to 
their heart's content. There are boats 
galore and as safe as feather beds. There 
are trout pools to tempt wide open little 
eyes to peer into their depths ; there are 
squirrels and doves, always so fascinating, 
to interest and instruct ; there are foun- 
tains and crystal springs ; there are swings 
and beautiful groves for picnic parties ; 
there are flower-beds in profusion, in short, 
Meriden's and the State's little folks are 
well provided for. 

A most admirable 
feature in connection 
with iMr. Hubbard's 
work is the fact that 
he has furnished the 
funds necessary for 
carrying on his plans 
for the park during 
his life time, and he 
is still contributing 
large sums in further 
improvements ; and 
not only this, he also 
personally superin- 
tends the work. Will 
not this plan of 
procedure, in the donor taking upon 
himself the duty of personally superintend- 
ing the improvements upon the park, 
commend itself to all minds as a most 
sensible way of going about such matters? 
We have the benefit of the donor's 
enthusiasm, his judgment and his generous 
sacrifice of time, great factors that must 
surely inure to the advantages of the 
work to be done. 

It has been an agreeable task, this 
writing of what one man has done for his 

7 6 


city and state. It has been a delightful 
experience to study his work, to see how 
it has grown and how much good it is 
doing. It has been inspiring to note his 
conception of a civic ideal and the splen- 

did manner in which he has lived up to it. 
It has been pleasant, indeed, to record 
these things — to voice the esteem and 
grateful appreciation that all must feel for 
the founder of Hubbard Park. 



I saw him sitting by his work-shop door, 
The Master- Builder of my little town. 
On every side, well-seasoned boards and brown, 
Of chestnut, oak, mahogany, looked down, 
From out the dusk of that dim-lighted store 
While in the wood-dust, mingled on the floor 
The costly and the common, each of yore 

Used by the builder for his work's renown. 

E'en so I thought, the creeds which vex our day 
Are but as building matter, by man's care 

Brought from those wilds of thought that stretch away 
Primeval in that land of Why and Where. 

Perhaps, at last Earth's Master-Workman may 

Build from them all His perfect house of prayer. 


A sequel to " In Satan's Kingdom. 



"THE shades 
' of night 

were falling fast." 
The tennis games were finished, the 
croquet balls had ceased to click and the 
cards were laid aside. The champions in 
each game were announced and refresh- 
ments served. Groups collected here and 
there around the little tables which were 
soon filled with substantiate as well as 
dainties, for tennis and croquet are con- 
ducive to appetite and there was the 
dancing to follow. Reubena McDonald 
disappeared, returning soon with Frank 
Medbury whom she introduced to her 

friends and' gave a seat at the 
table at which she was to preside, 
an arrangement not quite satis- 
factory to certain of the young 
men who had been planning to 
appropriate Reubena and who 
recognized in Frank Medbury 
a somewhat formidable rival. 
Frank Medbury was more than 
content. He had never met 
society just like this before. The 
girls were mostly country girls, 
frank, bright, sparkling and rosy 
and the young men their fitting 
mates. It did not take Frank 
long to see that Reubena was a 
favorite with every one. She 
was a queen among them, com- 
bining urban savoir fairt with a pretty 
naivete acquired in her country life. 
Frank Medbury mentally resolved that 
the guests of Hawkins' Hotel, in their 
own way, quite eclipsed anything he had 
seen elsewhere and his intention of re- 
maining a few days crystallized. 

The good things partaken and darkness 
coming on, Reuben Wiswall went bustling 
about and with the help of the young 
men lighted the Chinese lanterns that 
were strung around the veranda and 
from tree to tree, the colored lights and 
pretty dresses of the girls making a 
charming show. Now the tones of a 




violin and piano were heard and merry 
feet were keeping time to the music of 
the dance. Around the verandas they 
swept and through the spacious rooms. 
Frank Medbury could not and did not 
resist the temptation to ask Reubena for 
a turn with him and the request being 
granted it was followed so often by others 
that the young men began to scowl, 
noticing which, Frank Medbuiy, feeling 
he had had bliss enough for one evening, 
bade his fair hostess good 
night and went to bed. gg 

For a time he lay 
awake listening to the 
music and the feet keep- 
ing happy harmony there- 
with until the music re- 
solved itself into " fifteen 
love, f-i-f-t-e-e-n 1-o-v-e 
— R-e-u-b-e-n-a M-c- 
D-o-n a-l-d a-t t-h-e a-g-e 
o-f f-i-f-t-e-e-n" — and 
Frank Medbury was fast 
asleep. So sound was 
his slumber that he did 
not hear the guests de- 
part though they made 
plenty of merry uproar 
in going. 

They were early risers 
at Reuben Wiswall's and 
Reubena usually made a 
point of breaking fast 
with the family. She loved the odor of 
early morning and the liquid beauty of 
the sparkling dew. She had come to 
know what weather was forecasted when, 
on occasions, she saw a hundred little 
webs woven here and there over the lawn. 
The morning after the party, however, she 
rose late and, as it chanced, so did Frank 
Medbury, with a resulting tete-a-tete 
breakfast at which the young man utterly 
resigned himself to the little god Cupid, 
falling hopelessly in love with Reubena. 

Who could blame him? How rarely 
delicious she looked in her pale blue 
gingham with dainty lace ruffles about the 
delicate throat setting off the rich com- 
plexion to completest advantage. Is it 
any wonder that the thought of always 
having this beautiful creature looking 
into his eyes across the table haunted 
him till its sweetness was almost a pain? 
Reubena recked naught of Frank Med- 
bury's thought and chatted on in light- 



some vein, so absorbing her companion 
that he had no opportunity for marvel at 
the absence of other guests. Breakfast 
finished, the two found their way to the 
veranda where for the first time the com- 
plete silence all about led Frank to ask 
the whereabouts of the other guests, 
Reubena failed to understand and asked 
if he referred to the people who were at 
her party — "Were they not guests of 
the house?" said Frank in growing 



Reubena informed him that the people 
he had met the evening before were 
guests of the vicinity, bidden to her lawn 
party, adding that she was expecting a 
call soon from one of the young gentle- 
men who had spent the night down at 
" Hawkins' Hotel." "Hawkins' Hotel!!! 
Hawkins" 1 Hotel!!! Great Heaven!! 
Isn't this Hawkins' Hotel?" asked Med- 
bury in voice and tone that can better be 
imagined than described. A little ripple 
of laughter that would not be suppressed 
followed this explosion as Reubena took 
in the situation. "Hawkins' Hotel is a 
mile further on," she explained. "Great 
Heaven," once more ejaculated Frank 
Medbury, "How did I make such a 
mistake? What must you all think of 
me!" " We are all very glad you made 
it I am sure — if it has put you to no great 
inconvenience," Reubena answered with 
a smile which left no doubt of her 

At this point the young man from 
Hawkins' Hotel arrived, and Frank 
Medbury went in search of Reuben 
Wiswall to explain his distressing mistake 
and to apologize for what he though 
must appear to be downright impudence. 
All thoughts of spending a few days in 
this delightful retreat vanished as a very 
crestfallen and downcast young man went 
to pack his portmanteau and prepare to 
move on. Further driving suddenly lost 
its attraction as he questioned how to get 
to Hartford as speedily as possible. 
Once more he stood before the little 
picture of " Reubena McDonald at the 
age of fifteen;" an impulse came over 
him to appropriate it but his sense of 
honesty would not permit it. " Fifteen 
love, fifteen love" sang itself to his inner 
ear, a rather reproachful refrain. 

He could not realize that he had not 
been twenty- four hours in this place— for 
he knew that an eternity of love had 

entered his soul for the beautiful 
Reubena. How could he go without 
some sign from her? And yet he feared 
that the faintest hint to her of his feeling 
would simply shock her sense of 
propriety. He could scarcely conceal 
his agitation as he again sought her on 
the veranda, having seen the young man 
from Hawkins' Hotel depart. Together 
they looked over the written directions to 
be followed in his drive and Reubena 
readily discovered the mistaken " left 
hand " road. She lingered over the 
paper and P'rank Medbury enjoyed only 
too well a situation which brought 
Reubena's face no distant neighbor to his 
own. There was laughter at times but a 
keen observer would have had little 
difficulty in discovering that Medbury's 
laughter was forced, and that Reubena's 
had lost its usual merry note. 

Good Reuben Wiswall and wife, joined 
by Reubena, urged the young man to 
prolong his stay but he, ovei willing as he 
was, had a sense of propriety which for- 
bade his acceptance of the invitation. 
He asked that his horse be harnessed 
with a far less peremptory air than that 
with which he had ordered him rubbed 
down and fed four quarts of oats. They 
were all seated on the veranda awaiting 
the harnessing, Frank profuse in his 
thanks for their kind hospitality and in 
apologies for asking it. He dared not 
offer remuneration but planned to leave 
a very substantial "tip" with the hired 
man, when that individual suddenly 
emerged from the stable with rapid 
strides and announced that the horse had 
injured itself and could not be driven. 

Frank Medbury could scarcely conceal 
the satisfaction that surged within him at 
the possibility of thus being enabled to 
spend at least a few hours longer with the 
lovely Reubena. He made haste, how- 
ever to reach the stable where he found 



his horse helpless from- a bad sprain. He 
asked for a veterinary, only to be told 
there was none nearer than Hartford. 
Reuben Wiswall rose to the occasion with 
applications of " cider brandy and arnicy" 
but it was days before the horse could be 

In the meantime Frank Medbury with 
occasional twinges of guilty feeling, was a 
willing guest of Reuben Wiswall, who 
would not listen to the stay at " Hawkins' 
Hotel" proposed by Frank. It must be 
confessed that it did not seem to trouble 
the young man greatly that the swelling 
on the horse's leg diminished slowly as 
the days passed. The next day, Sunday, 
Frank accompanied the family to church 
at " Cherry's Brook," Reuben pointing 
out objects of interest along the way and 
laughing heartily as he showed Frank the 
placed where in the old days he had been 
in the habit of driving across the river 
when he lived at Satan's Kingdom, and 
told him of his neice Margaret's terrible 
fright the first time she made the pas- 

At Cherry's Brook church a surprise 
awaited them. A gentleman, upon being 
introduced to Frank, asked at once if he 
could be the son of the William Medbury, 
who, when a youth, graduated at Professor 
Steele's high school in the village below. 
Frank answered that such was his father's 
name, and such the name of the school 
where his father's education had been 
obtained of which he had often heard him 
speak. Then for the first time, Reuben 
knew that he was entertaining, unawares, 
the son of his old acquaintance "the high 
school boy" who had kindly rendered 
him service in the old days on more than 
one occasion. . Frank's surprise was 
equally great to find himself in the 
locality of his father's early life and he 
expressed a desire to pay the village a 
visit at the earliest opportunity. 

Sunday evening Frank Medbury was 
taken with one of his severe headaches 
that visited him at rare intervals, and 
retired early. He had not been long in 
his room when he heard chords on the 
piano, while Reubena's sweet voice rose 
in a clear soprano joined by the deep 
rich bass of her uncle. Music was a 
hobby with Reuben Wiswall ; he would 
sooner have thought of going to bed of a 
Sunday night without his supper than 
without the tunes and set pieces he and 
Reubena were accustomed to then sing. 
His favorite piece was "Denmark," beat- 
ing time as he sang, down-left-right-up. 
Frank listened to the words which fell as 
distinctly upon his ear as though he were 
in the same room. 

" Before Jehovah's awful throne, 
Ye nations bow with sacred joy ; 
Know that the Lord is God alone, 
He can create and He destroy. 

" His sovereign power without our aid, 
Made us of clay and formed us men 
And when like wandering sheep we strayed, 
He brought us to His fold again. 

" We are His people, we His care, 
Our souls and all our mortal frame. 
What lasting honors shall we bear 
Almighty Maker to Thy Name? 

"We'll crowd Thy gates with thankful 

High as the heavens our voices raise, 
And earth with her ten thousand sons 
Shall fill Thy courts with sounding praise. 

" Wide as the world is Thy command — 
Vast as Eternity Thy love, 
Firm as a rock Thy truth shall stand 
When rolling years shall cease to move." 

It was a song with many repetitions, 
lines and words repeating themselves over 
and again. Never had words made such 
an impression upon Frank Medbury. 

"Wide as the world is Thy command — 
Vast as Eternity Thy love, 
Firm as a rock Thy truth shall stand 
When rolling years shall cease to move." 



This was the strongest language he had 
ever paused to reflect upon. The piece 
ended with repetitions of the words — 
" When rolling years shall cease to move — 
C-e-a-s-e t-o m-o-v-e." Thoughts that 
had never even knocked, for admission 
floated through Frank Medbury's mind. 
For the first time in his life he looked 
down the vista of the future and tried to 
imagine the meaning of eternity. 

_ A piece that was Reuben WiswalPs 
favorite he always sang twice, so Reubena 
only waited for the strains of " cease to 
move " to die away when she began 
again — "Before Jehovah's awful throne." 
Frank Medbury followed the words with 
an intense inteiest ; his headache was for- 
gotten as he gave himself up to the enjoy- 
ment of the sound of Reubena's sweet voice. 
Just as it ran up to the highest note with 
the words "Shall fill Thy Courts," "Shall 
fill Thy Courts with sounding praise," 
Frank Medbury's ideas mingled somewhat 
in this wise — " Shall fill Thy courts with 
fifteen love — love — court — fi f — 
1 o v e — and he fell asleep to dream that 
he was playing tennis with Reubena Mc- 
Donald at the age of fifteen in the courts 
of Heaven where they were to remain 
throughout eternity. 

"Vast as eternity Thy love" were the 
first words that came into Frank Med- 
bury's thoughts as he wakened at an early 
hour the next morning. Rising, he threw 
open the blinds and looked out. A 
mountain outlined itself against the sky 
over which the sun was climbing, throwing 
its rays on myriads of blades of grass 
and leaves and buds each decked with 
dew drops which sparkled in the sunlight 
like diamonds innumerable. Scarcely a 
sound was heard save the sweet chatter 
and occasional song-note of birds whose 
joy at th ; s season seems to spend itself in 
the early morning. How grandly beautiful 

this birth of day ! As if for the first time 
the wonderful problem ot life forced itself 
upon him. " Earth with her ten thousand 
sons " hummed itself to his inner ear. 
The vastness of eternity struggled to unroll 
itself as a scroll before his inner vision 
bringing a realizing sense of the blessed 
fact that life is a privilege. 

" What lasting honors shall we bear 
Almighty maker to Thy name," — 

He heard these lines again and again as 
praise and thanksgiving welled up from 
the fountains of his soul. His prufound 
enjoyment of this communion with nature 
in her most charming mood, was broken 
by the ringing of the breakfast bell, where- 
upon he hurriedly dressed and descended 
to the dining room. 

This was the first morning he had 
breakfasted with the family. Their simple 
life and habits impressed him very pleas- 
antly. The breakfast eaten, Reubena 
handed the family bible to her uncle who 
slowly read a few verses, keeping the 
place with his forefinger, running it along 
each line. When he had finished, to 
Frank Medbury's surprise, Jane Maria 
slowly rose and took her position in front 
of the tall old eight day clock. Standing 
erect with her hands clasped she invoked 
the " divine blessing." Frank never for- 
got the eloquence and simplicity of that 
prayer. When she closed by asking a 
special blessing to rest upon the stranger 
within their gates, he felt a foretaste of 
that peace that passeth understanding 
enter his soul. He did not know until 
afterward of Jane Maria's special gift in 
prayer — or of the occasion when it was 
revealed for the first time at the bedside 
of her dying niece, Margaret — Reubena's 
mother — or of Margaret's wonderful 
recovery. He did learn later that since 
that occasion Jane Maria might well have 


been given the name of faith-or prayer- 
healer so often had she successfully min- 
istered in this way to the sick and suffering, 
not rarely raising them from what seemed 
a dying bed. 

Reubena was gay and lively all the day 
long, but Frank Medbury was so quiet 
and serious that she questioned if he were 
ill. Together they visited the nearby 
village where Frank's father when a youth 
had attended the high school,an institution 
which to Frank's surprise he found wholly 
"up to date" at this time, as it had been in 
his father's younger and different day, now 
sending out its graduates to all the univer- 
sities sure of not being "winged " at the 
entrance "exams." They roamed through 
the great shops which send their axes and 
machetes to so many foreign lands, and 
here were shown one of the John Brown 
pikes made here and used at the Harper's 
Ferry raid. 

A trip "over the river" brought them 
to the vine clad home where Rose Terry 
Cooke so long looked daily upon a picture 
which she finally wrought into the poem : 

" Over the river on the hill 

Lieth a village, white and still; 
All around it the forest-trees 

Shiver and whisper in the breeze; 
Over it sailing shadows go 

Of soaring hawk and screaming crow; 
And mountain grasses, low and sweet, 

Grow in the middle of every street. 

" Over the river under the hill, 

Another village lieth still; 
There I see in the cooling night 

Twinkling stars of household light; 
Forms that gleam from the smithy's door, 

Mists that curl on the river's shore ; 
And in the road no grasses grow 

For the wheels that hasten to and fro. 

"In that village on the hill 

Never is sound of smithy or mill, 

The houses are thatched with grass and 
Never a clock to tell the hours ; 

The marble doors are always shut 
You may not enter at hall or hut. 

In that village under the hill 

When the night is starry and still, 

" Many a weary soul in prayer 

Looks to the other village there ; 
And weeping and sighing, longs to go 

Up to that home from this below ; 
Longs to sleep by the forest wild 

Whither have vanished wife and child, 
And hearing, praying, the answer fall, — 

' Patience : that village shall hold ye 

From the veranda of this house they 
realized the verities of the lines. Serene 
and silent on the far hillside, under the 
oblique rays of the afternoon sun,lay^the 
village of the dead, since tenanted by the 
writer of the lines just quoted. In the 
valley of the middle distance lay the village 
of the living, the throbbing of its hammers 
and engines rising in somewhat softened 
and not unpleasant cadence to the ear. 

One day Reuben Wiswall invited the 
young people on a trip to Satan's King- 
dom ; they were to take a lunch and spend 
the day. Frank Medbury suggested that 
he drive with his own turn-out as his horse 
was almost cured of his lameness and was 
getting restive for want of exercise. Reu- 
ben, who was exceedingly fond of horse- 
back riding, could indulge himself by ac- 
companying them on his old gray horse, 
of which he was very proud. Reuben 
readily assented to this arrangement. 

A trip to Satan's Kingdom was always a 
joy to Reubena. She was familiar with 
every foot of the ground there ; her mother 
had pointed out to her the little " nook " 
that had been hers and her mother's be- 
fore her. The wonderful meeting of Mar- 
garet with her lover here in this retreat 
was like a fairy tale to Reubena. The 
love stories of her mother and grandmother 
enacted here, made this spot to her one of 
exceeding interest and sometimes as she 
sat gazing into the dancing water she al- 



most wished that she too might meet her 
destiny here. The morning was bright 
and beautiful, the air laden with the deli- 
cious scent of the woods and vines and 
growing grapes. The birds were flitting 
about and all was joy. Reubena bubbled 
over with light-heartedness and Frank laid 
aside the seriousness of the past few days. 
What a drive they had, up through the 
old covered bridge — now replaced by a 
handsome iron structure — 
past the tumbled down rem- 
nants of the old " powder 
mills," Reuben entertaining 
them with reminiscences of 
the day when he with "Reu- 
beny" and "Ed Brown" 
went to school u to the vil- 
lage," to singing school and 
church " over to the brook " 
and of Margaret's first visit 
to " Satan's Kingdom." 

Frank and Reubena went 
from place to place, wander- 
ing far from Reuben who 
was busily engaged looking 
after some wood-land he still 
owned. With a little cry of 
delight Reubena came upon 
the little nook so endeared 
to her. Into it she drew her 
companion. Together they 
sat underneath the great 
boulder. Is it any wonder 
another tale of love was 
told? Into willing ears it 
was breathed and just as Frank Medbury 
clasped Reubena McDonald to his heart 
uncle Reuben stood before them. " Wall 
Waif Wall If that aint jest the way I 
seen yer ma a standin' there once with the 
man that's yer pa now." Poor Reuben, 
as he said this, looked somewhat dismayed 
and felt decidedly de trop. The young 
people were so insistent for the story of 
Margaret and her lover that uncle Reuben 

was fairly forced to tell it. They sat 
down and Margaret's wonderful meeting, 
here in this nook, with her lover who was 
at the time engaged as a civil engineer on 
the layout of the first railroad built through 
Satan's Kingdom — was told in Reuben's 
homely but interesting way. 

Frank Medbury told Reuben Wiswall of 
his love for his neice and asked for his ap- 
proval of their betrothal. Poor Reuben 

'-■*■' "■**, 



-^'O^' " ' * 

jay ' Y/% 

*>." > ^\f- : 

/ ill/ 

■;,.. Xlm 



knew not what to say ; he felt it to be some- 
thing out of his line. He admired the 
young man exceedingly ; he knew little 
about formalities and proprieties : so he 
closed the incident by informing the couple 
" I haven't got no objections," and left 
them to themselves. 

Delightful plans were made. The 
parents on each side were to be writt ento. 
Frank in his mind had some undisclosed 

8 4 


doubts about the matter being well re- 
ceived by his mother. Not a shadow 
however clouded Reubena's joy ; in her 
vision of the future all ran smoothly on. 
But when was a case of true love ever 
known to run smoothly ? This one proved 
no exception. 

paratory to a bout with the oars when the 
sound of a horn broke upon their ears and 
in another moment a coach with six horses 
drew in sight. Imagine Frank Medbury's 
surprise to behold his mother with a bevy 
of his young Jaly acquaintances of Lenox. 
Mrs Medbury could hardly believe her 


On the return trip of the party it was 
suggested that a stop be made just below 
the covered bridge where Reuben had 
placed a new boat a few days before, and 
enjoy a row down the river, Frank speak- 
ing of it as a dedication of the boat, and 
a celebration of the never to be forgotten 
day. Reuben had taken off his coat pre- 

eyes as she saw her son and she gave im- 
mediate order for the driver to stop. 

The party alighted. There was a light 
in the eyes of both Reubena and Frank 
that Frank's mother as well as the young 
ladies with her had little difficulty in trans- 
lating. The sudden excitement of the 
mother was so great that matters were 



rapidly forced along to the point when 
Frank sought to protect his betrothed 
from a situation acutely distressing by 
making a formal announcement of his en- 
gagement to Reubena. If Frank's mother 
had seen Reubena McDonald in her own 
home she would have found the situation 
one to. satisfy even her exactions, for Ken- 
neth McDonald, the father, was a man of 
great wealth, the head of a family of re- 
finement and culture, and well beloved of 
all who knew him — all of which was un- 
known to Frank, who had loved Reubena 
simply for her own sweet self. 

One thing which, unknown to the others, 
powerfully affected Mrs. Medbury was the 
fact that she recognized in Reuben Wiswall 
a very singular man whom she ( had seen 

when in this locality on her wedding trip 
years before, he then living in an out of 
the way place called " Satan's Kingdom ;" 
she took Reubena to be his daughter and 
the thought of her son thus married nearly 
bereft her ot reason. She almost flew at 
Reubena and accused her of intriguing to 
win her son's affection, incidentally speak- 
ing of Reuben as " that old creature." 

Before Reubena could reply or even 
understand the situation, Reubsn drew her 
away, seated her in the boat and with 
strong strokes pulled down the river. 
Mrs. Medbury insisted that Frank accom- 
pany her party back to Lenox which he 
refused to do, with the result that mother 
and son parted in anger. 

( To be continued. ) 



We pulled a rose in summer time 
Beside True Lover's Gate, 

Our lips sent up so sweet a chime, 
That twilight lingered late ; 

Now look how is the year grown old !■ 
How leafless hedge and tree, — 

'Tis said that even love grows cold, 
So here is rosemary. 



A CHAPTER with the above title, 
written by Hon. Henry C. Robin- 
son, appears in the first volume of the 
"New England States," (pp.448 — 471) 
recently published. In commenting upon 
the" Fundamental Orders" of 1639 tne 
writer says, (p. 453), " This constitution, 
which is the archetype of all modern 
written constitutions, was made and 
adopted by the people in mass meeting 
at Hartford. The statement has some- 
times been made, in histories and else- 
where, that this instrument was a treaty 
between three towns. There is absolutely 
no foundation for the statement." 

Two propositions are here advanced as 
follows : 

First. The Fundamental Orders were 
" made and adopted by the people in 
mass meeting." 

Second. That these " Orders " were 
not a confederation of three towns. 

While the foregoing has been the 
generally accepted opinion, the present 
writer proposes to advance some reasons 
for believing that these "Orders" were 
made and adopted by the " General 
Court " and not by the people. And that 
they were more properly a " Confedera- 
tion " of the three towns of Windsor, 
Hartford and Wethersfield, like the Con- 
federation of the Colonies after the 
Revolutionary War, than a Constitution 
adopted by vote of the people. 

The first proposition — that the "Funda- 
mental Orders" were "made and adopted 

by the people in mass meeting'" — seems 
to be contradicted by the " Orders " 
themselves, and by all the probabilities 
and circumstances then existing. 

First. The Court Language of the 
Orders. All the eleven orders, except 
one, are prefixed by the technical for- 
mula, " It is ordered, sentenced and 
decreed." The one exception is the 
ninth order which has the prefatory 
words, " It is ordered and decreed," 
leaving out the word "sentenced," con- 
tained in the other orders. This is the 
language of courts. This "General 
Court" ordinarily used the phrase, "It is 
ordered," in reciting official action by 
them taken. It is the language of courts 
to-day, and has been for centuries in 
England and America. By universal 
usage a court speaks officially by orders, 
sentences and decrees. This technical 
language prefixed to these orders is the 
mint mark which stamps them as the coin 
of the General Court. It is wresting 
their meaning to apply them to the action 
of a mass meeting, and a counterfeiting 
of the coin of the court. 

Second. The Language of the Pre- 
amble. The language of the Preamble 
to the Fundamental Orders is in harmony 
with this view, as follows : (we use 
modern spelling.) 

" We, the inhabitants and residents of 
Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield do, 
for ourselves, and our successors, 
and such as shall be adjoined 
to us at any time hereafter, enter 
into Combination and Confederation to- 



gether in our civil affairs to be guided 
and governed according to such Laws, 
Rules, Orders and Decrees as shall be 
made, ordered and decreed, as followeth." 
Then follow the eleven " Orders." 

It is evident that the words " Inhab- 
itants and Residents " are not to be taken 
literally, as descriptive of those who adopt- 
ed the " Orders," as voters, for it is a 
matter of history that only freemen were 
voters at that time, while " Residents " 
includes women and children. These 
words are not then to be interpreted liter- 
ally. What is a fair construction of this 
language ? If the " Orders " were adopted 
by the court, then the interpretation is 
plain. All the members of the Court — 
Magistrates and Committees— were " In- 
habitants and Residents " of the three 
towns. They could with propriety say, 
" We, do for ourselves and our successors, 
enter into Combination and Confedera- 
tion." They spoke of themselves as repre- 
sentatives of the three towns in General 
Court assembled, and their " successors " 
in that official body. The term " succes- 
sors" is a legal term, with a well denned 
meaning, and as here used refers to suc- 
ceeding members of the court. It is in- 
applicable to a mass meeting, which can 
have no legal " successors." The words, 
" and such as shall be adjoined to us at 
any time hereafter," properly refer to 
members of the court that might there- 
after be added to that body by the addi- 
tion of new towns to the three named. 
This view is re-enforced by the words, 
" Enter into Combination and Confeder- 
ation together," which would be very 
naturally used if the representatives of 
separate towns were here speaking, and 
were intending to " Combine and Con- 
federate " these separate, independent 
towns into "one public State or Common- 
wealth." These three separate towns 
were certainly at that date exercising 

separate and independent powers. The 
Massachusetts Commission had expired. 
Nothing had taken its place. They were 
under no bond or league or charter. 
Agawam had sent its magistrates and com- 
mittees to the general court occasionally, 
during the two years since the expiration 
of the commission, but it was under no 
legal obligation to do so. In the exercise 
of its undisputed independency it had re- 
cently withdrawn from the loose concert 
of action that had previously existed. 
The object of the present "Confedera- 
tion " was to prevent such secession in 
the future, and to establish a government 
by general courts. " In which said Gen- 
eral Courts shall consist the Supreme 
Power of the Commonwealth," as provid- 
ed in the tenth order. A common- 
wealth consists of people and territory. 
The territorial bounds of the three towns 
had been established at the last court 
held under the Massachusetts Commission, 
on Feb. 21, 1636-7. 

These towns as separate municipalities, 
embracing each a separate territory, a 
separate civil and religious organization, 
entered into " Combination and Confed- 
eration together," to be governed by the 
" laws, rules, orders and decrees" which 
were then " made, ordered and decreed " 
by the General Court, in the eleven orders 
which followed this preamble. A repre- 
sentative body, like this General Court, 
may properly enact " laws, rules, orders 
and decrees," but a mass meeting could 
not with propriety use such language as 
descriptive of its votes. Such enactments 
can only be passed by a deliberative body. 
They require more time, discussion and 
deliberation than could be given in a 
" mass meeting." The same mint mark 
characterizes the preamble as the eleven 

Third. The Record of their Adop- 
tion. If the Fundamental Orders had 



been adopted by the people in " mass 
meeting," it was such an unusual occur- 
rence — such a progressive step towards 
freedom, so foreign to the sentiments of 
the time — that such action would most 
certainly have been noted in the records 
of the court, or mentioned in some con- 
temporaneous letter, diary or sermon of 
that day. That herald of advanced 
thought, the Rev. Thomas Hooker, would 
have proclaimed it in clarion tones, but 
even he had not advanced to that point. 
On the contrary, what do we find? A 
short and simple court record, as follows : 
"14th January, 1638, the n orders above- 
said are voted." This is the record of the 
court, made in the court's record book, 
in the handwriting of Thomas Welles, the 
court's clerk. It is a sufficient record of 
the action of the court, and cannot fairly 
be regarded as the record of the unprece- 
dented action of a '"'mass meeting." 

Fou 7-th. These Orders Revised by 
the Court. These orders were not re- 
corded at once. First, they did not cover 
the whole ground desired. The court 
record shows that at a session held Sept. 
10, 1639, "Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Welles, Mr. 
Steele and Mr. Spencer were instructed to 
ripen some orders that were left unfinished 
by the former court, as about provision of 
settling lands, testaments of the deceased, 
and recording special passages of Provi- 
dence." These unfinished orders of the 
"former court" are undoubtedly the or- 
ders of Jan. 14th, preceding, because no 
other court had passed orders of such a 
permanent and fundamental character. 
(1 Col. Rec. 34.) Second, a general re- 
vision of these and all former orders was 
directed to be made. This is shown by 
an order of the court passed Oct. 10, 
1639, as follows : 

"It is ordered that Mr. Willis, Mr. 
Webster and Mr. Spencer shall review all 
former orders and laws, and record such 

of them as they conceive to be necessary 
for public concernment, and deliver them 
into the Secretary's hands to be published 
to the several towns and all other orders 
that they see cause to omit to be suspend- 
ed until the court takes further order." 
(r Col. Rec. 36.) Of course it was un- 
necessary to record orders that might be 
suspended. The secretary withheld the 
record for the report. The language, "all 
former orders and laws" clearly embraced 
the Fundamental Orders. These extracts 
show that the court itself regarded "all 
former orders and laws" in the same light, 
and as equally subject to revision, altera- 
tion and addition. 

Fifth. The Orders Amended by the 
Court. The Fundamental Orders were 
amended by the court on its own authority. 
In a session of the court held held Nov- 
10, 1643. ^ was provided that "Whereas, 
in the Fundamental Order it is said 'that 
such who have taken the oath of fidelity 
and are admitted inhabitants' shall be al- 
lowed as qualified for choosing of depu- 
ties. The court declares their judgment, 
that such only shall be counted admitted 
inhabitants, who are admitted by a general 
vote of the major part of the town that 
received them." (1 Col. Rec. 96.) The 
Fundamental Order here referred to is the 
seventh. Further citation is unnecessary 
to prove that the court amended these 
orders, like all other orders passed by the 
court, with no thought, apparently, that 
the amended orders should be submitted 
to the people for their approval ; and yet 
such conduct is unaccountable if they had 
thought it necessary to submit the original 
orders to their approval. 

Sixth. The Manuscript Records. 
The manuscript records of the court con- 
firm the foregoing views. The Fundamen- 
tal Orders are recorded in the handwriting 
of Thomas Welles, who was secretary from 
April 9, 1641, to May 18, 1648. 



All the records of the court held previ- 
ous to that of Jan. 14, 1638-9 are re- 
corded on the first ten pages of the manu- 
script volume. Then follows on the top 
of page eleven the first entry in the hand- 
writing of Thomas Wellts, as follows : 

"Ja. 14, 1638. It is ordered that the 
treasurer shall deliver no money out of his 
hands to any person without the hands of 
two magistrates if the sum be above 20s., 
if it be under, then the treasurer is to ac- 
cept of the hand of one ; but if it be for the 
payment of some bills to be allowed, 
which are referred to some committees to 
consider of whether allowed or not, that 
such bills as they allow and set their 
hands unto, the treasurer shall accept and 
give satisfaction." (1 Col. Rec. 26.) This 
is the record of an ordinary order passed 
by the court at that date. It follows other 
orders in regular sequence, without any 
blank space between this record and that 
at the bottom of the next preceding page. 
The balance of page eleven below this 
record is left blank, as are also pages 12- 
21. This record shows that a session of 
the court was actually held on the day 
that the Fundamental Orders were passed. 
In the printed volume this record of the 
above vote is inserted after the Funda- 
mental Orders for some unknown reason. 
This misplacement has probably led to 
some confusion of ideas upon this subject. 
The Fundamental Orders are recorded on 
pages 220-227, as now paged, while the 
oaths are recorded on pages 2T5 and 216. 

In the printed volume this order of 
arrangement is also reversed, although the 
original paging is noted. The manuscript 
volume is made up of at least three sepa- 
rate original manuscript records which were 
bound into one volume for their better 
preservation. The Fundamental Orders 
are recorded in the third record book, 
which seems to have been a statute book 
for ready reference, and shows much 

harder usage than other parts of the 

As Mr. Welles was chosen secretary on 
April 9, 1 64 1, it is altogether probable 
that the committee of revision did not 
make their revision ready for record until 
after his election as secretary, otherwise 
it would have been the duty of his prede- 
cessor to have recorded them. If this be 
true the Fundamental Orders were in the 
hands of the committee some two years, 
and did not flash into the world quite "as 
a sunburst into the sky," as has been 
stated by Mr. Robinson. 



Fit st. So Named in the Orders. If 
the Fundamental Orders were a compact 
entered into and adopted by certain magis- 
trates and committees acting as represen- 
tatives of the three towns of Windsor, 
Hartford and Wethersfield, then it was a 
confederation, like that of the colonies 
after the Revolutionary War. The best 
evidence is the document itself. The 
fathers of this child so baptized it. It is 
expressly stated in the preamble ot that 
instrument that its makers "enter into 
Combination and Confederation togeth- 
er." What right has any one to contra- 
dict this recoid and say that it was not a 
"Confederation?" Those who framed 
and adopted this instrument knew the 
meaning of the word "Confederation." 
In so defining the character of this docu- 
ment they acted advisedly and appropriate- 
ly if they spoke for themselves as repre- 
sentatives of the three separate towns, 
and their successors in office. That they 
did so speak and intended to bind the 
three towns is evident from the eighth 
order, which expressly names the three 
towns and binds them in "Confederation," 
as follows : 



"Eight. It is ordered; sentenced and 
decreed that Windsor, Hartford and 
Wethersfield shall have power, each town, 
to send four of their freemen as deputies 
to every general court ; and whatsoever 
other towns shall be hereafter added to 
this jurisdiction, they shall send so many 
deputies as the court shall judge meet, a 
reasonable proportion to the number of 
freemen that are in the said towns being, 
to be attended therein : which deputies 
shall have the power of the whole town to 
give their votes and allowance to all such 
laws and orders as may be for the public 
good, and unto which the said towns are 
to be bound." 

These towns had for two years been 
sending deputies or committees to the 
general court, and this eighth order only 
perpetuated the former practice. 

Second. Origin of Representative 
Government. Representative govern- 
ment had its origin in this country in the 
Massachusetts Colony. 

At a general court held in Boston on 
May 14, 1634, the following order was 
passed : 

" That it shall be lawful for the freemen 
of every plantation to choose two or 
three of each town before every general 
court ; to confer of, and prepare, such 
public business as by them shall be 
thought fit to consider of at the next 
general court, and that such persons as 
shall be hereafter so deputed by the free- 
men of the several plantations, to deal in 
their behalf, in the public affairs of the 
commonwealth, shall have the full powers 
and voices of all the said freemen, 
derived to them for the making and 
establishing of laws, granting of lands, 
etc., to deal in all other affairs of the 
commonwealth wherein the freemen have 
to do, the matter of election of magis- 
trates and other officers only excepted, 

wherein every freeman is to give his own 
voice." (I Mass. Col. Rec. 118.) 

These provisions were substantially 
embodied in the Fundamental Orders. 
The learned Chief Justice Shaw of 
Massachusetts, in commenting upon this 
statute, in the case of Commonwealth vs. 
Roxbury. 9 Gray's Rep. 480, says, 
u Here, then, was the origin of represent- 
ative government." He says further, in 
the same case, page 485, "The terms 
' plantation,' ' town ' and ' township ' 
seem to be used almost indiscriminately 
to indicate a cluster or body of persons 
inhabitating near each other ; and when 
they became designated by a name, 
certain powers were conferred upon them 
by general orders and laws, such as to 
manage their own prudential concerns, to 
elect deputies and the like, which in 
effect made them municipal corporations : 
and no formal acts of incorporation were 
granted till long afterwards." 

It has been held by our courts that our 
fathers brought from England to this 
country the English common law with 
them, so far as it was adapted to their 
new surroundings, and not modified or 
repealed directly or indirectly. So when 
our fathers came from Massachusetts to 
Connecticut they came by permission of 
the general court of Massachusetts, and 
under a commission issued by that court 
on March 3, 1635-6, to eight persons to 
govern Connecticut for one year. This 
commission was the first organic law of 

Third. The Massachusetts Commis- 
sion. The three towns of Newtown, Dor- 
chester and Watertown were municipal 
corporations in Massachusetts, according 
to the definition of Judge Shaw, because 
they had been there named and invested 
with corpoiate powers. When these towns 
migrated to Connecticut they were named 
in the commission, granted for their gov- 



eminent, and recognized as continuing 
towns here : They settled in three sepa- 
rate localities and carried on separate town 
governments, and exercised the corporate 
powers of municipal corporations, granted 
lands and laid out highways as they had 
done in Massachusetts, exercising acts of 
sovereignty of a high order. They did so 
because they had a right to do so under 
Massachusetts law and the commission. 
The three towns were mentioned by name 
in the preamble to the commission as 
already transplanted "into the River of 
Connecticut, "or as "shortly to go," and the 
commissioners were given power, " under 
the greater part of their hands, at a day or 
days by them appointed, upon convenient 
notice, to convent the said inhabitants of 
the said towns to any convenient place that 
they shall think meet, in a legal and open 
manner, by way of court, to proceed in ex- 
ecuting the power and authority aforesaid." 

It is to be noticed that "the inhabitants 
of the said towns " are to be convened in 
" a legal manner," and they were to meet 
"by way of court." The "legal manner" 
was pointed out in the order of May 14, 
1634, already cited, which was by repre- 
sentatives, and no other "manner" was 
legal. And they were to convene "'by 
way of court " and in no other way. This 
necessarily excluded mass meetings or 
any submission of measures to popular 
vote. In the case of the Fundamental 
Orders there is no record that the 
general court ever submitted them to 
popular vote, or thought of so doing, and 
how the people could vote on them 
without an official call to do so 
is not apparent. Certain official 
machinery has to be provided in all such 
cases, which is wholly absent here. 

The first representative assembly in 
Connecticut was the general court held at 
Hartford, May 1, 1637, to which nine com- 
mittees were chosen from the. three towns, 

and the Pequot War was inaugurated. 
These committees were elected under the 
Massachusetts statute, above cited. There 
was no Connecticut statute which author- 
ized their election. This proves that the 
inhabitants of these three towns consid- 
ered that they could exercise all the pow- 
ers granted to Massachusetts towns. They 
derived their town organizations from the 
Massachusetts commonwealth. When 
they came to Connecticut it was by per- 
mission of the Massachusetts court, and 
as town organizations, and these were 
recognized and continued as such in their 
new homes, in the Massachusetts com- 
mission; when the latter expired these 
town organizations did not die with the 
commission, but continued on in full 
life. They separately elected town officers, 
legislated upon local affairs, disposed of 
public lands and elected representatives 
to the General Court which declared war 
upon the Pequot Indians, which court 
finally exercised the grandest act of sover- 
eignty of all in framing and adopting the 
Fundamental Orders of 1639, in which 
the towns gave up some of the powers 
they had before exercised. Judge Butler 
in Webster vs. Harwinton, 32 Conn. 136, 
says that the free planters who came here 
" received from Massachusetts no corpo- 
rate powers." This was a fundamental 
error, as already shown. Again he says 
(p. 137) in speaking of the Constitution 
of 1639 — "That extraordinary instrument 
purports on its face to be the work of the 
people — the residents and inhabitants — 
the free planters themselves of the three 
towns." That is also a mistake, as we 
have endeavored to show, is without his- 
torical support, and antagonized by the 
whole history of the times, and the instru- 
ment itself. It is said that he afterwards 
acknowledged these errors. 

Fourth. The Fundamental Orders, 
an Evolution. Agawam (now Springfield) 

9 2 


at first united with the three other towns by 
sending committees to the General Court, 
but afterwards withdrew from her concert 
of action, and maintained a separate and 
independent existence for some time after 
the confederation of the three towns was 
consummated. With the defection of Aga- 
wam before their eyes, and with no com- 
mon bond between the three towns, after 
the first year, the members of the General 
Court intended to provide, and did pro- 
vide, that such a secession should not 
occur again, and therefore enacted the 
Fundamental Orders to " associate and 
conjoin " themselves " to be as one Public 
State or Commonwealth." They had cut 
loose from old Massachusetts and now 
embodied in the " Orders " such laws of 
Massachusetts as they thought best, and 
such other measures as were adapted to 
their times and circumstances, and bound 
their respective towns by a firm " Com- 
bination and Confederation." The three 
towns retained their corporate powers 
after the expiration of the Massachusetts 
commission as before. They continued 
the magistracy and the government "by 
way of court," and this court assumed 
and exercised the same broad powers 
conferred by the commission. For two 
years after the commission expired the 
towns were free and independent munici- 
pal corporations, self-governing, except as 
they voluntarily submitted to the orders 
of the courts by them constituted And 
because they were independent they could 
confer upon their representatives the pow- 
er to form one independent " Confeder- 
ation," instead of three separate govern- 

Fifth. The Orders Recognized the 
Towns. The prior existence of the three 
towns is abundantly recognized in the 
Fundamental Orders. Their previous 
sovereign right to dispose of lands is 
admitted and confirmed in the tenth 

order, which "authorized the General 
Courts thereafter, " to dispose of lands 
undisposed of, to several towns or per- 
sons." This recognizes and confirms the 
actions of the towns in the previous 
disposing of lands within their own 
bounds These lands the General Courts 
could not again "dispose of " or disturb. 
Their power was limited to dispose only 
of "lands undisposed of." The dispo- 
sition already made was recognized as 
legal, valid and binding. The first 
volume of Hartford town votes, recently 
published, proves that Hartford exercised 
this sovereign power of land disposal at 
the first recorded meeting held after the 
settlement in Connecticut. The other 
two towns did the same thing. They also 
exercised the power of eminent domain, 
in taking land for highways. (Canastota 
Knife Co. vs Newington Tramway Co., 
69 Conn. Rep. 164.) 

Sixth. The Letter of Rev. Thomas 
Hooker. In the letter of Rev. Thomas 
Hooker written in the autumn of 1638, 
and published in the Connecticut Histor- 
ical Collection of the Historical Society, 
Vol I, page 13, appears a passage which 
shows how the magistrates were elected 
from March 1636-7 to the adoption of the 
Fundamental Orders in January 1638-9. 
" For, at the time of our e^ction, the 
committees from the town of Agawam 
came in with other towns and chose their 
magistrates, installed them into their 
government, took oath of them for the 
execution of justice according to God, and 
engaged themselves to submit to their 
government and the execution of justice 
by their means, and dispenced by the 
authority which they put upon them, by 

Here is full evidence that the several 
towns chose their respective committees 
and the committees chose the magistrates, 
and inducted them into office. The 


people did not choose the magistrates. 
At a court held Feb. 9, 1637-8, which was 
the last court held during the first year 
after the Massachusetts commission ex- 
pired, the following order was passed : 

" It is ordered that the General Court 
now in being shall be dissolved, and there 
is no more attendance of the members 
thereof to be expected, except they be 
newly chosen in the next general court." 
This was the last order passed at that 
session of the court. 

The first court of the second year of 
this popular government was held March 
8, 1637-8, in which were eight magistrates 
and twelve committees chosen in the 
interval between Feb. 9th, and March 8, 
1637-8. This was the election referred to 
by Rev. Thomas Hooker in his letter 
above cited. Public sentiment had not 
then sufficiently advanced to entrust such 
election to the direct vote of the people. 

Seventh. Those who Adopted the 
Orders. The second court of this 
second year, and the last court held prior 
to that of Jan. 14, 1638-9, (according to 
the record) when the Fundamental Orders 
were adopted, consisted also of eight mag- 
istrates and eleven committees, and was 
held April 5, 1638, As those who repre- 
sented the three towns or Hartford, Wind- 
sor and Wethersfield in this general court, 
undoubtedly were the members of the court 
which adopted the constitution of 1639, 
so called, their names are worthy of being 
inscribed in letters of gold upon our Con- 

necticut temple of fame. The members 
of this court represented the towns as 
follows : 

Of the magistrates, John Haynes and 
Thomas Welles were of Hartford ; Roger 
Ludlowe and William Phelps were of 
Windsor John Plum and MatthewMitchell 
were of Wethersfield. 

Of the committees, George Hull, Capt. 
John Mason, Thomas Ford, and Thomas 
Marshall were of Windsor ; John W« bster, 
John Talcott, John Steele and Edward 
Hopkins were of Hartford ; Andrew 
Ward, Thurston Raynor and George 
Hubbard were of Wethersfield. To those 
eight magistrates and eleven committees, 
in all probability, must the honor be ren- 
dered of having originally framed and 
adopted the Fundamental Orders of Con- 

Each of these three towns was repre- 
sented by two magistrates and four com- 
mittees, except Wethersfield which appar- 
ently sent but three committees. 

The records of Connecticut do not 
show that any constitutional question was 
ever submitted to vote of the people till 
the constitution of 181 8 was so submitted. 
Not even the so-called constitution of 
1776 was referred to popular vote, but 
was passed by the legislature who spoke 
for "The People of this State," as their 
predecessors, in adopting the constitution 
of 1639, spoke for "The Inhabitants and 
Residents of Windsor, Hartford and 



THE Quedunk meeting-house had 
been refurnished, the high box pews 
replaced with low armed, doorless seats, 
the walls repainted, and the gilt motto 
work around the pulpit touched up. But 
all this had cost money, and for five years 
now, the church society had been strug- 
gling with 'the debt. 

The last one hundred dollars came hard- 
est of all. The " Aid Society " — happily 
composed mostly of women — had ex- 
hausted the list of novelties coming within 
the legitimate scope of fairs, sociables, and 
suppers, and had even trespassed upon the 
borderland of the drama. To be sure, the 
receipts from the stage performance in the 
church-basement, had been almost as 
gratifying as those from the raffles and 
lotteries at the fairs, but certain tender 
consciences there were, pricking to remon- 
strance against such a desecration of the 
Lord's house. 

Thus the society found itself at its wits' 
end ; peculiarly trying was the situation 
since it had been planned to celebrate 
the one-hundredth anniversary of the 
founding of the church the coming sum- 
mer, and the organization surely ought to 
be free from debt then. The last brilliant 
pecuniary success had been a " birthday 
party," when everyone brought a bag 
containing the number of pennies corres- 
ponding to the years of their age. The 
sum of fifty dollars had been realized.. 
Before this they had tried the " silent 
sewing bees," the women earning ten 

cents apiece on a wager with the men that 
they could keep from talking throughout 
the whole of an afternoon session of the 

That worthy pastor, the Rev. Mr. 
Newton, was as perplexed as any of his 
flock, or at least he tried to appear so, 
though as a matter of fact, when alone 
with his books in his study, the whole 
subject dismissed itself from his mind. 
He did not worry, for he had the utmost 
confidence in the fertile ingenuity and 
tireless zeal of the women. The good 
man would willingly have made some 
personal sacrifice, but he knew that no 
one of his congregation would dream of 
accepting any portion of his already 
insufficient salary, and he could think of 
no other means of assisting them. 

It was with his most sympathetic air, 
then, that he received one afternoon, a 
delegation from the Aid Society. A mem- 
ber of the delegation who had studied "art 
and embroidery," had received a letter 
from a city cousin, a sculptor, describing 
the process of taking life-masks. It was 
the easiest thing in the world — a little 
plaster of paris, the face well oiled or 
greased, and straws or quills in the mouth 
and nostrils. 

Now what they wanted to know, was 
whether their beloved pastor would allow 
a mask to be made of him. If he would, 
they could let it be given out that the 
operation would be performed at the next 
sociable, charge an extra price for admis- 


sion. and then sell replicas of the mask. 
Moreover, other men in the congregation 
could then be prevailed upon to have the 
experiment made upon them, and the 
society could charge a goodly sum per 
head. In addition to lifting the debt, the 
church would acquire fame. 

It was impossible to throw cold water 
on such enthusiasm. When the matter 
of the pastor's modesty was overcome, 
there was no other obstacle : indeed, he 
was grateful in his prayers that a way had 
been opened by which he might be of 
material benefit to the good cause. 

The attendance at the sociable was so 
large, that when the hour arrived for 
making the mask, the atmosphere of the 
vestry was almost stifling. Miss Turnbull, 
the art and embroidery student,, had 
arranged every detail : the plaster was of 
the right consistency, the quills had been 
tested, and she applied vaseline (as better 
than ordinary grease) with her own. soft 
hands. The pastor lay on an improvised 
couch in the center of the room, where 
all might see. 

When he felt Miss* TurnbuU's dainty 
fingers working the unguent into the hair 
of moustache, whiskers, and eyebrows, and 
some of the young folk snickered, the 
corners of his mouth twitched, but he 
fixed his mind firmly on the cause, and 
withal on the contrast between this and 
the dentist's-chair sensation he had 
dreaded. The plaster was applied carefully, 
Miss Turnbull explaining the process as 
she worked. 

He had not wanted to laugh outright 
till his features were tightly held by the 
composition, then the iudicrousness of the 
situation came over him irresistibly, and as 
fate would have it, the gentle operator at 
the same time inadvertently tickled him in 
the neck. But again he thought of the 
cause, of the Scriptural injunction to pre- 
sent the body a living sacrifice, and let 

his mind run back to the days of mummies. 

•• The plaster will be hard enough 
to remove in five minutes," announced 
the artist — "if you'll please take the time, 
Deacon Gledhill." 

But it was not hard enough in five 
minutes, nor yet in eight. The room was 
deathly still, and there was a sensible 
approach to the gruesome about it, when 
one of the women whispered : 

•■ See ! He's moving his fingers. 

■•That means he's all right." declared 

••Perhaps it does." remarked the deacon 
as he called off the tenth minute, "but 
may be he wants to say something " 

This idea started another giggle am :._ 
the young people, thus relieving the ner- 
vous tension for ali but Miss Turnbull. 
who hastily put a pencil in the minister's 
hand, and a sheet of paper under it. 

•• I: you want anything, write." she whis- 
pered, her face a trifle pale. She watched 
eagerly while he slowly scrawled the 
words : 

■• I can't breathe." 

■■We must break the mask," said she 
hurriedly to the deacon, "beginning with 
the nose." 

But it was not so easy to break the still 
elastic substance. The deacon, now 
somewhat worried, took a hand, and 
together they lifted, and then, as the 
fingers worked faster, pulled. Perspiration 
trickled down into the deacon's eyes, and 
Miss Turnbull's hands were like ice. 
Horrible possibilities filled the minds of 
the breathless spectators, all of whom 
vowed that if they could get out of this 
•■ s rape," they would never have anything 
more to do with masks. 

At length the face covering came away, 
but alas ! with it came the eyebrows and 
a goodly portion of the moustache. 

The Rev. Mr. Newton sat up, gasping 
and clutching: his bleeding; face. Water- 


was promptly applied with handkerchiefs 
that were offered by the dozen, and he was 
led away, groaning, to the anteroom. The 
mask lay a shapeless, hairy mass on the 
floor, the clogged quills sticking upward. 
The following Sunday, however—with 
bandaged face — the devoted leader of the 
Quedunk flock was able to announce that 
the debt had been lifted, largely through 

the generosity of certain members of the 
congregation who would not allow their 
names to be mentioned. 

He then preached on the " Seventh 
Day ;" taking his text from Leviticus XIV : 
9 — " But it shall be on the seventh day 
that he shall shave all his hair off his head 
and his beard and eyebrows." He ad- 
dressed a large and attentive congregation. 



Out on the morn of a frosty day 

Over the hills and far away, 

Under a sparkling winter sky, 

Gallop and canter, what care I ! 

Over the hills where the heath-bird's cry 

Quivers among the grasses dry, 

Over the hills where the breezes sing 

The praise of the coming ice-crowned king. 

Down in the vales where the ferns bend low 

To spread a couch for the sleepy snow. 

Breasting the steep with a courage high, 

Galloping down where the dead leaves lie, 

And summer clings to the sheltered trees — 

A banished queen at a tryant's knees, 

Smiling a smile so sad and sweet 

At the sound of our quick retiring feet, 

As we climb the swelling hill again 

Over the valley and over the plain. 

Life and health in the clear, crisp air, 

Health and life in the prospect rare — 

Frolic and fun as on we fly, 

Happy and careless, what care I ! 



Of (tie Woman 's Lazv Class, New York University. 

TO one deeply interested in the higher 
education of her sex, Connecticut 
presents an anomalous aspect. No state 
has better public or private schools. Its 
boarding schools and finishing schools are 
famous for their excellence. Its academies 
and high schools are on a par with those 
of Massachusetts and New York, its pro- 
fessional, technical and scientific institu- 
tions of learning leave but little to be 
desired and yet it makes almost no pro- 
vision for the higher education of its 

It has three great colleges, Yale with 
twenty-five hundred students, Wesleyan 
with at least three hundred and fifty and 
Trinity with one hundred and thirty-five. 
All could be co-educational if they would 
and yet none come near to the mark. 
The most liberal of the three is Wesleyan 
which admits woman but at the same time 
does it as a condescension and even under 
protest. Trinity does not admit women 
and Yale offers a sort of an extension or 
annex system which, while it is better than 
nothing, is unworthy of either that univer- 
sity or the great Commonwealth which it 
represents. It cannot be urged that the 
women of Connecticut do not desire 
collegiate education. 

The very opposite is the case. The 
catalogues of Barnard, Yassar, Mount 
Holyoke, Smith, Wellsley, Radcliffe, the 
New York Normal College and the 


Teachers College show a large representa- 
tion from the Nutmeg State. Among 
public school teachers and women college 
professors the country over, those of Con- 
necticut birth make an excellent showing 
in both numbers and efficiency. 

Why this conservatism should exist is 
difficult to determine. It certainly works 
an injury to the educational institutions 
of the state and to the state itself. At a 
small estimate one thousand Connecticut 
girls go annually out of the state to obtain 
the intellectual training which is denied 
to them within its borders. At the lowest 
estimate they expend upon an average, 
three hundred and fifty dollars a year. 
Each brings to her new home, relatives 
and friends who likewise disburse money 
which might be spent to advantage within 
the Commonwealth. 

Further still, each helps to build up an 
esprit du corps which inures to the benefit 
of the place where they study. 

The Connecticut alumnae of the differ- 
ent colleges of the country have contribu- 
ted more than a half million dollars in the 
past decade to their respective alma 
maters. Connecticut donors are to be 
found on the books of Mount Holyoke, 
Wellsley, Vassar, Barnard, Chicago. Den- 
ver, Leland Stanford, California, Illinois, 
Northwestern and other institutions. 
Further than this they send their friends 
to the same institution and thus strengthen 


and widen a movement which from a 
statesman's point of view is injurious to 
local interests. 

It is not so many years ago that there 
were only two great American colleges, 
Harvard and Yale, but that time is past. 
Harvard has endeavored to keep in touch 
with the progress of the age, by first creat- 
ing an annex and then raising it into 
Radcliffe College, but Yale has not done 
this. On the other hand Cornell, Chicago, 
Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, and 
others have become co-educational and 
have gone up into the front ranks of the 
educational world. 

An indication of this change is found in 
the number of students enrolled in each 
college. Columbia, with Barnard and the 
Teachers, has about three thousand stu- 
dents, Northwestern, two thousand, Pratt 
Institute, twenty-seven hundred, California, 
twenty-one hundred, Chicago, twenty-five 
hundred, Ann Arbor, Michigan, thirty- 
two hundred, Minnesota, three thousand, 
Pennsylvania, twenty-eight hundred. So 
that in numbers Yale has retrograded from 
the second place to the eighth place in 
point of numbers. 

When it comes to wealth, the change is 
even more startling. Yale formerly stood 
second, while to-day it is behind Columbia, 
(now the richest in the new world) Cornell, 
Girard, Leland, Stanford and Chicago. 
All of the rapidly growing universities are 

It does not seem to make much differ- 
ence so far as meeting the public demand 
is concerned whether the higher education 
of woman is accomplished as in Vassar by 
a college for women alone, or as in Colum- 
bia where it is by a college for women 
alone (Barnard) re-enforced by special in 
the university's schools, or in a squarely 
co-educational institutions such as Oberlin, 
Ann Arbor or Chicago. 

The same principles apply, although 
with less force, to technical and profes- 
sional schools. Women are entering into 
all the skilled callings in ever increasing 
numbers. Ample provision has been made 
by New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois and 
other Commonwealths in the form of 
schools of dentistry, medicine — alopathic, 
homcepathic and eclectic, pedagogics, law, 
trained nursing, veterinary surgery, archi- 
tecture, applied design, and other sciences 
and vocations, while Connecticut has done 
little or nothing. 

Every true women who keeps in touch 
with current events earnestly desires that 
the great state of Connecticut should take 
a step forward and put itself in line 
with its sister states in the ranks of 

Agitation, organization, and an appeal 
to the great New England heart would 
soon ( I, as a New England woman, know) 
bring about a change which would re- 
dound to the good of the nation. 




AS stated in my first article on Hart- 
ford, it was my intention to write 
about my own recollections, dating back 
some three score years, and later, but 
having related the story of the reception 
of General Lafavette in 1824, I have been 

I am indebted to the admirable address 
of Alderman William E. Cone, delivered 
at the dedication of the New City Hall 
(old State House) Wednesday evening, 
October 22, 1879, a °d to Barber's His- 
torical Colections of Connecticut. 


(From a painting by Henry Bryant. — Courtesy of Ellen M. Stuart.) 

asked by several individuals to give more 
information relative to State House 
Square, which will always be the central 
point in our beautiful city. 

In deference to these wishes I will give 
a short history of this historic spot. 
For much of the information here given 

It is nearly 214 years (in 1685) since 
the Colony of Connecticut conveyed to 
the town of Hartford all right and title to 
State House Square, which had been 
deeded in 1636 by Sequassen, Sachem of 
the Suckiaug Indians, to Samuel Stone and 
ethers in behalf of the inhabitants of Hart- 



ford, as a portion of the- first purchase 
made by the English within the present 
limits of Connecticut. This plot of land 
was bounded originally by Main street on 
the west, the present Kinsley street on 
the north, Market street on the east, and 
Grove street on the south, it being the 
public training or parade ground of the 
Colony, and ten or fifteen feet higher 
than at present. 

The first meeting house and burial 
ground was on the northeast corner, west 
of Market and south of the present Kins- 
ley street. The old meeting house which 
was occupied by the First Church of Hart- 
ford — familiarly known as the Center Con- 
gregational Church — remained until 1649, 
when it was removed to School (now Arch) 
street, and presented to the wife of the 
Rev. Thomas Hooker, and with additions 
and alterations, used and occupied by him 
as a dwelling and study. 

The Square was gradually contracted to 
its present size, licenses having been 
granted by the town to various persons to 
build shops and other buildings. 

The General xAssembly, consisting of 
twelve members from Hartford, Windsor 
and Wethersfield, convened in the meet- 
ing house June 14, 1639, and annually 
thereafter until a new building was erected 
in 1649, which was more commodious and 
convenient. It was in this building, when 
the General Assembly was in session, that 
Sir Edmund Andros attempted to gain 
possession of the Charter, when the mem- 
orable scene was enacted in which the 
Charter was seized by Capt. Wadsworth 
and secreted in the famous old oak w T hich 
stood on Wyllys Hill, afterwards known as 
the Charter Oak. Here it remained con- 
cealed from October 31, 1687, to May 9, 
1689. During a severe storm on the 
night of August 21, 1856 the old tree 
was blown down, the story being familiar 
to all. 

For many years there has been nothing 
to mark the site of the old tree — but a 
small marble slab set in a retaining wall 
on private property — a discredit to the 
citizens of Hartford ; but in May, 1896, 
James J. Goodwin, Esq. of this city, pre- 
sented to the Connecticut Society of Sons 
of Colonial Wars a narrow strip of land, 
about a hundred feet long, the point of 
which intersects Charter Oak Avenue and 
Charter Oak Place, upon which it is pro- 
posed to erect a suitable monument, 
which will undoubtedly be a credit to the 

On June 8, 1881, a reunion of the Army 
of the Potomac was held in this city, at 
which there were many distinguished 
officers present : General W. T. Sherman 
and Secretary of War Robert T. Lincoln 
among them. Upon the following day a 
special train was run on the Connecticut 
Western Railroad, conveying the above, 
and others, to the Hudson River, on their 
way to West Point, quite a party of Hart- 
ford gentlemen accompanying them, by 
invitation of the railway officials. 

One of the guests took with him two 
handsome pieces of Charter Oak, and on 
the journey one was presented to Secre- 
tary Lincoln by Ex-Governor Marshall 
Jewell, the other to General Sherman by 
Mark Twain, when the famous humorist 
informed the General that the wood was 
becoming very scarce for the reason that 
most of it had been used in repairing the 
old wooden bridge across the Connecticut 
river, over which the original settlers had 
marched. Now that the bridge has been 
destroyed by fire the wood of the old oak, 
must be scarcer than ever. 

The present City Hall building was 
completed in May, 1796, and used as the 
State House until transferred by the State 
of Connecticut to the City of Hartford 
March 13, 1879, an d formally dedicated 
as the City Hall, October 22, 1879. 



It originally fronted the east, as is shown 
by the ornamentation at the eastern 
entrance. The Board of Aldermen occupy 
the former'Senate Chamber, and the Com- 
mon Council Board the former Represen- 
tative Hall, the rest of the building being 
occupied by various city offices. On 
the first floor north the Board of Water 
Commissioners have their offices, where in 
former times was located the Superior 
Court, in which many noted cases were 
tried, and the most prominent lawyers 

In comparison with the present' cere- 
monies, I quote from an old time account 
written by a visitor in Hartford who wit- 
nessed the ceremony in May, 1807, when 
the second Governor Jonathan Trumbull 
was inaugurated for the eighth consecutive 
year. " In the morning the Foot Guards 
were paraded in front of the State House, 
where they afterward remained under 
arms while the troops of Horse occupied 
the street which is on the south side of 
the building. 



IJJjtLsilyJi^^ Hi ki tees. 

'S\u\W\MM' r -WP ] '9 

m I iw^iini i» i!?- 1 mi tit 


(From an old print. In foreground Daniel Phillips' express wagon, on the Crosswalk, 
old Ben Brown, the colored Crier for B. & W. Hudson, Auctioneers, with red flag, 
on which is hand-bill.) 

in the state fought their legal battles. 
January 4th, in this present year, 1899, 
Hon. George E. Lounsbury of Ridgefield, 
was inaugurated Governor of Connecticut, 
not with the great military display custom- 
ary when the legislature convened in 
May, but exceedingly interesting, with 
the escort of the four companies of Gov- 
ernor's Guards from Hartford and New 
Haven, from his hotel to the State Capitol. 

" The color of the clothes of the troop 
was blue, the clothing of the Foot Guards 
was scarlet with white waistcoats and 
pantaloons, and their appearance and 
demeanor were military." According to 
this account the Governor was received 
the evening previous to Election Day, at 
the west bank of the Connecticut River, 
by the 1st Co. Governor's Horse Guards, 
and escorted to his lodgings. 



" On Election Day, Governor Trumbuil 
arrived at the State House, where he was 
received by the Guards, and after enter- 
ing the building he shortly emerged 
followed by the Lieutenant Governor, 
Assistants, High Sheriff, members of -the 
lower House of Assembly, and with few 
exceptions, all the clergy of the State, 
about one hundred in number. 

" The procession was on foot, led by 
the Governor, preceded by the Foot 

excepting about twenty singers, the choir 
numbering about fifty. After the sermon 
the procession marched back to the 
State House, the military saluted and the 
parade was over; at an adjoining inn 
dinner was served about 2 p. m., the 
Governor and party at one table, clergy 
at a second, representatives at a third. 

" The annual Election Ball was given 
in the evening, and on the succeeding 
Monday evening another more select." 


(From photograph taken about 1865. ) 

Guards, and followed by the Horse 

"On the occasion, because of the re- 
building of the First Meeting House, the 
exercises were held at the South Meeting 
House, to which the procession marched. 

" There were no decorations in the 
church, no place assigned to any of the 
military officers, no females present 

This was the manner cf olden times, 
but soon after, reforms were made in the 
ceremonies : first the clergy were not 
allowed to dine at the public expense ; 
next the Governor's Guards were 
restricted in the same manner, then the 
election sermon was dispensed with, and 
about sixty years ago the members of the 
assembly formed no procession. 



Exchange corner, as commonly spoken 
of, included the buildings from Main 
street to the United States Hotel, and in 
many respects is the most prominent block 
in the city. 

It has changed less in its appearance 
than any other, excepting in new store 
fronts and fresh paint. 

Glancing back about sixty years, within 
the memory of many residents and former 
residents, we find these business firms 

Fruit, Pastry, Cakes, etc. of the nicest 
quality. Agent for the sale of Harper's 
Cough Remedy, Hibbard's & Leseur's 
Vegetable Pills, and Italian Rheumatic 

(How fond the children were of his Cup 
Custard, his Barnegat Candy and Cocoa- 
nut Cakes.) 

William Rogers, Jeweler ; Belknap & 
Hamersley, Booksellers ; Theodore Spen- 
cer, Jr., Merchant Tailor ; Roderick White, 


(Old North Baptist Church in distance.) 

occupying the stores — beginning with 
Steele & Crocker, Jewelers, fronting Main 
street — the following well-known names 
will be recalled in their order : W. C. 
Pettibone, Merchant Tailor; Daniel Fish, 
who was known far and near; — (1 have 
found an old advertisement in 1839, as 
follows : 

" Daniel Fish, 
No. 2 State Street, corner of Main Street, 
Confectionery and Toys, a full assortment 

Bookseller ; Hartford Fire Insurance Co. ; 
east of this the U. S. Hotel, James B. 
Shultas, proprietor. The stores under- 
neath occupied by E. W. Bull, sign of the 
"Good Samaritan ;" and Brown & Parsons. 
Booksellers, adjoining the U. S. Hotel 
was The Eagle Tavern Edson Fessenden, 
proprietor, under it Alexander Ramsey's 
Fruit Store. 

Between The Hartford Fire Insurance 
Co. and the United States Hotel, was a 



broad arched driveway to the stables, and 
a little later in the basement of the Hotel, 
were the stage offices conducted by 
Edward Button. 

The interior arrangement of Exchange 
Block remains practically as of old. The 
entrances and stairways 'narrow and dark, 
the offices with low ceilings, the stairs well 
worn by the footsteps of many thousands 
who have climbed them. 

This corner was destroyed by fire in 
1832, and when rebuilt most of those 
mentioned became tenants again. 

T. C. Perkins was succeeded by his 
son, Charles E. Perkins, the latter now 
having as partner his son Arthur, under 
the firm name of Perkins & Perkins, in 
the same well-known suite of rooms. 

On the east wall of the front office may 
be seen the quaint sign of Enoch Perkins, 




u..M hams 


(Old City Hall in center of picture.) 

At the aforementioned time the tenants 
were Chester Adams, Deputy Sheriff, and 
James H. Holcomb, County Clerk, over 
No. 2 State, and above Allen S. Stillman, 
Bookbinder • Dr. W. S. Crane, Dentist, 
over No. 4 ; Chapman & Drake, Attorneys, 
over No. 6 ; Thomas C. Perkins, Attorney, 
over No. 8 ; above that H. W. Greatorix, 
Prof, of Music. 

the father of Thomas, whose office in 
olden times was in the north front room 
of the old Perkin's homestead, which 
until within a few years stood on the 
north corner of Main and College streets, 
now Capitol Avenue. 

The Mitchell building between the 
Hartford and Exchange Banks, where is 
now the Courant Building, was largely 



■occupied by printing and newspaper 
offices. Above the first story was Elihu 
Geer, who later on moved to Exchange 
Corner, and still later he moved a few 
doors east, where now is the Printing 
House of Elihu Geer's Sons. Thus for 
upwards of three score years this estab- 
lishment has been in about the same 
location. Walter Mitchell and James 
Dixon had their law offices in the Mitchell 
Building. Thomas Roberts, Stoves, was 
at No. 28. The Lawrence houses, just 

and later M. W. Chapin, resided on the 
corner of Prospect street, now occupied 
by Parsons' Theatre ; on the opposite 
corner The Connecticut River Bank, 
incorporated in 1825 ; next, and above 
the bank, W. Pitt Earle's Clinton House, 
then George Burnham & Co., Tisdale & 
Fox, Fox & Porter, Universalist Church, 
with Post Office on first floor ; Waverly 
House, Tudor Adams, Proprietor; 
Hungerford & Cone Block on the corner, 
with many tenants ; Times office 


Avest of Market street. The Directory for 
1839 having the names of Alice Lawrence, 
widow, at No. 32, and Margaret Lawrence, 
single woman, at No. ^8. Dr. E. E. 
Marcy, Physician ; and Jason Sage, Grocer, 
both located at No. 38. 

The Hartford Hotel, Eldad Taylor 
Proprietor, succeeding Porter's Tavern, 
stood where now is the American Hotel, 
the west front having a row of Lombardy 
Poplars, the last of a row which formerly 
-encircled the Square. Thomas K. Brace 

(Mitchell & Burr) ; Hungerford & Cone, 
Asaph Willard, Engraver ; Ezra Strong, 
Book Publisher ; Lyman Stockbridge, 
Merchant Tailor ; and others, all on 
Central Row. 

A list of the merchants and business 
houses on Main street, fronting the 
Square, will bring many recollections of 
well-known and honored people, their 
children in many instances being among 
the leading citizens of the Hartford of to- 
day. Beginning on the south corner of 


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Pearl Street, John H. Goodwin, Boots and 
Shoes, at No. 154 ; John Olmsted & Co., 
No. 158; on the opposite corner Union 
Hall building, with Nicholas Harris' Com- 
mercial Academy up stairs in the rear ; 
T. J. Work, Shoes etc., No. 160 ; Hatfield 
and Miller, Shoes, etc., No. 162 ; John B. 
Corning, Dry Goods, No. 164 ; Horace 
Goodwin 2d, Jeweler, No. 166 ; George 
W. Corning, Merchant Tailor, No. 170; 
Thomas Winship, Shoes etc., No. 172, 
in the south wing of the Phoenix Bank, 
which was numbered 174; Charles A. 
Colton, Merchant Tailor, in the north 
wing, No. 176 ; Wells & Humphrey, Drug- 
gists, No. 178 ; Gurdon Robins, Jr., Books, 
No. 180 ; Kilbourn & Co., Hardware, No. 
182, on the south corner of Asylum 
Street ; on the norlh corner, Julius Catlin 
& Co., Dry Goods, No. 184 ; Seymour & 
Dickinson, Druggists, No. 186 ; where 
the Hills Building is now, stood the Con- 
necticut Hotel, E. and W. J. Denslow, 
proprietors, formerly Marshall's tavern. 
On the first floor were Spalding and 
Storrs, Books, No. 192 ; and Henry Oaks, 
Jeweler, No. 194; In the 1839 Directory 
of Melzer Gardner I find The Atlantic 
Hotel, Jacob N. Torrey, landlord, corner 
Main and Asylum streets, probably on 
the south corner. 

Among the well-known citizens occupy- 
ing offices there were, Fellows & Matson, 
Attorneys, over 162 Main, also Dr. 
Horace Wells, Dentist ; Hartford Mutual 
Insurance Company over No. 180, Sam- 
uel H. Huntington, father of Col. R. W. 
Huntington, No. i8o J / 2 , and Charles 
Shepard, Attorney, No. 180; N. H.Mor- 
gan, Constable, No. 188. 

It will be observed that in this short 
business portion there were no less than 
four boot and shoe dealers. It was custom- 
ary to concentrate a certain line of busi- 
ness, as shown by the place a little farther 
up the street known as "Hatters Row." 

The Central Building was The Phoenix 
Bank, incorporated in 18 14 (its capital in 
1825 was $1,210,000), a prominent build- 
ing, with its semi-circular approaches, 
guarded by iron railings, with a broad 
stone platform in front and on the top of 
the building a large phoenix. 

This was the central point for political 
and other speeches, military and firemen's 
reviews, and frequently used as a band- 
stand. Many thousands of people have 
gathered in front to listen to addresses of 
welcome to distinguished men, and our 
elder citizens watched with genuine regret 
the demolishing of this old landmark, to 
make way tor the present magnificent 
modern bank building. One of the very 
old anecdotes connected with the old 
bank was this : 

Early one afternoon a lady of Hiber- 
nian nationality bustled into the bank with 
numerous bundles, and seated herself near 
the door ; here she remained anxiously 
watching for a long time. At last one of 
the clerks came from his desk and inquired 
what she wanted, when she replied, 
" Shure, and O'im waiting for the stage." 
She was politely informed that this was a 
bank. " And shure, isn't this the Aigle 
Tavern ? " The Eagle Tavern was pointed 
out to her, when she hurried off with 
" Shure, and I saw the Aigle on top of 
the hoose, and I thought it was the Aigle 

Through the courtesy of Belknap & 
Warfield, the well-known book sellers, we 
are permitted to copy a photograph of 
Main Street, opposite City Hall, taken 
soon after the close of the Civil War. This 
needs little explanation ; the tall barber's 
pole on the north corner of Asylum Street 
was that of W. T. Bassett, the popular 
barber and hair dresser ; the solitary bob- 
tail horse car is in strong contrast with the 
trolley cars which now center at this point. 

The next article will be devoted largely 
to the East side of old Hartford. 
( To be continued.^ 

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OR more than 
one hundred 
years the good 
people of the town 
of Guilford cher- 
ished a tradition, 
so hazy that it 
seemed to many 
but pure romance, but still having suffi- 
cient vitality to last from one generation 
to another until Longfellow published 
Evangeline. Then while a whole con- 
tinent wept over the sorrows of the 
Acadians, Guilford exclaimed, "There 
were Acadians sent here also, what became 
of them?" 

What indeed ! Let us examine the 
story of their coming as the legend had it. 
Late in the autumn of 1755, after Brad- 
dock's defeat had become an old story, 
and the inhabitants of Guilford were 
forced to village gossip as a topic of 
conversation, the town was agreeably 
thrilled by the news that a strange ship 
had anchored off the harbor, and that a 
boat from it was even now coming ashore. 
When it came nearer and was found to 
contain a man in uniform, it was seen to 
be a case for the selectmen and those 
potentates were at once sent for. To 
them, the British officer, who came ashore, 
explained his errand — brietly this, — That 



the king had a bad lot of French Papists 
on his hands whom it was his pleasure to 
distribute among his loyal and Protestant 
subjects, hoping thereby to cure these 
French of their Romish errors. That 
Guilford's share in this work would be to 
shelter a family of five souls, about to be 
landed. The selectmen, duly impressed 
with the honor shown them, took the 
family of five with their household goods 
and established them in a certain vacant 
dwelling, (not the almshouse) where they 
were lodged at the town's charge. Tra- 
dition adds to this that the woman of the 
French household made lace, and a dozen 
years ago, a remnant of lace woven in a 
peculiar fashion, was exhibited as the 
work of the Acadian woman. 

Here tradition ceases and leaves us in 
ignorance of the ultimate fate of the 
"neutrals," as our colonial ancestors 
sometimes called them, and but one other 
ray of light is thrown upon them. This 
lies in the pages of a book of Guilford's 
records and reads thus : 

Voted: — That the Selectmen Shall with 
Convenient Speed put out to service So 
many of the French Family which is 
amongst us as they can Dispose of with- 
out Cost to the best Advantage to free 
the Town from Charge. 

Nath 11 Hill, Clerk. 
April 12, 1756. 

From this peculiarly worded entry, one 
can conjecture that the thrifty residents of 
Guilford had an eye to the expense then 
as now. After they had debated the 
matter for one winter they ordered the 
selectmen to act, and we may suppose 
those officials to have been obedient. 

Assuming then that the younger Aca- 
dians were bound out to service for a term 
of years it is natural that their parents 
would at least remain in the neighborhood 
until the children should be released. 
After this they may have made their way 
back to the north. As to their movements, 
both tradition and record are dumb. No 
French name appears on the town records 
for many years after the landing of the 
expatriated untortunates. They dis- 
appeared as a summer shower, so we may 
only guess at the misery of their 
habitation in the tents of Kidar. That 
these poor Catholics extracted a great 
deal of sympathy from their God-fearing 
Protestant neighbors, may well be doubted. 
At all events the people of Connecticut 
did not make the fate of the four hundred 
Acadians allotted to them a matter of 

The house wherein they were lodged in 
Guilford still stands, its walls silent as to 
the tragedy lived within them. 



ANYTHING relating to Walter Hub- 
bard, the founder of Hubbard Park, 

<a description of which the writer gives ... 
the preceding pages of the present issue 
of this magazine ) must naturally possess in- 
terest for those of our readers who have had 
the opportunity of seeing the work that he 
has accomplished in creating the beauti- 
ful pleasure ground, and who have enjoyed 
the benefits arising therefrom. We give, 
therefore, the following brief account of 
his life, confident that all will be gratified 
to learn something more of the man him- 
self. From a volume of biographical 
sketches entitled " America's Successful 
Men.'" published in 1896. we have selected 
the following leading facts bearing upon 
his career : 

Walter Hubbard was bom Sept. 2$. 
1823, in Middletown, Conn., and is con- 
sequently a little more than seventy years 
::._e. Mr Hubbard does not show his 
age,, unless perhaps we except his snow- 
white hair. His robust health, his alert 
and active mind, and his quick and almost 
youthful manner occasions much surprise 
to those who learn that he has reached 
three score and ten years of his life. 

The ancestors of the family emigrated 
to this country from England in 1633. and 
their descendants have furnished a most 
remarkable record in the Rev;h;:: ::.::;. 
War, over five hundred members from 
Massachusetts and Connecticut serving in 
that struggle. Capt. Jeremiah Hubbard, 
the grand-father of the subject of this 
sketch, was one of the most active of them. 

Like the majority of the youth of his 
day, Walter was brought up on a farm and 
was educated in the township schools in 

his vicinity" and the Chase Preparatory 
School of Middletown. At the age of 
eighteen he secured a position as clerk in 
a country store where, by his thrift, bis 
energy and his strict attention to his 
employer's interests, he was enabled to 
accumulate enough capital to embark in 
business for himself. This he did in 1 S5 2 . 
opening a small store in Meriden, Conn., 
which he conducted until 1S60. Mr. 
Hubbard was married in 1852 to Abby* 
the daughter of Levi Bradley of Cheshire, 
Conn. She died a few months after her 
marriage. Mr. Hubbard has ever since 
rentaine :: = : ng'.e. In ::f-i. in cimTiany 
with his brother-in-law, X. L. Bradley, 
Mr. Hubbard founded the Bradley vM 
Hubbard Mfg. Co., of Meriden. and 
devoted himself entirely to its interest 
aftei i860. The firm so founded has 
Si nee become the largest manufacturers of 
its line of goods in the world. Mr. Hubbard 
is actively connected with many important 
concerns in Meriden, being president of 
The Meriden Gas Light Company, also of 
The Meriden Electric Light Company and 
The Meriden Trust & Safe Deposit Com- 
pany. Besides these interests he is also 
interested as a director in many other local 
companies. He built The Winthrop Hotel 
of Meriden (one of the finest hotels in New 
England), being actuated in so doing, to 
confer a benefit to the city and not as an 
investment for himself personally. His 
gifts to the various charities of his city 
have been frequent. Politics, strange as 
it may appear, have never had any attrac- 
tion for Mr. Hubbard. He has never 
held, nor sought any public office. In 
[883-4 Mr. Hubbard went around the 

I 12 


world and he has frequently visited Europe 
and various parts of the United States in 
other years. In person Mr. Hubbard is 
of medium height and of good proportions 
and weight. His personality is frank and 
straightforward, and he gives the observer 
the impression of a man who must be well 

liked by his associates. His pleasant and 
cordial manners win him friends wherever 
he goes. He is a member of The Union 
League Club, New England Society, 
American Geographical Society and many 
state and city organizations. 

H. Phelps Arms. 



Last night my soul forsook me while I slept, 
And loving vigil o'er my Darling kept, 
To-day she said, with look serenely bright, 
"Dearest, I dreamt of you last night." 

A Valentine 

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ii 4 






(View near New Britain.) 










Continued from No. 4, Vol. IV, Connecticut Quarterly, 


Feb. 12 


Mar. 2 


April 25 

May 7 


June 10 



July 15 

Aug. 8 


Child of Mr. Pool, aged 5 mos. 

Child of Nathaniel Chauncey, 
aged 1 mo. 

The Mother of Daniel Talcott 
[Abigail Theobald, of Milford, 
widow of Capt. John Talcott, 
married Dec. 30, 1725, in Wind- 
sor], aged 80. 

Richard Seymour, [son of John 
and Elizabeth (Webster) Sey- 
mour, bap't. March 22, 1713], 
aged 71. 

Child of John Senter, aged 2. 

Infant Child of James Hosmer. 

The Wife of William Andrus 
(Hannah), [dau. of Zechariah 
and Sarah (Steele) Seymour, 
born in Harwinton, Sept. 23, 
1742], aged 42. 
John Adams. Intered Exp. 
Town, aged 32. 

Child of Uriah Shepard, aged 2. 

Daughter of Samuel Winship, 
aged 25. 

Samuel Calderwood. Intered at 
Exp. of Town, aged 23. 

Geo. Burket, aged 4. 

Child of Capt. James Marsh, aged 
3 mo. 

The Wife of Solomon Smith died 
with Small Pox. Ann, daugh- 
ter of John and Abigail (Theo- 
bald Talcott, born April 1, 
1735,) aged 50. 

Infant Child of James Sheldon. 

Capt. Israel Seymour, [son of 
Capt. Jonathan and Mary 
(Bull) Seymour, born 1735 ; 









Feb. 2 




April 8 


June 2 

killed by lightning, standing 
in his own doorway, the house 
being about where the Capitol 
now is], aged 48. 

Child of Allen Goodwin. 

Infant Child of Revd Nathan 

Infant Child of John P. Jones. 

Child of William Collyer, aged 3. 

The Wife of Revd Nathan Strong, 
[Anne, dau. of Dr. Solomon 
Smith], aged 35. 

Child of Joseph Humphrey, aged 
9 mos. 

Child of John Bunce, Jr. aged 3. 

Theodorus Barnard (Infant 

John Lord, aged 67. 

Child of Jonathan Chapman, 
aged 1. 

Thankful Webster [Dau. of 
Ebenezer and Hannah (Web- 
ster) Webster, born 1728], aged 

Obadiah Spencer, aged 40. 

Wife of Caleb Spencer, aged 78. 

Amasa Jones, [son of Daniel and 
Mary (Worthington) Jones, 
born in Colchester, Oct. 2, 
1726], aged 57. 

Child of Ashbel Shepard, aged 2. 

The Wife of Timo. Burr, aged 34. 

Infant Child of Israel Wads- 

The Wife of Capt. Ebenezer Bar- 
nard, [ his second wife ] , aged 33. 

The wife of Susannah Bunce, 
aged 51. 


June 4 Child of Peter Colt, aged 8. 

10 Joseph Day, aged 86. 
July. 7 Child of Mrs. Mather. Iutered at 
Exp. of Ebenezer Barnard, Jr., 

8 Son of Joseph Humphrey, aged 


20 Son of Moses Smith, aged 7. 
Aug. 10 Child of Reuben Dikes, aged 5 

13 The Wife of Josiah Brunson, 

aged 56. 

14 Child of John Bigelow, aged 5. 
18 Elisha Burnham, aged 42. 

Sept. 4 A Sailor Intered at Exp. of John 
Avery, aged 23. 

9 Child of Joseph Winship, aged 7. 

16 Child of Nathaniel Olcott, aged 


17 The Mother of Jonathan Bigelow, 

(Tabitha, relict of Jonathan), 
aged 70. 

18 The Daughter of Joseph Win- 

ship, aged 16. 
23 Child of Enos Doolittle, aged 1. 
30 Child of Joseph Winship, aged 3. 
Oct. 2 Mrs. White, (Widow Hannah), 
Intered at Exp. of Jos. Win- 
ship, aged 78. 
7 Child of Charles Seymour, aged 


16 France a Frenchman, Drowned, 

burial charged the Town, 
(Francis Hurrel). 
27 Infant Child of Asher Church. 
Nov. 13 The Wife of Consider Burt, 
(Lydia), aged 38. 

15 Infant Child of Daniel Smith. 

17 Child of Solomon Porter, aged 2. 
23 The Wife of Timo. Shepard, 

aged 42. 
Dec. 2 Mrs. Abagail Church (relict of 
Capt. James Church,) Abigail 
Stanley, daughter of Capt. 
Caleb and Sarah (Foster) 
[Long] Stanley, born in Hart- 
ford, Feb. 24, 1695, aged 91. 
10 James Barton, aged 37. 
14 John Tilley, aged 85. 

20 Capt. James Nichols, (Son of 

Cyprian and Mary (Spencer) 
Nichols, bap't. First Church, 
Feby. 2, 1708-9, aged 78. 

21 The Wife of Joseph Sheldon, 

(Sarah), aged 48. 

Dec. 22 


Jan. 1 

Jan. Ti 



Feb. 3 

Mar. 14 
April 8 



May 21 

July 2 


Mr. Davis, Buried at Exp. of 
Jabez Perkins, aged 60. 

David Huestas (Capt., of Han- 
over, New Hampshire), aged 

Mrs. Hill (Anna) Intered at 
Exp. Zachariah Sanford, (wid. 
of John Hill of E. Hartford), 
aged 78. . 

Son of Capt. Hugh Ledley ( Wil- 
liam), aged 22. 

Infant Child of Samuel Kilbourn. 
Mrs. Cole, Intered at Exp. of 
Thomas Tissell [Tisdale] [Ra- 
chel, relict of John], aged 52. 

Infant Child of Cotten Murray. 

Child of William Skinner. 

Mrs. Mary Seymour [widow of 
Capt. Jonathan] [Mary Bull, 
dau. of Daniel and Mary (My- 
gatt) Bull, born in Hartford, 
Nov. 10, 1707]. aged 78. 

Infant Child of Mr. Warner. 

Child of Tim Wadsworth,aged 3. 

Infant Child of Ashbel Shepard. 

Child of John M. Cable, aged 4. 

Mrs. Abigail Phelps [widow of 
Timothy]. [Abigail Edwards, 
bapt. Feb. 9, 1729, dau. of John 
and Christian (Williamson) 
Edwards], aged 57. 

Infant Child of Elisha Vibbert. 

Elizabeth Burkett, Mother of 
the Sexton, aged 87. 

Dr. Solomon Smith, aged 52. 

The Wife of Caleb Bull [Martha] 
[Dau. of Matthew Cad well, 
born July 15, 1724], aged 62. 

Isaac Sheldon, aged 62. 

Nehemiah Cad well's child aged 

The Wife of Caleb Bull Jr. 
[Mary] [2d wife] aged 36. 

Joseph Steele [son of Jonathan 
and Dorothy Mygatt— (My- 
gatt) Steele, born 1730, aged 56. 

Daughter of Peliliah Turner, 
aged 16. 

Infant Child of William Short- 

11 Child of Ezra Corning, aged 6 mo. 
22 Son of John Thomas, aged 20. 
( To be continued.} 



WM. A. E. THOMAS, Editor. 

Querists are requested to write all names of persons and places so that they cannot 
be misunderstood, to write on only one side of the paper, and to enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope and ten cents in stamps for each query. Those who are subscribers 
will be given preference in the insertion of their queries and they will be inserted in the 
order in which they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent 
to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked, Genealogical Department. Give 
full name and post office address. 

It is optional with querist to have name and address or initials published. 


15. Farrington. — Joseph, b. June 25, 
1772 (where?) m. at Meriden Ct. Oct. 
31, 1804. 

Triphena dau. of Capt. Simeon and 
Triphena (Benham) Perkins: shed. 
May 1855 Meriden Ct. : he d. 1863 at 
Battle Creek, Mich. Ancestry of Joseph 
and Simeon desired. G. L. P. 

16. (a) Wanzer. — Thomas, aged 23, b. 
on Long Island, 5 feet 10 in. high, 
grey eyes, round visage and ruddy, en- 
listed April 11,1758, in Capt. John 
Verplanck's Co. N. Y. Colonial Troops, 
vide N. Y. Colonial Series — who were 
parents of Thomas ? Did he have any 

(b) Holmes, Daniel, aet. 17: b. in 
Bedford N. Y., laborer, 5 ft. 6^ in., 
grey eyes, dark complexion and full ; 
enlisted Mch. 29, 1758 Capt Jonathan 

(c) Holmes, John, aet. 16, b. in Bedford 
N. Y. laborer, 5 ft. 7 in., grey eyes, 
scar on his right cheek, enlisted Apr. 
13, 1758 Lieut. James Holmes. Who 
were parents of Daniel, James and John ? 

H. W. 

17. (a) Anderson. — John, shipwright, 
was in Boston 1747 and for many years 
after. Wm. was there 1657, John in 

Dorchester 1690 ; information of Ander- 
sons of Boston and vicinity before 1 700 
is desired. 

(b) Ashley, Clarissa m. Sept. 9, 1799, 
at Poultney, Vt., Dr. Solomon Wyman. 
Whose dau., with dates? Whose son 
was Dr. Solomon ? 

(V) Edson, Mary of Stafford, Ct., m. 
Seth Johnson. Whose dau. with dates ? 
(d) Hammond, Sarah m. John Marsh 
of Lebanon, Ct. b. May 10, 1739. ^ as 
she dau. of Caleb and Mary Brewster) 
Hammond of Norwich, Ct., b. Aug. 21, 
1740? Whose son Caleb and whose 
dau. Mary? 

{e) Park, Sarah, dau. of John, " yeo- 
man " of Stonington, Ct., m. Feb. 3, 
1723 — 4 Benj. Rockwell of Stafford, Ct. 
b. Oct. 26, 1700. Who were parents 
of John with dates? F. W. A. 

18. (a) Curtice (Curtis.) — Samuel b. 
1681 Southold N. Y. m. Jan. 6, 1702 

— 3 Mary : he moved to Hebron 

Ct. about 1700 and d. Mch. 24, 1740. 
she d. Dec. 14, 1724. Their dau. 
Elizabeth m. Feb. 7, 1732-3, Samuel 
Gilbert. When and where was Mary 
born? Who were her parents? 
(b) Rowley, Moses, Jr. b. Mch. 10, 
1654, Barnstable, Mass., d. July 16, 
1735, East Haddam, Ct. m. Mary 



who d. June 9, 1764, aged 97, 

in East Haddam (T. R.) : he was great 
grandson of Edward Fuller of the May- 
flower. It is said she was the Mary b. 
April 6, 1667, in Barnstable, Mass., dau. 
of Wm. and Mary (Chapman) Throop. 
Proof of this is desired. A. I. H. 

19. {a ) Fountain. — Moses of Norwalk, 
"for and in consideration of the pater- 
nal love I have and do bear towards 
my loving son and daughter-in-law, viz ; 
John Tredwell and Mary his wife do 
give, etc. — 1 acre of land in Norwalk 

near my barn bounded with 

buildings thereon by said Tredwell 
erected." Signed Moses Fountain, p. 
36 book 8 Norwalk Town Rec. Jan. 1, 
1735 — 6. Who was father of Moses 
and how related to John Tredwell? 
{b) Tredwell, John of Deleway in ye 
county of New Haven bought Oct. 9, 
1740, Seven acres of land from Peter 
Quintard. Who were ancestors of this 

(c) Treadw T ell, Mary of Haddam m. 
about 1780 Nathan Chase of Yarmouth. 
Who were parents of Mary and Nathan ? 
Did they have issue ? 
(a 7 ) Treadwell, James of Haddam m. 
Apr. 1780, Mary Spencer. What is his 
ancestry ? 

(e) Treadwell, Hannah of Fairfield m. 
Nehemiah Hubbell b. May 19, 1722, 
son of Stephen and Abigail (Squier) 
Hubbell. Who were her parents? 
(/) Treadwell, Ann Maria of Washing- 
ton Ct. m. Feb. 23, 1800, Henry Hurl- 
but, b. Aug. 15, 1774, Roxbury. Ct., son 
of Gideon, Jr. and Martha (Warner) 
Hurlbut. They moved to Scipio, N. Y. 
(g) Treadwell, Tamar, m. Dec. 24, 
1713. Hezekiah Rowland (ReddingCt. 
Records). Who were parents of Ann 
Maria and Tamar? 

(/i) Chase, David m. Susanna and 

had Samuel b. Feb. t8, 1809. 

(k) Chase, Jeremiah m. Susanna 

and had Seth b. June 17, 1778. 

(m) Chase, Nathaniel m. Anna and 

had 1. Polly b. Oct. 11 1789. 2. El- 
dredge b. Oct. 5, 1791 and 4 others. 
Who were parents of David, Jeremiah 
and Nathaniel? And who were their 
wives? G. H. T. 

20. Rogers. — James who came in 1635 
in ship Increase. All records of him- 
self, ancestors and descendants desired. 

Mrs. Augusta Hicks, Piqua, Ohio. 

21. Walton. — Dr. Wm. was in Pomfret, 
Ct. 17:58 — 80, when he moved to Salis- 
bury, Ct., where he d. April 14, 1787, 
aet. 52. m. 1758 in Danvers, Mass., 
Mehitable dau. of Joseph and Mehitable 
(Putnam) Pope. Who were parents 
of Wm. and Mehitable ? C. G. W 

22. (a) Cook. — Elizabeth m. May 10, 
1742, Joseph 4 Wadsworth (Joseph 3 , 
Capt. Joseph 2 of Charter Oak fame, 
Wm. 1 original proprietor of Hartford). 
Who were her ancestors ? 

(p) Stevens, Elizabeth b. Feb. 19, 1762, 
m. Sept. 1779 Reuben 5 son of Joseph 4 
and Elizabeth (Cook) Wadsworth. 
Who were her ancestors. It is thought 
all lived in Hartford. G. B. F. 

23. (a) Harris. — Samuel 3 (Gabriel 2 , 
Walter 1 ) of New London b. 1665, d. 
1725. Wanted name and ancestry of 
his wife. 

{b) Southwell, Sarah m. July 26, 1749, 
Joseph Harmon of Suffield, Ct. ( b. 1715, 
d. 1762). Wanted her parentage ; date 
and place of her birth. G. R. S. 

24. Atkins. — Henry, recorded in Ply- 
mouth before 1650 : then moved to 
Eastham, Mass. : m. 1st Elizabeth (per- 
haps) Wells : m. 2nd Bethia Linnell : 
wanted record of his first settlement. 
Dea. Thomas Atkins of Chatham, Mass. 
was no doubt a son : proof is desired : 
who was wife of Thomas? Eunice his 
dau. m. Samuel Collins of Chatham. 

M. L. D. N. 



The work of the Ruth Wyllys Chapter, 
D. A. R. of Hartford, relative to the 
widening of Gold Street and the restora- 
tion of the ancient cemetery, has been 
rewarded after long, patient waiting and 
hard persistent work, by the withdrawal 
of the opposition of the property owners 
so that now a presentable approach to 
Bushnell Park from Main street, which we 
have so long wished for, is within sight. 
The work of tearing down the old build- 
ings preliminary to widening the street, 
will begin April i . 

The regent of the Chapter and chair- 
man of the Gold street committee, Mrs. 
John M. Holcombe, ably assisted by 
others of the committee, have labored 
indefatigably and accomplished results 
that we do not believe could have been 
brought about, except through their 
splendid, unselfish efforts. 

The relief work of the Connecticut 
chapters of the D. A. R. is summarized in 
a pamphlet gotten out by the state 
regent. It shows a total expenditure in 
cash of over $3500, besides a great 
number of supplies of food and clothing, 
carefully itemized. Besides these there 
were personal gifts, not included in the 

itemized reports ; as for instance, one of 
the regents gave about $5000 for the sick 
and wounded soldiers. A veiy creditable 

* * 
The Elizabeth Porter Putnam Chapter, 

D. A. R. of Putnam, inaugurated the 
anniversary birthday of General Israel 
Putnam, Saturday Jan. 7, 1899, by a pub- 
lic celebration in Union Hall, with music 
and addresses, with over 400 persons 

Mrs. Mary Medbury, Regent of the 
Chapter, called the meeting to order, ex- 
plained the purpose of the Daughters in 
thus calling together the citizens of Put- 
nam, and in their behalf called upon Major 
S. H. Seward to preside. 

Mr. Seward, in accepting, stated the 
order of exercises, and then called upon 
the band to play. He then stated that 
the design was to perpetuate the memory 
of the State's great warrior by an annual 
celebration as was befitting in a city 
named after him. With appropriate in- 
troduction for the parts assigned to each 
speaker he called upon Messrs. J. W. 
Manning, Charles E. Searles, L. H. Fuller, 

E. M. Warner, and Rev. F. D. Sargent, 
whose historical reminiscences of General 
Putnam, and brief sketches of the city of 
Putnam, past, present and prospective,, 
were happily and eloquently set forth. 



The regular meeting of the Anne Wood 
Elderkin Chapter, D. A. R. of Willimantic, 
was held with Mrs. Herbert R. Chappell 
Monday, December 19th. The usual 
reports were read and accepted. His- 
torian's paper was read by Mrs. Chappell 
entitled, " Nehemiah's Plan." Delegates 
to the National Congress at Washington, 
D. C, were appointed : Mrs. Edwin 
Bugbee regent, and Mrs. Hayden : Mrs. 
Eugene Lincoln, Mrs. Harris, alternates. 

The meeting was then given in charge 
of Mrs. Chaffee, chairman of the program 
committee. There was a duet by Mrs. 
Hillhouse and Mrs. Boss. Miss Holt read 
a paper on the " The Mohegan Indians, 
the first settlers of Connecticut." Song, 
"Columbia my Country," by Mrs. Storrs. 
Chorus by Chapter members. Mrs. 
Chaffee read an account of " the present 
Mohegan's claim and grievances." Song, 
" Libertas et Patria." by chapter. Christ- 
mas story by Robert Burdette, read by 
Mrs. Risedorf. Soio. " Brightest and 
Best," Mrs. Storrs. 


Mrs. Sara T. Kinney, state regent of 
the Daughters of the Revolution, has 
tendered her resignation from that office. 
Mrs. Kinney, after formally placing her 
resignation before the regents of the 
organization, notified by letter the various 
chapters througout the state. 

At a meeting of Mary Clap Wooster 
chapter Saturday afternoon Mrs. Kinney's 

letter was read and after the members had 
recovered from their surprise, expressions 
of regret were heard upon all sides. This 
is the chapter of which Mrs. Kinney is a 
member and of which she has been 

As state regent Mrs. Kinney has served 
three years and after a very busy summer 
she now feels the need of a relaxation 
from the duties of so responsible a 


The Connecticut Society of Colonial 
Dames held its annual meeting at the 
Prospect Casino in Hartford, Nov. 15th. 
The business was chiefly the reading and 
accepting of reports of officers and com- 
mittees and included the work of the 
relief committee during the war with 
Spain, showing that much had been done 
foi the soldiers in field and hospital, and 
the work of the landmark committee upon 
the dedication of the cairn and tablet at 
Mohegan to the memory of Lieut. Lef- 

The Society elected the following 
officers : 

Pres., Mrs. Frank W. Cheney of South 
Manchester ; first vice-president, Mrs. E. 
K. Hubbard of Middle town ; second 
vice-president, Miss Martha Day Porter 
of New Haven : managers. Miss Mary 
Kingsbury Talcott of Hartford, Mrs. Mor- 
ris W. Seymour of Litchfield, Miss 
Mariana Townsend of Middletown, Mrs. 
Franklin Chamberlin Porter of New 


Hartford, whose death was an- 
nounced in our January issue, was one 
of the oldest business men in the city? 
in point of continuous service in one line 
of business. He was born, June 17,1 840, 
at New Britain, Conn. His parents were 
Artemas Ensign Hart and Anna Elizabeth, 
daughter of Abel Church of Litchfield, 
Conn. In 1857 he came to Hartford and 
entered into the ser /ice of Joab Hubbard 
remaining with him until 1863 when he 
entered into business with Sugden & Co., 
and laterbecame a partner of Mr. Sugden's. 

The present firm of " The Chas. R. Hart 
Co.." is the outgrowth of this partnership, 
a corporation formed to deal in the sale 
of carpets and wall papers. Mr. Hart, it 
will thus be seen, had forty-four years of 
active mercantile life in Hartford. Mr. 
Hart was also much interested in city 

affairs, had been a member of the Com- 
mon Council, and in 1884 an d 1887, 
during the terms of Mayor Bulkeley, he 
was appointed Water Commissioner. Mr. 
Hart was exceedingly popular, as attested 
by his membership in numerous city 
organizations. He was one of the original 
Wide Awakes, was a member of the 
Veteran City Guard, charter member 
Gentlemen's Driving Club, member of 
Washington Commandery, A.F. and A. M., 
and many other socities. Mr. Hart was 
married to Ellen M. Woodruff, April 4, 
1866, who survives him, with one daughter, 
Mrs. Charles A. Blake. He passed away 
November 22, 1898 at his residence 
" Broadview," in Windsor, Conn. 

Susan Benedict Hill, well known as a 
writer on historical and genealogical sub- 
jects, passed away at Hampton, Vt., last 
October. Her last published poem, '-Not 
Forgotten," was written for and published 
in the October number of The Connecticut 
Quarterly, concerning which the " Dan- 
bury News " said, " These melodious lines 
— pathetic, yet serenely triumphant — will 
be of peculiar interest to the many friends 
of Mrs Susan Benedict Hill, whose death 
at Hampton and burial at Hudson we re- 
corded a few days ago. In writing this 
sweet requiem for the great author, she 
wrote her own as well." 

We expect to have a biographical sketch 
of Mrs. Hill in our next number. 



The resignation of President Dwight 
from Yale marks an event in the college 
world that brings to the mind, not only his 
wonderful career and services, but also 
that of his illustrious grandfather, Timothy 
Dwight, under whose administration was 
graduated Moses Stuart, Lyman Beecher, 
John C. Calhoun, Samuel F. B. Morse, 
Benjamin Silliman, Thomas H. Gallaudet, 
James A. Hillhouse, James G. Percival, 
Ethan A. Andrews and many others who 
became famous. 

Yale under the two Dwights has a 
history without a parallel. 

* * 
On December 29, 1898, the revolving 
Hotchkiss gun, taken from the sunken 
wreck of the Spanish vessel Viscaya, by 
Capt. Caspar F. Goodrich of the Cruiser 
Newark, and presented by him to the 
State of Connecticut, was escorted from 
the State Arsenal, where it had been re- 
mounted, and placed in the Capitol build- 
ing under the dome. The procession was 
composed of the Second Division Naval 
Reserves, naval and army veterans, Gov- 
ernor Cooke and military staff, and Capt. 
Goodrich. At the Capitol, Captain Good- 
rich presented the gun to the state, making 
a brief address, and Governor Cooke re- 

sponded; accepting the gun in behalf of 
the state. The exercises closed with an 
address by Senator Hawley and the singing 
of" America." 


The New York, New Haven & Hartford 
R. R. Co., once in a while do something 
worth commending, and their New Year's 
order to its employees, to the effect that 
" the public shall be given seats when 
traveling on any cars of the Company and 
that none shall be compelled to stand 
under any consideration," comes under 
this head, — and if enforced, the Company 
will be entitled to additional commenda- 
tion and the public will have less cause to 
kick than it has heretofore. 

At the meeting of the Connecticut 
Historical society held on Dec. 6, 1898, 
the corresponding secretary, Rev. W. De 
Loss Love presented an interesting com- 
munication relating to the originality of 
the charter of the colony of Connecticut, 
giving indisputable proof from the Royal 
Historical Society of London that the 
charter hanging in the office of the secre- 
tary of the state is a duplicate, while the 
fragment of a charter in the keeping of 
the society is the original. 



THE message of Governor George E. 
Lounsbury, delivered to the General 
Assembly upon his inauguration, 
Jan. 4, 1899, is a document that should be 
read by every one at all interested in our 
state government. The message is not one 
of high-sounding, meaningless'phrases, but 
a dignified summary of present conditions, 
full of business common sense and good 
suggestions. If the high ideals here out- 
lined are followed out by the officers and 
members of the various departments of 
our state government, the people will 
have no cause to complain of the baleful 
influences of the " the man with a barrel." 
True, it is trite to say that " influence," 
not merit, is what counts ; that the eager 
self-interests of office-holders are very 
apt to overshadow their duty to the public ; 
that the Diogenes of to-day would have 
as much difficulty in finding " an honest 
man " with an electric search light as the 
philosopher of old did with his lantern in 
broad day. We all know the necessity 
of eternal vigilance, of continually striving 
for political purity, of insisting upon a 
wise economy. We are glad to see the 
Governor as outspoken on these and kin- 
dred subjects as he is. We believe in his 
honest sincerity. Unless the people keep 
awake to these issues and are ever 
strenuous in their support, they will be 

saddled with a number of useless incum 
bents whose motto is " Public Office is for 
Private Plunder " They have had some 
experience in this sort of thing, not so 
long ago as to become ancient history. 
Some extravagant highway commission 
business ; the squandering of over 
$40,000, under the nonsensical (to use a 
mild term) tuberculosis law; money 
wasted in odious peach-yellow investiga- 

Fortunate to escape from such abuses 
as easily as we have, in requires continual 
watchfulness to prevent their repetition. 
We want no Tammany methods here in 

The signs are hopeful. There seems to 
be, and there certainly should be no 
tendency to go to extravagance, because 
we have made a small financial gain under 
the administration of Governor Cooke. 
Concerning this gain of $173,159.29 Gov- 
ernor Lounsbury in his message says : — 

"This net gain is not large, It sug- 
gests no decrease or change in taxation, 
no increase in any line of expense, except 
so far as wise increase in one line is offset 
by wise retrenchment in another." 

Then he continues : 

" The last legislature appointed a com- 
mittee, whose duty it should be, to 
investigate the whole matter of state 
expense and to report to this General 



Assembly. Those of you who have been 
members of past legislatures, and have 
investigated somewhat in this same line, 
know that if this committee has gone to 
the root of evils, it will report in favor of 
vigorous legislation which will result in 
large retrenchment. But this legislation 
depends upon you, perhaps not upon 
your honesty, but certainly upon your 
courage. For when this committee makes 
its report there will be at once a combina- 
tion of selfish interests to render it of no 
effect. If you shall give to this report 
your careful consideration, and then in 
the courage of your convictions follow 
those conclusions which you deem to be 
sound and wise, you will save to the state 
for the next two years hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars, and so be able to vote 
increased appropriations for objects that 
are worthy and urgent. 

" In voting appropriations it is well to 
bear in mind that object for which 
government was created. Society for its 
own protection ordained government, 
and then, of course, government must 
protect itself. Anything which tends to 
protect society and to strengthen govern- 
ment is in itself a legitimate object of 
appropriation. But the voting of money 
for any other purpose is extravagance 
and wrong. Fifteen thousand dollars 
spent in needless printing is extravagance, 
voted in gratuities as extra pay for services 
for which the statute fixes compensation, 
it is a wrong to the taxpayers, and a 
cruelty to every one of your charitable 
institutions. For there is not one of 
these, which, in its pressing need, is not 
holding out its hand and asking you for 

We shall look for the report of the 
investigation committee, and the action 
taken upon it, with interest. 

After going into further details regard- 
ing the finances, the Governor takes up 

the subjects of Education, Good Roads, 
Agriculture, Railroads, the various Institu- 
tions and State Boards, the Records, of 
which we will speak in another place, the 
National Guard and the Israel Putnam 
Memorial Park, making wise and judicious 
suggestions in each case. 

Concerning the unequal representation 
which now hampers and thwarts the 
choice of the majority of the people in 
certain sections, he makes the recommen- 
dalion for a Constitutional Amendment 
as follows : — 

' k The constitution of this state and the 
constitution of the United States were 
largely framed along the lines of that Con- 
necticut Constitution which was in exis- 
tence a hundred years ago. In this state 
we have left undisturbed the prerogative 
of the town in the matter of representation. 
The constitution of the United States gives 
to each state the same prerogative of repre- 
sentation in the Senate. The perogativer 
of the town in the one case is the same 
as the prerogative of the state in the other. 
But the United States provides for con- 
gressional districts of equal population. 
The senatorial districts of this state should 
be arranged on the same basis. I there- 
fore recommend that the initiatory step be 
taken in the passage of a constitutional 
amendment which shall provide for the 
division of the state into senatorial dis- 
tricts of equal population." 

His conclusion is also worthy of quota- 
tion ; 

" Senators and Representatives — by the 
votes of your constituents and by the 
voice of a great people, the destinies of a 
state have been placed in your hands. It 
is high honor, it is deep responsibility. I 
am aware that no words of mine can add 
to the sacredness of the oath which you 
have taken. The memories of the past, 
like voices from afar, are calling you for 
lofty purpose and for honest work. And 



the state, that it may endure, demands 
from every one of you an eye which is 
single to the public good, demands a hand 
which scorns the corrupt reward and is 
strong to guide and to shield, demands a 
soul which, true to itself, is true to the 
rights of all." 

There is no uncertain tone in the above 
about Governor Lounsbury's position 
toward "the man with a barrel" and 
the man with a " pull." He evidently 
will protect the rights of the people to the 
full extent of his power. This General 
Assembly has a chance to make a splendid 
record for itself, and we hope it will im- 
prove the opportunity. As we said at the 
beginning, the message is of high ideals. 
May they be fully realized. 


To the citizen who reads the report of 
the insurance commissioner of Connec- 
ticut it is apparently only a statement of 
the condition of the different companies, 
and to a certain extent, a volume of 
advertisements. The publication of this 
report, however, important as it is to the 
public, is a minor part of the duty of the 
insurance commissioner. His principal 
duty is to protect the people of the 

An old saying is that corporations have 
neither body nor soul. It is undoubtedly 
true that the great majority of Connecticut 
corporations are managed with due regard 
to the interests of the stockholders, and 
without prejudice to those who do business 
with them. If this were the invariable 
rule there would be no reason for the state 
of Connecticut to appoint and maintain 
the office of insurance commissioner. The 
present commissioner has, in the conscien- 
tious performance of his duty, found it 
necessary to more than once criticise the 
policy of insurance companies. 

In one case he was obliged to bring a 
suit in the interest of policy holders. Any 
one who knows him knows how unpleasant 
this duty was. The fact that the company 
was obliged to disgorge nearly two million 
dollars was not the present commissioner's 
fault. Had his predecessors done their 
duty as honestly and fearlessly there would 
have been no trouble. 

There are no politics in insurance, but 
it will be a sad day for any political party 
when its opponent can point to the fact, 
if such a fact there be, that a political 
party having full control of the executive 
and legislative departments of the state 
government has supplanted a man whose 
only fault is that he has performed his 
duty without fear or favor. We confess 
to a hearty admiration of such a man, 
regardless of his political faith. We 
cannot have too many of that stamp and 
we should be very sorry to see so important 
an office as that of Insurance Commissioner 
placed upon any other basis than that of 
civil service reform. 


Under this title the Audobon Society 
has sent out notices to the various papers 
in the state, cautioning the people against 
the shooting of our song and insectivorous 
birds protected by law. The warning is 
needful and timely, as during the open 
season for game birds too many are apt 
to take it for granted that nothing that 
wears feathers is exempt. Such is far 
from being the case, for all of our 
smaller birds. — including robins and 
woodpeckers, which some would-be 
sportsmen seem to regard as game birds 
— are protected all the year. 

There is one exception, the English 
sparrow, but attention should be called to 
the fact that all little brown sparrows are 
not English sparrows. The chipping, 



field, swamp, Savannah, white-throated, 
white-crowned and some others have 
much the same appearance to the casual 
observer, and the distinction is too apt to 
be lost sight of, especially by the small 
boy with his air gun. 

A little attention to the teaching of 
ornithology in the schools might help to 
obviate this lack of discrimination. It is 
too important to be ignored or gone over 
lightly, not only from an aesthetic sense, 
but from an economic point of view. 
We remember a friend in the country who 
prided himself upon his fruit and 
vegetables. It was, he said, fairer and 
freer of destructive insects and grubs than 
most farmers' produce, and the reason he 
assigned was his extreme care to protect 
the birds on his farm. 

May the good work of the Audobon 
Society prosper, and we hope more 
attention will be paid in the future to 
having efficient game wardens. 

We believe the state law protects deer 
until 1903. There have been a few seen 
in various parts of the state recently, but 
so few that a protection until 1903 would 
be worse than useless, unless the object is 
to keep them exterminated. We hope 
that the legislature will extend the time 
of protection. 


The Governor in his message in his 
induction into office suggested that 
measures be taken for the preservation of 
all records, which was very gratifying to 
those who are interested in the past 
history of our country. Are we keeping 
pace with our border states in the care 
and preservation of past records, and of 
those that are accumulating year by year? 
It is well known that Massachusetts has 

been much interested tor years and that 
her records are carefully preserved. 
Rhode Island has had her church records 
printed making eleven or twelve large 
volumes. New York state has her town 
records all sent to the county seat, and 
then they have been carefully copied year 
by year for nearly twenty years and sent 
to the state board of health at the capitol 
in Albany, excepting New York city and 
Brooklyn, and can be consulted by any 
one who will take the trouble to go to 
Albany for that purpose. 

Connecticut's earlier town records many 
of them are on the fly leaves, or on mar- 
ginal leaves of land records, which are 
getting loosened and worn, and liable to 
be lost at any time. Could not laws be 
made by which the records of each town 
should be copied and sent yearly to the 
state capitol, and could the past vital 
statistics be carefully copied and deposited 
there also ? 

Both church and town records, from 
time to time are lost by the destructive 
agency of fire, which occasions an 
irreparable loss to investigators in the line 
of ancestry. 

The time, between what is called present 
time, and the early history of our country, 
is always extending and increasing. 
Records are more or less history, there- 
fore, should not Connecticut citizens do 
all they can to preserve that history for 
the coming generations? Is it not well 
for us to be on the advance line with 
other states in this work as well as in 
other work, that the state attends to? 
Cannot the nineteenth century mark a new 
order of things, in that our records are in 
the custody of the state, where they will 
be preserved for future use, in charge of a 
Commissioner of Records. 



"-/I i\_A Dructed 10 
ft I A j Ccniucncut 

■ !k pis 



1S\ : 


LEST some who; may be interested 
have not noticed our prize offer for 
articles, we here repeat the announce- 
ment made in our January number. 

To aid in the cause of local history, 
The Connecticut Magazine has decided 
to offer prizes to undergraduates of the 
high or preparatory schools in Connecticut 
that fit pupils for a college or university, 
as follows : 

First. A cash prize of $10 for the 
best article on Major General Israel Put- 
nam, the article to be not less than 3,000 
or more than 4,000 words. 

A framed picture of Gen. Putnam will 
also be given to the school to which the 
successful competitor belongs. 

Second. A cash prize of $10 will be 
given for the best article on any local his- 
torical subject. Choice of subject, such 
as biography, town history or description 
of local place or occurrence, to be 
optional with competitor. Length to be 
not fewer than 2,000 or more than 4,000 

Illustrations, either photographs or 
drawings, or both, may be furnished in 
either of the above competitions and will 
be taken into consideration in the awards. 

The manuscript must be submitted on 
or before March 1, 1899, signed with a 

fictitious name and accompanied by the 
name and address of the author in a 
separate, sealed envelope, which will not 
be opened until the decision has been 
made. The manuscript must not have 
been published. 

The editor, at his discretion, may with- 
hold the award in any class in case no 
manuscript is thought worthy of the 

The successful competitors will be an- 
nounced in the April number and their 
articles published sometime during the 
year. In case of no award, no article 
will be published. 

The Connecticut Magazine reserves 
the right to print any of the prize manu- 
scripts upon the payment of $2 for each 
one used. 

It has been decided, since the an- 
nouncement in our last number to have the 
second article of the series on "Iron Min- 
ing in Connecticut" appear in the Febru- 
ary number, to run the articles in every 
other number instead of consecutive num- 
bers, as at first planned. The second of 
the series will therefore appear in the 
March number, the third and concluding 
one in May. 




" The Beginnings of New England," by 
John Fiske. Illustrated Edition. 8 vo. 
$4.00 ; half calf, gilt top, or half polished 
morocco, $6.25. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co., Boston. Smith cV McDonough, 

The lectures originally given in various 
places by Professor Fiske upon this subject 
are here brought together and placed 
before the public in a manner that leaves 
nothing to be desired. The reader or 
student of history will here find a treasure- 
house of information, treated in a most 
exhaustive and scholarly manner. Upon 
the ability of the author in writing history 
impartially and philosophically, it is need- 
less for us to comment. His assured 
position in the field of historical research 
renders any praise from us superfluous. 
Suffice it to say that the 300 pages, com- 
prising six chapters, entitled as follows : 
The Roman Idea and the English Idea, 
The Puritan Exodus, The Planting of New 
England, The New England Confederacy, 
King Philip's War, The Tyranny of Andros, 
are all treated in their the various phases 
and brought to a well-balanced complete- 
ness, in a style that is most iascinating 
and instructive. 

Of the illustrations, nearly two hundred 
in number, comprising thirteen photo- 
gravures, more than sixty autographs, and 
over one hundred and twenty portraits, 

houses, churches, and reproductions of 
rare documents, maps and title-pages of 
books, the author in his preface says that 
nothing is admitted for the mere sake of 
embellishment, but only those that possess 
real historical value. Some portraits are 
here published for the first time — chief 
among them that of the regicide, William 
Goffe. The Notes on the Illustrations, 
are copious and interesting, making six- 
teen pages alone. The book is thoroughly 
indexed and withal is gotten up in most 
handsome and attractive stvle. 



In the "Brothers of the Book/' whose 
plate is reprinted above, we find another 
of those delightful attempts toward the 
centralization of a few book lovers and 
literary-minded folk, for purposes of 
mutual stimulation and sympathy ; — this 
time at Gouverneur, New York, by Lau- 
rence C. Wood worth. 

The Association reprinted, last year, 
Kipling's "Vampire," the " Confessio 



Amantis" of Richard Le Gallienne, and 
Walter Pater's essay, " The Conclusion," 
these in exceptionally dainty pamphlet 
form. The latest output from the Adiron- 
dack press in the name of the esoteric 
Brotherhood, is a slender volume of verses 
by Claude Fayette Bragdon, entitled "The 
Golden Person In The Heart." 

The book derives its name from its 
initial poem being a metrical presentation, 
at some length, of certain of the teachings 
of Brahmanism, as set forth in the Upan- 
ishads and other sacred books of the East. 
The very limited edition of three hundred 
and fifty copies, is already nearly exhaus- 
ted, which fact must prove to Mr. Wood- 
worth, the satisfaction with which his 
modest venture has been received. 

AVe learn that the society has now in 
preparation a graceful brochure to be 

circulated upon St. Valentine's Day. 


Hartford in History. A Series of 
Papers by Resident Authors ; Edited by 
Willis I. Twitchell, Principal of the Arsenal 
School, Hartford Conn. 258 pp. and 
index. Cloth, Price $1.00. 

This book, which is just published, is 
primarily intended as a reading book for 
the school room, the editor explains, that 
the child may " make use of those great 
historical facts which may be made con- 
crete by familiar scenes and objects, to in- 
spire the child with higher ideals of hon- 
esty and business integrity, and to lead 
him into the knowledge of his own rela- 
tionship to the industrial, social and civil 
institutions of his city and country." Al- 
though the book is thus put out for the 
children of to-day who are " reading to 
learn " as well as learning to read, we find 
upon examination that it has equal inter- 
est and instruction for the adult reader. 
The different chapters treat of Hartford 
from the earliest times to the present. 
Mr. Twitchell has shown a wise discrim- 

ination in his choice of subjects and has 
been fortunate in securing the best of 
talent to treat them. Each author is 
authority on the subject assigned. Hart- 
ford people should be proud of such a 
book and accord it the liberal support 
which it well deserves. 

"Katherine Gaylord Heroine," the 
prize biographical story of the National 
Society of Daughters of the American 
Revolution, dedicated to Katherine Gay- 
lord Chapter, Bristol, Conn., and written 
by Florence E. D. Muzzy of Bristol, 
has been published by the Press 
Publishing Company. Smith 6° McDon- 
ough, Hartford. 

"The Portland Burying Ground 
Association, and its Cemetery," is the 
title of a book compiled from the records, 
maps and papers of the Portland Burying 
Ground Association, by the Secretary, 
Ferdinand Gildersleeve. 

It contains, besides the Articles of 
Association, By-Laws and Regulations 
and the History of the Cemetery,- — the 
names of all of those buried within its 
grounds, with their age and date of death. 
This association has thus set an example 
worthy of emulation of all such 
associations in the state. 

" Roger's Travels " by Rev. E. P. Ham- 
mond, originally published in The Re- 
ligious Herald, has been issued in paper 
covers at 20c. a copy or 10 copies for 
$1.50. It has been entered at the post 
office as second class matter and will be 
mailed for 2 c. extra. Copies may be 
ordered of The Religious Herald or from 
Mr. Hammond, 25 Atwood street, Hart- 


ID you ever try making tea with half the quantity and letting 
it stand till the color was extracted? Possibly it looked 
well but there was no virtue in it, the cup that should have 
cheered was a mockery, a flat insipid concoction, neither 
genuine tea or genuine water. That is just how it is with 
many of the Flavoring Extracts now on the market. 
Vanilla Extract for example, doubtless in some cases the best beans are 
purchased for its manufacture, but a modicum only of the proper quantity 
is used, and a vapid, flavorless article is the result. That delicacy of flavor, 
which is the perfection of cookery, is lacking, the cooks efforts are wasted, 
and the dish without zest or relish. 


(One-half original size.) 

The best vanilla beans are grown in Mexico. Those yielding the most 
potent and perfect flavor, being about nine inches long. Owing to short crops 
during the past few years, these best vanilla beans are very costly, which has 
led some manufacturers to use inferior beans that are not so expensive, 
while other makers have resorted to the use of chemicals, which are injuri- 
ous to the stomach. 

Every year ten thousand dollars worth Gf the genuine Mexican vanilla 
beans are used in our laboratory for making Williams' Extract cf Vanilla. 

The accuracy with which all Extracts bearing the name of Williams 
are prepared ensures full strength and finest quality, moreover they are 
cheaper to use than the cheapest grades, for only half the quantity is needed 
to obtain a perfect flavor. 

Ask your Grocer for Williams Flavoring Extracts. Manufactured by 


Hartford, Conn. 




Insurance against Loss or Damage to Property and Loss of Life 
and Injury to Persons caused by 

Steam Boiler Explosions. 

J. M. ALLEN, President, T- B. PIERCE, Secretary and Treasurer. 

WM. B. FRANKLIN, Vice-President L. B. BRMNARD, Assistant Treasurer. 

F. B. ALLEN, Second Vice-President. L. F. MIDDLEBROOK, Assistant Secretary. 



Insurance Company IN THE WORLD. <* j* 

FIELD & COWLES, New England Managers, 

85 Water Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

720 Main Street, 

W. L. WAKEFIELD, General Agent. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


^J-J> 89th Semi-Annoal Financial Statement J>J>J> 


Phoenix Insurants Co+ t ?!J^^™*z^™±> 

January 1st, Assets available for Fire Losses, $5,511,407.71 


Cash on Hand, in Bank, and with Agents, - $724,203 08 

State Stocks and Honds. -..._. 30.250 00 

Hartford Bank Stocks. ------- 545.340 00 

Miscellaneous Bank Stocks. --..-. 391 728 00 

Corporation and Railroad Stocks and Bonds. - - - 2,8»8,710 0i> 

County. City, and Water Bonds. - 319,045 00 

Eeal Estate. -----... 511.307 14 

Loans on Collateral. ----... 20,2nn 00 

Real Estate Loans. --_:.. 124.277 6'1 
Accumulated Interest and Eents. - 



Total Losses Paid Cash Capital. ------- 

,,• j Reserve for Outstanding Losses. - - - . - 

5lLKe Reserve for Re-Insurance, - 

Organization of |! NET surplus. 

Company. TOTAL ASSETS. - - - 

$43,110,500.22 Surplus to Policy-holders, $31183,757.88 

D. W. C. SKILTON. President. J. H. ZUITCHELL. Vice-President. 

EDW. 3IILLIGAX. Secretary. JOHN B. KXOX. Ass't Secretarv. 

Cash Capital, 


36.346 39 


,5 1 1,407 71 

$2,000,ono no 

318.703 92 
2.008.945 91 
1,183,757 88 


,511,407 71 

H. M. Magill, Gen. Agt. Western Dept., Cincinnati, O. Herbert Poller. Mgr. Pacific Dept., San Francisco. Cal. 

Theo. F. Spear. Asst. Gen. Agt. West'n Dept.. Cincinnati. O. Dixwell Hewitt. Asst.Mgr. Pacific Drpt.. San Francisco, Cal. 
Geo. M. Lovejoy, " " " " " " J. YT. Tatley. 31gr. Canadian Dept., Montreal, Canada. 

1849 f 899 


pringfield jj» - 

Insurance Company 

The Largest Fire Insurance Company 

Chartered bv the State of Massachusetts. 

Cash Capital, Surplus to Policyholders, 

$1,500,000.00 $3,096,569.40 

A. W. DAMON, President. SANFOED J. HALL, Secretary. 

CHAS. E. GALACAR, Vice-Pres't. W. J. MACKAY, Ass't Secy. 

H. M. GATES, Treasurer. 

Agencies in all prominent localities throughout the United States. 

W. E. BAKER & SON, Agents, Hartford, Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when vou write to advertisers. 


Since this college was founded it has edu- 
cated and placed in good positions 7,746 
young men and women. Many times too 
has it secured the further promotion and 
advancement of its graduates in business. 




Around the Fire=place we find comfort. 

Get our prices before buying. 

The Hartford Mantel & Tile Co. 

L. M. GLOVER, Manager. 

Manufacturers and Manufacturers' Agents. 


440 Asylum St., HARTFORD, CONN. 

Telephone Connection. 

Mosaics, Interior Marble and Slate; Gas. Combination and 

Electric Light Fixtures; Fireplace Furniture of all Descriptions 


The Phoenix Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, 


Of Hartford, 


Issues an Endowment Policy to 
Either Men or Women t & J* 

which (besides giving five other options ) GUAR- 
ANTEES when the insured is fifty years old TO 
PAY 11,500 IN CASH FOR EVERY $1,000 OF 
INSURANCE in force. 

Sample policies, rates, and other information will 
be given on application to the Home Office. 

Jonathan B. Bunce, President. 

John M. Holcombe, Vice-President. 

Charles H. Lawrence, Secretary. 

... .MM! 



Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 

Vol. V. 

March, 1899. 

No. 3. 



a Year. 


IO cts. a Codv. 


A Complete Religious Reference Library at the Lowest Price Ever Known. 

We have sold 15,000 of these great Bible-study books within four months to happy, grateful and fully satisfied 







first payment, 
month for 

and $1.00 per 

six months. 

One-Quarter of Former 



a, M a & 

(b <t> i-t w 
(t ^ no p 

1524 pages 
0^X6^X3 mches 

756 pages 
9^X7^X1^ inches 

1380 pages 
11X8X3 inches 

1024 pases 
QMX6J4X214 inches 

Q}4X6^X2^ inches 



Former Prices: 

J.. F . and B. Commentary $7.50 1 

Edersheim's Life of Christ (2 vols.) 6.00 ! 

ISmith's Bible Dictionary 4.50 / 

Life and Epistles of at. I 'aul 4.50 

Cruden's Concordence 1.50 1 

Total $247~0 J 

Now only $6.00 CASH, 

or $7.00 on the monthly 
payment plan. 

Edersheim's Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 

The Authorized American Edition. 
2 volumes, regular price, $6.00 Royal 8vo. By Alfred Edersheini, M. A. Oxon, D D., 

1,524 pages, handsomely bound in silk cloth. Ph. D., Lecturer Oxford University. 

The Sunday-School Times recommends it: "It is positively refreshing to read a life of the Saviour which is critical in the 
best and truest sense of the word, and is biblical at the same time." 

Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's Bible Commentary. 

A complete commentary— critical, explanatory, and practical — on the Old and New Testaments. 
By Robert Jamieson, D. D., St. Paul's, Glasgow; Rev. A. B. Fausset, A. M , St. Cuthbe. t's, York ; 
and David Brown, D. 1>., Professor of Theology, Aberdeen. 

One Large Super-Koyal Octavo Volume of Nearly Fourteen Hundred Pages. Strongly Bound in Cloth. 

Rev. J. H. Vincent, Bishop M. E. Church: "This immense book deserves a place on the table 
It is the cream of the commentaries carefully collected by three eminent scholars." 

every Bible student. 

Cruden's Concordence. 

By A'exander Cruden, M. A. Complete in two parts. 

Contains 756 large, octavo pages, handsomely and strongly bound in cloth. Christians of all denominations know 
that Scripture is the best interpreter of Scripture, and, nest to the sacred writings, no volume better deserves a place in the 
library of the Christian than Cruden's Concordence to the Holy Scriptures. 

Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. 

Edited by William Smith, LL. 1) , Classical Examiner of University of London. 

Contains 1,024 large pages, printed on excellent paper, finely illustrated and handsomely and strongly bound in cloth. 
Contains every name in the Bible and Apocrypha of which anything can be said. 

The Life and Epistles of Saint Paul. 

By the Rev. W. J. Conybeare, M. A., of Cambridge; and J. S. Howson, 1>. I)., of Liverpool. 

Contains 1,014 large, octavo pages, many fine illustrations, maps, charts, etc., is printed <»n the same quality of paper, 
and is the s*me in size, as smith's Dictionary of the Bible, and bound in uniform style. 

1. Send $6. 00, and we will forward the six books at once, securely boxed, and 
guarantee safe delivery, you paying freight or express charges. 

2. Send SI. 00 and promise, in your letter, to pay $1.00 a month for six months, 
making $7 00 as complete payment, and we will forward the six books at once, 
secuiely boxed, you paying freight or express charges. 

We will take back any 1 all books that are not satisfactory in ten days after examination, and will return money, 
deducting only the return freight or express charges. This marvelous offer is limited to 1,000 sets, and money wili be 
returned if the books are exhausted and we cannot fill your order. 
83^ As to our reliability, we refer to The Connecticut Magazine, or to any commercial agency. 

How to get the six 

books all sent at once. 

Choice of two plans. 





It will pay you to look over our new patterns, they are 
the handsomest papers in the market and sold at one-half 
the regular retail price. New Floral. Damask and Stripe 
effects. 5 cents to 12^ cents per roll. Elegant Tapestries, 
Silks. Burlaps. Beautiful New Greens,. Reds, Blues, &c, 
12^4 cents and up to 50 cents per roll. 

AN AGENT "WANTED in every town to sell our Wall Papers on 
Commission. A profitable business requiring no capital or 
experience. Write for particulars. 

844 Chapel Street, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Around the Fire=place we find comfort. 


Get oar prices before buying. 

The Hartford Mantel & Tile Co. 

L. M. GLOVER. Manager. 

Manufacturers and Manufacturers" Agents. 


440 Asylum St.. HARTFORD. COUN. 

Telephone Connection. 

tfosaics. Interior Marble and Slate: Gas. Combination and 

;iectric Liirht Fixtures: Fireplace Furniture of all Description 


Bristol. Coins., Nov. 12, 1896. 
Mr. E. C. Linn. Secy and Treas.. 

The Connecticut Building and Loan Association, 

Hartford. Conn. 
Dear Sir: I am just in receipt of the check of the 
Association for $1,091.00. in payment of the maturity value 
of ten shares (insured class;" held by my late husband, 
which also ii, elude? the reserve accumulations of the shares. 
I wi-h to thant you for y< ur promptness in the settle- 
ment of this claim. " Yours truly. 

Clara J. Clayton. 

$10 a month for 120 months produces $2,000. which 
will be paid in cash upon maturity of shares, or at prior 
death the proceeds of the life insurance will be paid to 
heirs together with cash withdrawal value of shares. 

Assets. Ovep. - - - - $850,000,00. 

Guarantee Fund, (paid in Cash), luo,000.00. 




Fine Resident REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS. Choice^ g* 
Property & J- =^======== Building Sites 

Read " Griffith's Samples " in the daily papers. 


<£ Real Estate Broker. «£ 

Courant Building, 66 State St. HARTFORD, CONN. 

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Connecticut Magazine 


Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History, 
Liter at ure, Science, Art and Industries. 

MARCH, 1899. 

vol. v. CONTENTS. No. 3. 

"They Walk Awhile in Darkness on the Earth." (Frontispiece.) 

Drawing by H. Phelps Arms, after a photograph. 

Early Milford. Illustrated. M. Louise Greene, 135 

An Historic Bible. Illustrated. Josephine R. Baker, 47 

Constitutional History of Connecticut. Roger Welles, 159 

Fifteen Love. Story. III. Illustrated. Mrs. William Edgar Simonds, 163 

Work for the Blind in Connecticut. Illustrated. Rev. George M. Stone, 171 

Blindness. Poem. Elizabeth Alden Curtis, 182 

Susan Benedict Fairfield Hill. A Biographical Sketch. A. N. B. and L. D. B., 183 

Vulnerable. Poem. Francis S. Saltus, 185 

List of Burials, Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. 

Annotated by Mary K. Talcott, 186 

s Departments. — Genealogical Department. 188 

From the Societies. 193 

Current Events. 194 

Book Notes. 195 

Editorial Notes. 197 

Publishers' Notes. 200 

George C. Atwell, Editor. 
H. Phelps Arms, ""| 

3, I 

Edward B. Eaton, Business Manager. 

Elizabeth Alden Curtis, | Elliott J. Perkins, Advertising Manager. 

Milo L. Norton, \ Associate Editors. 

W. H. C. Ptnchon, I Henry S. House, Subscriptions. 

William A. E. Thomas, , 

All communications should be addressed to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, Conn. Remittances 
should be by check, express order, P. O. money order or registered letter. Money by mail at sender's risk. We 
promptly acknowledge by postal card all subscriptions received by mail. When change of address is desired give 
both old and new address. Do not subscribe of a person unknown to you. Our authorized agents have full 

$1.00 a Year. THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE. JO Cents a Copy. 

Published at 66 State St., Hartford, Conn, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 

Copyright, 1899, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. (A 11 rights reserved.) 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn, as mail matter of the second-class. 



The Standard of Chainless Bicycle Construction. Always ready to ride. Requires 
no care from the rider aside from oiling and ordinary cleaning of the outside Parts. 

COLUMBIA, Models 57 and 58, $50 

Highest Development of the Chain Type, embodying every possible excellence. 


The new Hartfords show many changes that are of distinct advantage. 

VEDETTES, . . S25 and S26 

You can't find anything to equal the Vedettes at the same price. 

JUVENILE WHEELS in all sizes, from $20 to $25. 

Ask any Columbia dealer for Catalog, D /> D KT £&£B ET J* €^€\ HARTFORD, 

or write us direct, enclosing 2c stamp. Jr KJ M WL IwI IH VI ■ ^J\J - CONN. 

J^k <3w/m?#fMYMwt/ TheodorE Gelbart. 

m ffiiiiig SnfiilalumswCailmg (ifarte . \ \ )'B ///////■ ///rsA '////////-/r/^y/// 
ROOM N?8. 


Everyone Should Know* 

THE Oculist's best endeavors may come to 
naught by careless methods of frame or 
lens fitting employed by opticians. We 
;ake especial pains in filling oculists' prescrip- 
tions. All our mechanical and optical knowl- 
edge goes to meet the needs of the individual 
md the requirements of the oculist. Eyes 
Requiring the 1 after' s care demand the best 
1 thought and ingenuity of the optician. 

(HARVEY & LEWIS, Opticians, 

856 Main Street. 
•^ When in doubt, Come to us." 

A Beautiful Complexion, with a soft, velvety 
skin is a sure result of using 


Thousands of refined ladies praise it. We want 
you to try it, aud us a Special Inducement we 
will mail you a small bottle and descriptive cir- 
cular free of all expense, if we receive your 
address before April 1st, 1899. Address, 

P. O. Box 25, 
Hartford, Ct. 

The H. R. Hale Co. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


A Few Facts 


THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE (formerly the Connect- 
icut Quarterly) is commencing its FIFTH YEAR. 



which proves that its circulation is a SUBSTANTIAL 

THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE circulates very liberally 
in the country districts as well as in the cities. 

THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE covers a larger territory 
than any other publication in SOUTHERN NEW 

THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE has won a reputation 

THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE will give the Advertiser 
a generous and PROFITABLE PUBLICITY for his 
goods throughout Southern New England. 

Subscription Price, $1.00 a year. JO Cents a Copy. 

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"Virtue alone outbuilds the Pyramids; 
Her monuments shall last when Egypt's fall." 

A college for the " Industrial Classes" of each State in the Union was a wise concep- 
tion ; and, when time shall have perfectly developed the idea, and the tillers of the soil, 
and the toilers at the bench and forge shall find through experimental knowledge that 
intelligence and skill are the winners in the race for existence, existence that is worth living, 
the author of the bills giving birth to State Colleges will stand, if not at the head of the list, 
among the first of the benefactors of his race. 

"Rome was not built in a day," neither do colleges develop into universities in a night. 
Like trees they require time for growth, for rooting themselves deeper in the hearts of their 
patrons. The industrial college for the common people is to solve the question of faulty 
legislation, of labor and capital, of pauperism and crime. 

The Connecticut State College on Storrs Hill, in the town of Mansfield, is one of 
forty-five such colleges, whose mission it is to mitigate the toil of millions, and to increase 
the earning capacity of the bread winners of the nation. 

The time has come for the dwellers in the rural districts and manufacturing villages of 
the state to look well to their public schools, to demand that teachers be employed, who will 
give the pupils right instruction in elementary lines with a view to "finishing off" at the 
State College. 

Learning, rightly acquired, need not produce an " educated do-nothing." 

The Winter term of the State College will close the 24th of March. The Spring term 
will open the 3d of April. 

Commencement will occur this year the 14th of June, when eighteen young men and 
women will enter the list of workers. 

Examinations for entrance to the Freshman class in the Fall will be held in Danbury, 
Norwich, New Haven, Hartford, Winsted and other places, if required, of which due notice 
will be given. 

Catalogues will be mailed to all desiring information in regard to the College and 
courses of study. 

Address all communications to G. W. Flint, President, Storrs, Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


Steel Beds Always 
Harmonize — and 
Never Wear Out* 

Steel Beds have come to stay. 
Popular fancy turned to them 
from the moment they appeared — 
and now common sense demands 
their permanent retention. The 
different woods cannot be mixed 
when furnishing a bed chamber — 
but the white enameled steel beds 
will harmonize with any of the 
woods. We've just received our 
spring invoice of steel and brass 
beds and we're ready to show the 
best values in Hartford. A very 
handsome steel bed with brass 
tips — and Hartford Woven Wire 
Springs — all for §55. OO — and 
from that price up. If interested 
we'd be pleased to show you. 
Looking incurs no obligation to 
buy in this store. 


GEO. W. FLINT & CO., \ 

Leading Housefurnishers. 

161 Asylum St., HARTFORD, CONN. 



Hartford, Conn,, 

Have Improved Machinery for doing 
BOOK COMPOSITION and other similar work at 
MODERATE PRICES, Blank Work and Job Binding 








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for a 







Hartford Graphophone Co* 

80 Trumbull Street, HARTFORD, CONN, 



A limited number of No's i, 2, 3 
and 4, Vol. 1 ; also No's 3 and 4 
of Vol. 2, and No. 3 and 4 of 
Vol. 4, of 

The Connecticut 

for which we will pay a Reason- 
able Price. 


The Connecticut Magazine, 

Hartford, Conn. 

of Mie^fieftef 



ft graving 6>. 

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• CO/VA/ • 

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■ is &f, 

Cheap Printing! 

/£► par buys a handy little Portable Press for cards, 
%l^ ^ labels, envelopes, etc. * 18 press for circulars or 

^L7 %J a small newspaper. Typesetting easy, printed 
instructions sent. A lad of ten can do good 

printing. A great money saver, or money maker either. 

A great convenience too. Send a stamp for samples and 

catalogue, presses, type, paper, etc , direct to the factory. 





tear &$% 





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We will furnish one merchant in a town with 
these puzzles for distribution at a moderate figure, 
with advertising matter printed thereon, and give 
the firm to which we sell, the exclusive right rn 
the town represented. 

Write for Particulars. 

Charles B. Elmore, J3 Central Row, H'tPd, CU 

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c ■ 

f .C | 



See JPoem, "Blindness. 

The Connecticut Magazine 

Vol. V. 

March. 1899. 

No. 1. 




Illustrated from photographs by E. B. Hyatt, 


''In this place there is but one Church, or in other words but one steeple — but 
there are Grist and Saw Mills, and a handsome Cascade over the Tumbling dams." — 

Washington s Diary, October ij, ij8q. 

Haven Colony, was duly completed. It 
was a grist mill, but soon there was added 
to it a saw-mill. So valued was this 
property, that after a freshet in 1645, tne 
town empowered its owner to go through 
the village and to call upon each man for 
one day's labor in repairing damages, and 
to do this whenever such help was neces- 
sary. The town fixed the miller's rates at 
three quarts out of each bushel of grain. 
For over two centuries and a half the 
water turned the mill-wheels of successive 
generations as each William Fowler in 
turn to the ninth generation of him who 
first chained the stream, measured the 
grist or told the tale. Stage-coach gave 
way to railway while the old mill still held 
its own. Each building became in time 
the "old mhT't until the fifth and last, 
built about rSS4 and closed some ten 

NE hundred and fifty 
years earlier, another 
traveller, a pioneer 
in the wilderness, 
had noticed the pic- 
turesque cascade, 
and his keen eye had 
marked its utility, 
with the result that, a year later, in March, 
1640, the Second General Court of Milford 
agreed with the first William Fowler "'that 
he should build a mill and have her run- 
ning by thelast of September ;" and further 
that if the town thought proper, it should 
take the building or! the miller's hands at a 
valuation of T^iSo. To encourage him, he 
was given thirty acres of land or " Mill 
Lot" in Eastfield,* rate free during his 
life and also the - perpetual use of the 
stream." This mill, the first in New 

*See map. 

tThe small old building next the new mill is a part of the plant, dating from 1845, 
when a great freshet swept away both grist and saw mill. 



years later. With its long, slender hooks 
making immense Roman "V's" upon its 
western end, with its " Ye Fowler's Mills 
Established in ye year 1639," above the 
door, it stands an ancient landmark, (it 
was the oldest business house of its kind 
in the country), by right of long existence 
demanding that the road make a sweep- 
ing curtsy in passing. Looming upon 
the traveller, who is about to cross the 
stream, it is almost an integral part of the 
new Memorial Bridge. In very truth, 
a part of that historic sentiment which 
built the bridge and which speaks from 

hewn blocks of granite, bearing the 
names of the first settlers. There are ten 
blocks on the south and twenty on the 
north coping. At each end of the 
former is a stone four feet wide by five 
and a half high. Two inscriptions, on 
their curved and polished surfaces, recite 
briefly the services of the colony's first 
guides. One is dedicated to Thomas 
Tibbals, who led the people along the 
tortuous Indian trail from New Haven to 
Wepowagee, and is " in consideration of 
his helpfulness at the first coming to 
Milford to show the first comers the 


every stone. This memorial was the 
united effort of town and people. For 
the construction of the bridge proper, 
Milford town voted $3,000. The tower 
and inscriptive ornament are gifts from 
descendants, (whether Milfordites or 
not) , of the settlers whose lives are thus 

The stone bridge is simple in design, 
its broad copings surmounted with rough 

place."* The second is in memory of 
the Reverend Peter Prudden 

' ' First Pastor in Milford 

Obit 1656, 

The Voice of one crying in the 

Wilderness, Prepare Ye 

The way of the Lord, make His Paths 


The text is that of his first sermon 
preached in New Haven Colony, and in 

*From the land records recording his grant of land. Captain Thomas Tibbals in 
1635 had chased the fleeing Pequots into the Fairfield swamps, and at that time became 
acquainted with the surrounding country. 



New Haven, on the afternoon of April 
18, 1638, beneath the branches of a big 
oak tree which stood near the present 
northeast corner of George and College 
streets. Along the southern coping runs 
the inscription " God sifted a whole 
nation that He might send choice grain 
into the wilderness." 

The glory of the bridge, architect- 
urally, is the round tower at the northwest 
end, with roof of Spanish tile, with 
ancient lantern, and buttress trending 
northward, ye old mill-wheel at its foot, 
making for the wayfarer an attractive 
seat.- This old stone is reputed to be the 

bridge there is a second seat formed by 
the stone reading : 



governour of the colony of 


from 1742 to i75o. 
this stone once his doorstep. 

Returning to the tower, we find below 
the lantern two inscriptions by the 
Wepowage Lodge, one commemorating 
that Indian tribe whom the first settlers of 
Milford found so friendly, and the other 
bearing their chieftain, Ansantuwoe's 


one, which the first William Fowler 
hewed roughly from a near-by quarry and 
made to serve him until a better stone 
could be obtained. On the buttress, 
in rising order, are graven the funda- 
mental virtues of society; Law, Order, 
Morality, Liberty, Charity. This stone 
work frames the inscriptive tablet to 
Governor Treat, — of whom more here- 
after, — while at the northeastern end of the 

mark, while over the key-stone of the 
arch -above the door leading into the 
tower, and also the arches of the bridge 
beneath which flows the Wepowaug river, 
ideal Indian heads stand out in high relief. 
On the oaken door, sunk within the por- 
tal of the tower, is an ancient knocker 
from the house upon whose porch, in 
1740, Whitefield preached that memorable 
address which later caused secession from 



the First Society and the 
formation of Plymouth 
Church. Above this door 
are the wrought iron figures 
1639, the date of the set- 
tlement of Milford. 

From the bridge one can 
reconstruct the early time. 
Topographically, one will 
omit the houses close to 
the river on either side. 
That ground was open. 
So too was the lower part 
of Broad street to the 
harbor, and on this vacant 
ground the train band 
manoeuvred six times a 
year.* The river also was 
open to the sound, and 
vessels swung at anchor at 
Fowler's little dock but a 
short distance below the 
mill. Mr. William Fow- 
ler's home lot and mill 
( 41 ) t extended seven 
acres and three rods. 
Next to him, moving 
northward along the river, 
came the Rev. Peter Prud- 
den's house lot (40) t of 
the same dimensions. 
Later, in 1700, this house 
was fortified to resist any 
attack, because of the 
increasing unfriendliness 
of the Indians. At the 
southeast corner of the 
pastor's garden, on a clear day, could be 
dimly seen the low mounds of those whom 
death, as early even as 1744, claimed, 

Scale 3 miles to the inch. 

b. — Dreadful swamp or Great Dreadful Swamp, p.— Eastfield common 
line fence. cL—Westfield common line fence, e.— Great meadow extending 
to the shore. 

First Congregational Church opposite 9. Second Congregational Church 
opposite 38. Town House opposite 15 Episcopal Church opposite 17. 

The best house lots were listed in 1676 at 25s. per acre ; the worst at 20s. 
"Impropriated" (improved) land, counting that improved by tillage, mowing 
or English pasture was divided one-fourth of the whole to list at 20s ; three- 
fourths at 10s ; and all unimproved land at 12d per acre. 

Stephen Stone House, Wharf St., near harbor, 1689. 

when a little son of William East's passed 
away on June 18th, and thus began in the 
little town the long muster roll of 

In 1640, 
Capt. John Astwood, 
L,t. Wm. Fowler 2nd, 
Ensign Alexander Bryan, 
Serg. Wm. East, 




tSee Map for numbers in brackets. 

March, Company comprised e very- 
April, male from 16 60. Each 
May, villager under fine of 5s was 
September, compelled to have on hand, 
October, 1 lb. powder, 2 lbs. shot, and 
November, 2 fathoms of match. 



centuries. For over a hundred years there 
was but one meeting house, and that a few 
rods south of the present First Church. 
It was a queer, box-like structure thirty 
feet square, with a roof like a huge candle 
extinguisher, surmounted by a belfry 
from which the bell-rope hung down into 
the middle aisle. From the guard seats 
within, the watch could look across the 
river, past Sachem's Island just below 
the present Episcopal Church, or from 
the doorway they could sweep the horizon, 
could scan the harbor, the mills, the New 
Haven road (sixteen rods wide), or 
could follow the line of palisades, and 
watch the two bridges, the meeting-house 
bridge and Fowler's, now replaced by this 
memorial to the pluck and character of 
him and his associates. During troubled 
periods, sentries were maintained on each 
of the four sides of the meeting-house, 
and the train-band went heavily armed to 






** 1 






~a» - 




A few rods west of the meeting-house 
stood the country tavern from 1644 until 
about 1828. It was first kept by Henry 
Tomlinson and later it was owned by the 
Bryans, and kept for a long term of years 




by them. It was here that General 
Washington stopped on his New England 
tour of 1789. In his journal are frequent 
complaints of the poverty of the inns 
with which he met. Tradition says that 
at this, then Clark's inn, disappointed in 
his supper of boiled meat and potatoes, 
he called for a bowl of bread and milk, 
which was set before him with a broken 
pewter spoon. Upon remonstrance, his 
host declared the house had no other. 
Thereupon, His Excellency gave the 
servant two shillings with the command 
to go to the minister's and borrow a 
silver spoon. 

By the bridge below the miller, (42), 
was the home of Thomas Lawrence, with 
but one acre of ground ; while diagonally 
across the river to the southwest, the 
smallest allotment of all, (24) only three 
rods, held a little lean-to house with rent 
oak shingles, its small square windows 
divided into many diamonds by leaded 
glass. Here the light burned latest in 
the village. Here lived one of the most 
honored men in the little settlement, 

1 — r 

(Courtesy of Mrs. Nathan Pond.) 


a — Pulpit, b— Deacon's peat, c and d (on women's 
side) Guard seats. Dots — Gun racks, x — Bell rope. 
e— Gallerv ^tairs: gallery added 1697, side galleiies were 
added in 1707 and 1709. 

Jasper Gunn, sealer of weights and 
measures, " equal to the standard used at 
New Haven, which was brought from the 
Bay " — feared by every dishonest mer- 
chant and trader ; Jasper Gunn, teacher, 
more or less dreaded by boys and girls 
in those days of harsh discipline ; Jasper 
Gunn, physician, 
known as far as Hart- 
ford and revered 
among the villagers. 
Among the memorial 
blocks upon the 
bridge is one bearing 
his name and that of 
his faithful consort, 

From the bridge 
in the farther western 
distance, smoke 
from chimneys 
showed the where- 
abouts of the twelve 
families settled on 
either side of West 
End Brook. The 
nearest chimney, 



that of Widow Martha Beard, (54) to 
whom, for her courage in continuing on 
into the wilderness with her three sons 
and three daughters after the death of her 
husband at sea on the passage over, the 
town made a liberal grant of land both at 
the original allotment and later divisions. 
Her eldest son James died unmarried, and 
his was the first estate administered upon 
in Milford. Her son Jeremy died without 
issue. John rose to be captain. Her 

could not squeeze between them, en- 
closing about a mile of country, and 
bounding on the west the home lots of 
the settlers on the further side of West 
End Brook. In 1645-46 the Indians 
came up to this palisade daring the white 
men to come out and taunting them that 
they were " shut up all one as pigs." 
Among the West End villagers, was 
William . Roberts (57) whose grave is 
marked by the oldest legible stone in the 


daughters married well. " Ensign John 
Stream, obit 1685. Martha Beard his 
wife " and "Martha Beard (widow)" is 
the lettering of one of the blocks on the 
south coping. The Beard home lot 
included the land on Broad street from 
" Charles A. Tomlinson's corner to the 
large elm in John G. North's place."* 

From the bridge the eye could follow 
the palisades, so thickly set that a man 

present cemetery. There, too, was 
Deacon George Clark Sr., (65) carpenter,! 
and Farmer George Clark, (43). In 
1700 the house the deacon built was, like 
Mr. Prudden's, a fort of refuge. But be- 
fore that time, the deacon had built him- 
self another house outside the palisades. 
For the courage thus displayed, the town 
made him a grant of forty acres of land 
in Westfield. This house, known as the 

*N. G. Pond. 

TFather of Ensign George Clark 1647-1734. 



Clark or Pond house, was long occupied 
by the late Mr. Nathan G. Pond, historian 
and genealogist, who made of it a very 
mine of colonial treasures. The hipped 
roof of the house was added in recent 

The people from West End Brook came 
across from West Town street to River 
street by a foot path to the meeting 
house, maintained with convenient stiles. 
" The stiles," the records say, " to be 
maintained by bro : Nicholas Camp at 
West End, and by bro : Thomas Baker 
at the meeting-house (for the outside 
stiles ;) and for the inner fences, each man 
shall maintain his stile in the most con- 
venient place ; and the passage over Little 
Dreadful swamp in John Fletcher's (12) 
lot shall be by a long log hewed on the 
upper side. ; ' It is to be remembered 
that at this time there was much common 
land,* where each man's initials on a post 
stood for his share of the four foot ten 
inch fence which he was required to keep 
in repair. If notified of a break he was to 
repair it within sixteen hours under 
penalty of five shillings. The gates to 
these enclosures were kept by individuals 
whom the town paid in grants of land, 
rate free during such keeping. It was 
rather necessary that fences should be in 
good repair if only for the reason that for 
a century, the town kept a flock of from 
1000 to 1500 sheep. These were pastured 
more or less at large, and though they 
were in the care of shepherds hired to 
watch them, sheep, then as now, had a 
way of stampeding. The profits arising 

from the flock went to meet the town's 
expenses. Hogs abounded in such num- 
bers that in 1657 the Milford people 
petitioned the General Court of New 
Haven Jurisdiction to consider some 
method of limiting the number. 

From the bridge, was seen the roof of 
the common-house where now the 
chimneys of Baldwin's straw shop rise. x\t 
the settlement the people had come over 
the hills from New Haven, driving their 
cattle before them, while they sent their 
goods and the materials for their com- 
mon house around by sloop. Within the 
year separate homes were built, but at 
first they must have shared the common- 
house, and, doubtless, beneath its roof 
were held the earliest public meetings. 

At the First General Meeting, Novem- 
ber 20, 1639, tne Y met to organize them- 
selves into a theocratic republic, and it 

"Voted that they would guide them- 
selves in all their doings by the written 
Word of God, till such time as a body of 
laws should be established." 

"That five men should be chosen for 
judges in all civil affairs, to try all causes 
between man and man ; and as a court to 
punish any offenses and misdemeanor." 
(This Court was known as the Particular 

' ' That the persons invested with magis- 
tracy should have power to call a general 
court (or town meeting) whenever they 
might see cause or the public good require." 

' ' Voted that they should hold particular 
courts once in six weeks, wherein should 
be tried such causes as might be brought 

*i. Eastfield, enclosing the gulf neck, was divided among the settlers on Mill 
River and was known as the first division abroad. 

2. Westfield, south of the town between Milford turnpike and the great meadow to 
Milford Point, or Poconoc was divided among those of West End. 

3. Mill Neck, the land between Wharf Street and Bare-Neck Lane was divided 
among settlers from both ends of the town. This, and the apportionment of land toward 
Dreadful Swamp, equalled the second division at home. Always, at each division, land 
was set aside for the minister and elders of the church. At first, each settler was given 
a piece of meadow-land, either in the great East River, or harbor meadows. Each 
settler paid a tax of 4 s. for each acre of house lot and meadow land. 



before them, they to examine witnesses 
upon oath as need should occur." 

"Voted and agreed that according to 
the sum of money which each person paid 
toward the public charge, in such propor- 
tion should he receive or be repaid by 
lands, and that all planters who might 
come after, should pay their share equally 
for some other public use." 

The judges chosen were William 
Fowler, Edmund Tapp, Zachariah Whit- 
man, John Astwood and Richard Miles — 
to hold office to the following October — 
and to pass upon the admission of in- 
habitants and the division of lands. 
These five men with the addition of Rev. 
Peter Prudden, Thomas Buckingham and 
Thomas Welch constituted the seven 
pillars of the original Milford church, or- 
ganized August 22, 1640, at New Haven. 

Of these seven names, all but 
Astwood's occur among the memorial 
blocks. Richard Miles later moved to 
New Haven. His Milford lands became 
the property of his son Samuel, to whom 
Milfordites, with the exception of the 
David and Mary Carrington Miles branch 
(coming from another son of Richard's, 
Capt. John), trace their descent. 

On February 12, 1639, three of these 
men, William Fowler, Edmund Tapp and 
Zachariah Whitman together with Ben- 
jamin Fenn and Alexander Bryan- (names 
also memorialized) — bought of 

Ansantaway (his 

Arracowset (his 
Anshuta (his 

Manamataque (his 
Tatacenacouse (his 





the land lying between the East River 
and the Housatonic, the sea with the 
island south and the two-mile Indian path 
to Pangusset or Derby. The deed was 
taken in trust for the body of fifty-four 
planters, and in consideration of " 6 coats, 
10 blankets, 1 kettle, 12 hatchets, 12 
hoes, 2 dozen knives and a dozen small 
glasses" (mirrors) was solemnly confirmed 
by Ansantaway's passing over to the 
white men a piece of turf wherein he set 
a twig to symbolize his surrendering of 
the soil and all that grew thereon. 
Various purchases extended the town's 
limits far beyond the present boundaries. 
The sale of territory to help piece out the 
surrounding towns reduced its dimensions 
to the present triangle of about six miles. 

The Milford men came in two bodies, 
those of 1639 and those of 1645. Most 
of them were from the English counties 
of Essex, Hereford and York. There 
were fifty-four heads of families or ap- 
proximately two hundred settlers Some 
came from New Haven, others from 
Wethersfield, following Rev. Peter Prud- 
den who had ministered there between 
the formation of his own church at New 
Haven, August 22, 1639, and his ordina- 
tion as pastor of the Milford church, 
April 18, 1640, after which Mr. Prudden 
took up his residence in Milford. 

The second mill built in the town 
(1675), the first fulling-mill, was also 
visible from the bridge. It was near the 
meeting-house, and was built by Major 
Treat, later Governor Treat, Lieutenant 
Fowler, son of William Fowler, and 
Thomas Hayes. It was a fulling and 
saw-mill. Thirty years later, a grist-mill, 
near by, was added, with two sett of 
stone, one for English and the other for 
Indian grain, and " a good boult, so yt 
men, if they wish, may boult ye own 
flour." The saw-mill gave place in 1836 
to the woolen factory of Townsend, Dick- 
inson & Co. In 1689, a second fulling 



mill was built on Beaver River. This in 
turn gave way to a flour mill from about 
1783 to 1828. Cloth was not commonly 
sheared or pressed until after the Revolu- 
tion. A kind of worsted stuff, known as 
everlasting, sheepskin or buckskin were 
used for breeches. 

Commerce early went far afield from 
Fowler's dock. As the river filled up, 
vessels moored farther and farther down 
the stream. The names of Bryan and 
Camp suggest that of their partner, Wil- 

geant William East had another between 
Richard's and the house of Miles Merwin, 
tanner. In 1675, the three men owned 
two brigs for West Indian commerce and 
a sloop for coasting-trade. In Boston, 
Ensign Bryan's notes of hand passed cur- 
rent as freely as do our bank-bills to-day. 
A fourth store-house was built in 1685 by 
Nicholas Camp in the West End. Staves, 
cattle, horses, beef, pork, flour, and corn 
were exported in exchange for rum, mo- 
lasses and European goods. In 17 14, 


Ham East. Ensign Alexander Bryan as 
early as 1640 sent a vessel to Boston 
laden with furs to exchange for goods 
needed by the planters, either for them- 
selves or for trade with the Indians. In 
ten years, trade increased to require a 
warehouse or store 60 x 20 feet. For it 
the town granted him land on the west 
corner of Broad street and Dock or Bryan 
lane, at the foot of which he built, in the 
same year, his own wharf. In 1655 
Richard Bryan built opposite his father's, 
a warehouse of about half the size. Ser- 

Samuel, son of Deacon Clarke, bought 
Richard Bryan's warehouse and land (2r. 
13 ft. x 31^ ft. wide) on the east side of 
the highway for ^16. 

Shipbuilding, in the old yard a few 
rods below the mill (Fowler's) had already 
begun. Bethuel Langstaff had built in 
1690 a brig of 150 tons for Alexander 
Bryan; another in 1695 f° r Boston par- 
ties. The " Sea-Flower " for Richard 
Bryan was launched in 1717. The 
" Isabella," an East Indian, sold in New 
York in 1 8 18, was the last built at Milford. 



During the period of the industry, coast- 
ers and an occasional merchantman, were 
built for shippers of Milford, New York 
and Boston. Most of these were built at 
the town yards though a few were con- 
structed at Wheeler's Farms on the 

Milford commerce did not last quite 
two centuries. It crashed with the big 
failure of Miles, Strong and Miles, in 182 1. 
Among her early traders and merchants 
was John Maltbee, 1670 ; Mungo Nesbitt, 
enrolled a citizen and given the freedom 
of the town in 1696; Edward Allen, ship- 
builder and importer, 1700. There were 
also the two great merchants of French ex- 
traction, Peter Pierett, who built the town 
wharf in 1730; and Louis Lyron, 1640. 
(The stones in the old cemetery record 
their virtues and attest their wealth.) In 
the middle of the last century, trade with 

Holland was carried on by John Gibbs. 
In its closing years, a wharf was built at 
the Gulf by the firm of Charles Pond & 
Co., large shippers. 

But a short way up the street from the 
Memorial Bridge, one comes yet again 
face to face with reminders of the earlier 
time, pleasantly woven with memories of 
the letters Cadmus gave, of other lands and 
other days, commingling with the mighty 
interest of the pressing time. As the 
"Taylor Library" greets the eye one re- 
calls the old English song : 

" Oh, for a book and a shadie nooke 

Eyther in door or out, 
With the green leaves whispering overhead 

Or the street cryes all about, 
Where I maie reade all at my ease 

Both of the newe and old, 
For a jolly goode booke wherein to looke 

Is better to me than golde." 



IT came about through various agencies 
that in the year of our Lord, 1586, a 
copy in black letter of "The Book of 
Common Prayer and Administration of 
the Sacraments," was printed in London 
with a handsome title page and sundry 
embellishments. At about the same time 
John Wolf for the "Assigns of Richard 
Day " printed a book of " Psalms and 

Hymns by 
S ternhold, 
John Hop- 
kin s and 
others." Two 
years there- 
after, in 1588, 
" The Depu- 
ties of Chris- 
topher Barker 
imprinted a 
large black 
letter Bible, 
including the 
and Commentary, Cum gratis and privi- 
legio Regis Maiestatio" 

These three books were then bound 
together in one heavy square volume, the 
Book of Common Prayer leading, as was 
perhaps fitting, the Scriptures and Com- 
mentary following, with Sternhold and 
Hopkins guarding the rear. And after 
more than three hundred years, this bible 
so buttressed, unique in its brave black 
letter and quaint orthography, remained 
intact and as legible as when it left the 
printer's hand. 

PAGE 25. 

From 1588 to 1888 is a far cry. Gene- 
ration after generation came, wrought and 
passed away. At the beginning of this 
long interval, men and women stirred by 
reading the Word of God in their mother 
tongue, and persecuted therefor, fled to 
Holland, and thence across the Atlantic 
to make in New England a home wherein 
to read the word in peace, and worship 
according to the dictates of conscience; 
all unaware that they were planting and 
husbanding the seed of a mighty nation 
yet to be. 

The busy years went on, and this old 
bible, old even then, had been carried 
from England to Delft- haven and across 
the Atlantic more than once, and (if 
gifted with speech) could have told stir- 
ring tales of toilsome days and watchful 
nights and desperate battles fought and 

In 1888 it came into the possession of 
Mr. Charles M. Taintor of Manchester, 
Conn., a young man with a penchant for 
collecting, in a desultory way, odd books, 
and especially old bibles. 

The subtle sympathy existing between 
men of similar tastes brought this young 
man the acquaintance of Mr. S. W. 
Cowles, of Hartford, a middle-aged gen- 
tleman, who also in the spare moments of 
a busy life, pleased himself in building up 
an amateur collection of Indian relics, 
manuscripts, autographs and rare old 
books that came in his way. Mr. Taintor 
frequently dropped into Mr. Cowles' office 
and the two men compared notes, talked 



of their "finds" exchanged duplicates, 
and swapped and traded after the fashion 
of boys of lesser growth. 

At this time— 1888 — Mr. Cowles had, 
among other somewhat rare books, a fine 
copy in two volumes of Peter Parley's 
" Recollections of a Life Time," which 
Mr. Taintor coveted, and for which he 
offered in exchange any one of five 

bibles were produced, and the dicker 
began. One of the five bibles proved to 
be a large square volume bound with a 
Prayer and Psalm Book, whose fly leaves 
and margins were much scribbled upon, 
but otherwise unblemished and entire. 
This bible, Mr. Taintor considered worth 
twelve dollars, and at length they traded : 
Mr. Cowles taking the square bible and 

curious old bibles, then in his possession. 
Mr. Cowles hesitated, for he was fond of 
his Peter Parley. It was a good copy of 
a good book, and he liked nothing better 
than to fill a leisure hour with the bright 
gossip and quaint philosophy of its pages. 
Said he, " I read my Peter Parley more 
than any other book in my collection." 
Mr. Taintor, however, was persistent — the 

Mr. .Taintor the Peter Parley and four 
dollars to boot. 

Mr. Cowles then locked the old bible 
in his book case with many other odd 
volumes, and thought no more about it 
till, some months later, an article appeared 
in The Hartford Daily Times, directing 
attention to a curious old bible owned by 
Mr. Horace Johnson, printed in 1574? or 




Si Unset U 

thereabouts, called a " Breeches Bible " 
from the fact that therein the first tailor- 
made suit is described after this fashion, 
(speaking of Adam and Eve), "They 
sewed fig leaves together and made them- 
selves breeches." 

The Times article reminded Mr. Cowles 
of the old bible bought of Mr. Taintor, 
printed in 1588, and going to his book 
case he found that this 
bible was also a Breeches 
Bible and although not 
quite so old as the 
Breeches Bible owned by 
Mr. Horace Johnson it 
had some marginal notes 
which he had never taken 
the trouble to decipher, 
but thought rather curi- 
ous, so he took it to the 
Tunes office. 

Then came the great 
discovery. Mr. Burr, an 
experienced antiquarian, 
conversant with the early 
history of New England, 
saw at once from the vari- 
ous entries (scribblmgs) 
on fly leaves and mar- 
gins, that this bible was 
what neither Mr. Cowles 
nor Mr. Taintor had sus- 
pected, a Mayflower bi- 
ble, and of great value, 
in fact the greatest "find" 
in the state. 

This fact Mr.Burr com- 
municated to Mr. Cowles 
whose interest was instantly aroused, and 
he went at once to Manchester to see Mr. 
Taintor in order to ascertain when, and 
how, and where this bible came into his 
posssession, only to be assured that he 
came too late, for the young man, never 
in vigorous health, had recently died, and 
the secret of the bible, so far as he knew 
it, had died with him. 

2> Sttw&o! 

N ; Vtsosttw 


* A. t~ "mmtgi. 


rs r$ r chnfi 


Nos. 9 
Pages 37 

Mr. Charles M. Taintor, the father of 
the young man, Charles M. Taintor, knew 
nothing of the history of his son's books, 
and was sure that his son could not have 
been aware of the value of this bible — 
otherwise he would not have offered it 
in exchange for the Peter Parley, nor 
indeed have parted with it for any con- 


1MB! I " ^^' „, 


88* »7JJ- <£: 



B»: a"*^ 

pu bin foot Abtttuta ' 
■'JJ tout t$t-fc*n«r of ar 











. ! *> 












Mr. Cowles remembered that at the 
time of the exchange Mr. Taintor had 
spoken of "some scribblings" on the fly 
leaves and margins, which he seemed to 
regard as blemishes. Evidently he had 
not taken the time or trouble to trace and 
put together the faded ink entries. 

The old bible here takes on a new lease 
of life, for up to the present time, neither 



Mr. Cowles nor any other person has been 
able to trace its ownership in the present 
century, beyond that of Mr. Taintor. 
Nor any clue to its location beyond an 
impression, too thin to be a certainty, 
which Mr. Cowles received from Mr. 
Taintor, that the book had not long been 
in his possession, and that he found it 
" up north — up the river, somewhere near 
Longmeadow, Mass." 

And here at the outset he was con- 
fronted by proof of the former Puritan 
ownership of the book — for the Puritan's 
reverence for the sacred Scripture was 
second only to his reverence for his 
Maker — and though the margins, blank 
spaces and title pages of the Book of 
Common Prayer, the Commentary and 
Sternhold and Hopkin's Psalm Book, 
were written over and under, the lines 

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Nos. 13 

Pages 48 

There could be no doubt of the age or 
genuineness of this old book — the proof 
was on every page — and Mr. Burr for a 
short time set himself to decipher and 
untangle the faded entries, written by 
various hands, lengthwise the margin of 
leaves or wherever on fly leaf or title 
page a vacant space could be found. 

crowded, often running into the printed 
column, accompanied by crude pen pic- 
tures of houses, ships and Indians, there 
were no entries on page or margin of the 

He then wrote an interesting descrip- 
tion of the bible, which was printed in the 
Daily Times, September 12, 1894, quoting 



from margin and fly leaf, announcing his 
belief that the book once belonged, accord- 
ing to the earliest entries, to William 
White, and that it came over in the May- 
flower with William White and his wife 
Susannah, and was bequeathed by the 
latter to Elder William Brewster, whose 
name occurs again and again in connec- 
tion with sundry dates and reflections. 

wall considerably higher than the rear. 
The roof is one steep slant to carry off 
rain or snow. The " Common house " or 
"Meeting house" was a solid square build- 
ding with a four-square roof running to 
an apex, and was perhaps the prototype 
of the first church in Hartford. Repre- 
sentations of the Speedwell, Mayflower, ye 
ship "Lion" or "Lyon" which arrived in 

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Nos. 20 
Pages 56 






These curious entries, bordering the 
pages of Prayer Book, Commentary and 
Psalm Book cover a considerable space of 
time, are written without order, by dif- 
ferent hands, and seem to be in part a 
sort of diary of important occurrences. 

An effort to show the first house shows 
a sort of hut or hunter's cabin, the front 

162 1 are to be recognized only by the 
name attached. 

The fashions of the time are displayed 
by various patterns of head gear, and are 
almost as fearful to contemplate as some 
of the fashions of the present day. 

Among the many interested readers of 
the paper written by Mr. Burr, was Alice 



Howland Goodwin, 
a descendent of 
John Howland, Pil- 
grim, whose atten- 
tion was arrested 
by an allusion in 
this old bible to the 
John Howland 
family record, da- 
ting to earlier days 
in England before 
the Pilgrim Fathers 
thought of crossing 
the Atlantic. By 
the courtesy of Mr. 
Cowles she was al- 
lowed to examine 
this curious 
old volume, 
which is his- 
tory, biog- 
raphy and 
family r e - 
corder, a s 
well as Pray- 
e r Book , 
Commentary, Bible and Psalm 
Book,— and there strangely enough, 
she came upon a record which 
seems to reconcile the different 
statements in regard to the woman 
John Howland married. 

The persistent declaration which 
had been handed down by the 
different branches of the How- 
land family, to their descendant, 
and verified by Belknap, Thatcher, 
Prince and other enthusiasts, — 
that John Howland married the 
daughter of Governor Carver, was 
not questioned until the discovery 
in London of Governor Bradford's 
Journal, filched from the old South 
Church, Boston, by British soldiers 
early in the war of the Revolution. 
This journal, written thirty years 

after the events described, avers that John 
Howland married the daughter of John 
Tilley. Later on he declares that Gover- 
nor Carver left no children. This state- 
ment was incredulously and then reluc- 
tantly received by the descendants of John 
Howland, who could not understand how 
a tradition of such vitality could be 

But here in this old bible, on the margin 
of a page of the Book of Common Prayer, 
alongside the Scripture reading of the 
Burial Service, was found the solution of 
this irreconcilable difficulty ; for there 
clearly written stands this entry : 

'•John Howland married Katharain 
Tilley, granddarter of John Carver, Gov- 

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•- - 

No. 25, Page 85. William Bradford first mar- 
ried to Dorithy May. She was drowned in ye har- 
bour of Cape Cod. Married Mrs. Allice South- 

William Brewster, Emanuel College, England. 




erner of our Colony, apointed Anno 
Domini 1620 of Plymouth, now called New 

Here then in a nut shell is the explana- 
tion of the long winded controversy. 
John Howland did indeed marry a Tilley, 
and she was not the daughter, but the 
grand daughter of John Carver, who, 
though he left no children, did, according 
to this entry, leave a grand 
child, whose name not being 
Carver, easily slipped the mem- 
ory of so busy and preoccupied 
a man as Governor Bradford, 
in describing events that were 
already a generation old. 

It is said that discrepancies 
exist between the events de- 
scribed in this old bible, now 
known as the " White Bible," 
and the same events recorded 
in other documents, and that 
some of the dates given here 
disagree with sundry other 
dates which have been accept- 
ed as authoritative, and are 
therefore unreliable, but there 
is no evidence to support the 
belief that these discrepancies 
are due to other causes than a 
possible lapse of time between 
the occurrence and the record- 
ing of the events. It certainly 
shows that there was no collu- 
sion or comparison with other 
records and they must have 
been written down by persons 
having knowledge of the events personally 
or by then not very old traditions, and 
errors in dates are but the natural 
sequence of a dependence on the memory 
even for a short space of time. 

The following notes treat of the entries 
in detail. 

* editor's notes. 

Most of the entries are believed to 

have been written in the seventeenth 
century but later than the actual occur- 
rences of the events chronicled, by persons 
who depended on memory or tradi- 
tion. Some show evidence of retracing 
but only in one instance is this retracing 
where it renders a date confusing. This 
is in cut No. 17, where "1619" was 
probably first written and " 1620" written 




' 4 €: . 

NO. 26. PAGE 86. 

over it. The appearance of some of those 
hitherto thought to have been retraced 
is undoubtedly due to the slight spreading 
of the ink from the nature of the paper, 
for the camera fails to detect any double 
marks, and we do not believe it possible 
for anyone to have gone over the words a 
second time without the lens showing it. 
Nearly all the entries are of a yellowish 



brown ink, but a few are in black or faded 
black. The dates are according to the 
old style. 

The reproductions of the inscriptions 
given herewith are all made one half size, 
linear measure, of the original entries, and 
are inserted in the same consecutive 
order in which they occur in the bible. 
There has been no retouching of any kind 
done on the negatives or photographs. 

NO. 27. PAGE 87. 

There are a very few entries which we 
have not reproduced in facsimile. These 
we will give in type and assign to their 
proper places. The first writing, on the 
inside of the front cover in a large round 
hand is " Thomas Corser, Bridgnorth, 

Although the book is not paged, — ex- 
cept the Scriptures, which are folioed, 

where there are no entries, — in order to 
make the relative positions of the entries 
and leaves intervening more intelligible, 
we will refer to those preceding Genesis 
as on a certain page, counting from the 
first printed page in the book. 

As previously noted, the Book of 
Common Prayer is bound first, the 
Morning and Evening Prayer, " Letany " 
and CoHects taking up 23 pages and 
" The Communion " beginning 
f H . : on page 24. On page 25, 
« which is devoted to " Publique 

Baptisme," is the drawing of 
the two houses shown in cut 
No. 1. Pages 26, 27 and 28 
have no inscriptions or draw- 
ings and are devoted to the 
services of public and private 
baptism. Page 29 begins the 
catechism and the left-hand 
margin has the inscription re- 
produced in cut No. 2. Pages 
30 and 31 contain the remain- 
w- der of the catechism and the 

rites of confirmation and on 
page 32 "the forme of the 
Solemnization of Matrimonie " 
begins and extends through 
P a g e 33- O n t- ne outer margin 
of page ^t, is recorded the 
marriage of William White and 
Susannah Tilley and the birth 
%i of Peregrine White on board 
J the Ma) flower in Cape Cod 
Harbor. (Cut No. 5.) The 
record of the marriage has 
evidently not been retraced, while the 
words " Peregrine White Born on Board 
ye " evidently have been and were prob- 
ably originally written at the same time 
as the words " Mayflower in Cape Cod 
Harbor," which have not been retraced 
and are quite faint. On the inside mar- 
gins of pages t>3 an d 3 2 the birth* and 
naming of Peregrine White are distinctly 



efl iVnc*relv J<y 

Mtil «1 SCir 

thU ritarfcc f * 


'ivn- ■- 

WVWC tunc 

\\ touching 


page 89. 

recorded as shown in 
cuts 4 and 3. On 
page 34 the entry is, 
"Servant to Mr. John 
Carver returned and 
with our Company." 
(Cut No. 6.) On 
page 35, inner mar- 
gin, "John Howland 
landed yt Boston in 
ye harbor Sept. 21st, 
1627 and joined our 
company y t New 
Plymouth Colony." 
(Cut No. 7.) The outer margin of page 
35 contains a drawing of an Indian and 
the note, "Wee greeted them (or these?) 
when came in on ye shore." (Cut No. 8 ) 
There are no inscriptions on page 36. 
On the inner margin of page 
37 is, "John Howland married 
Katharain Tilley granddarter 
of John Carver Governer 
apointed Anno Domini 1620 
of Plymouth now called New 
Plymouth." (Cut No. 9.) On 
the lower half of the outer 
margin of this page is a draw- 
ing of an Indian with drawn 
bow which we have not re- 
produced. The subject mat- 
ter on this page relates to the 
churching of women and con- 
tinues part way on page ^S 
whereon is the note shown in 
cut No. 10. On page 39 the 
inscription has evidently been 
retraced. It reads "Plymouth 
162 1 Sabbath yt ye new meet- 
ing house on the hill. This 
day We sang Psalms and 
hymns to ye Praise of God." 
(Cut No. ir.) 

On page 40, the beginning 
of the Psalms, there are no 
inscriptions ; on page 41, left- 

Howe to talc profitc in readi 


Dil ipently k«f* fudi order of ratine rix fenp- _3 TU 
0*0 »nd pnya x. nuy fia«l wok ha ailing^ r 


Common wtskha »nd jot* 

NO. 29. PAGK 90. 

hand (inner) margin, is the entry shown 
in cut No. 12. In this entry there is no 



i " ? x;: t "' ? '. > 

5 N '/'. ,w 

k <^i. ../" -*? C-s 

-~~rs= l " 

''«-" J s-»*^;r« 

[ ^.u~ Ki 

1 § ; ^: :^£e£ 

1: . -^ 


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, ^' s>3Q 


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NO. 30. 



retracing except on the words "from 
Mrs. Susanna White," and on these the 
ink is of the same color so we think it 
probable that it was written over imme- 
diately on account of the lack of sufficient 
ink on the quill when first written. There 
are no entries on pages 42, 43, 44, 45, 46 
and 47. 

On page 48 are the entries shown in 
cuts 13 and 14, outer and inner margins 

-v 4 


;: ; ; 


y ^ 


, i- 




; 4 ■ 

I r* 



- J 2A 

ip¥> 4 

no. 31. 

respectively. No. 13 reads : "This book 
is the property of William White and his 
wife Susanna who embarked on board the 
Mayflower from Plymouth, England. — We 
read with great Comfort the promises we 
find in this Book." Also to one side, 
without any apparent connection to the 
other entry, " on board ye ship Lyon," in 

writing and ink identical, we should think, 
with the words " who embarked " which 
are interpolated. Cut No. 14 reads : 
" We took this book with our Company 
on board ye ship Lion 18th July (May?) 
A. D. 1632. Returned yt to William 
Brewster for Mr. William White who came 
with the Plymouth Company." Cut 15, 
on the inside margin of page 49 and 
separated from No. 14 by the joint of the 
book, has the note "And 
........ was made the propertiee 

of William Brewster for 
igtj 1 \ his estate his book, 
1622-3. Brought back to 
New Plymouth in Daunt- 
less Ship." (The word 
ship has been cut away 
in the illustration, only 
the upper part of the " S " 
showing. It was not so 
legible in the original 
entry as in the photo- 
graph and escaped notice 
until too late to preserve 
it.) Over the leaf on 
page 50, are the entries 
shown in No. 16. "Wil- 
liam White his b o o k e 
1608" is in faded black 
ink and quite likely is the 
oldest entry in the bible. 

... - -'-^j Pa g es 5 1, 5 2 > 53. contain 

no inscriptions; 54 and 
^ 55 have those shown in 
Nos. 17, 18 and 19, which 
are easily read. On pages 
56 and 57 are the in- 
scriptions shown in cuts 20, 21, 22 and 
23. In cut 20, the word Plymouth has 
been traced over another word which we 
decipher as " Delfthaven." Pages 58, 59 
and 60 have no entries. The entry on 
page 61 we show in cut No. 24 and there 
are no further inscriptions on the pages 
of the Psalms, which, comprising over 40 




pages, extend through page 81. Succeed- 
ing the Psalms are four pages of " Godly 
Prayers," and on page 85 is the writing 
reproduced in cut No. 25. The page 
following, 86, has writing, scribbling and 
drawings, some of which is doubtless the 
work of children. Page 87, the title page 
of the Scriptures, has a crude drawing of 
a child labelled, " Peregrine." (Cut No. 
27.) On page 89, by the 
side of some advice "To the 
Christian Reader," is the note, 
" The Speedwell was a Small 
Ship and turned backe." (Cut 
No. 28.) On the next page, 
90, are the drawings shown in 
cut No. 29. On page 91 
Genesis begins, and there are 
no marginal notes on the 
pages of the Scriptures. 

The page, originally blank, 
following the end of the 
Apocrypha is covered with 
writing and scribbling as 
shown in cut No. 30, the 
most interesting of which are 
the references to the Pilgrims 
levelling their graves so the 
natives would not know the 
number of their dead, and the 
cradle with " Oceanicus " be- 
neath, referring to Oceanus 
Hopkins, the child born on 
the passage over. Following 
this page is the New Testa- M * 1*1 
ment title page on the margin 
of which is written the names 
of Thomas Randall, Henry Randall, Robert 
Randall, William Randall and Richard 
Randall. Also Peregrine, twice, in a dif- 
ferent hand. 

The back of the New Testament title 
page has some scribbling, the most notice- 
able of which is the name, "Thomas 
Edridge, 1666." (Cut No. 31.) Between 
the Old and New Testaments are six pages 

devoted to sundry matters, and on the 
fifth page of these is another entry of 
William White's marriage, as shown in 
cut No. 32. The New Testament, like 
the Old, has no marginal written notes. 
Following Revelation are two concord- 
ances on the back of the title page of 
which we find inscribed " Fredirick Bur- 
dett son of Robert Burdett Citzen and 

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.rtmff atl!ir'.'-* '■ i.uuu rr.- n : VUmitai x'-.s •->,«<«.* J, 
-••• Sojn — *-"■ • 

,.-. tl:r 




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tuojD fstrtrtt) ipnro j -s S>a <f UaH Ut (o Inioitflane. 
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ntkBtr tract cxinr R,<*,.r.!r;t.r!jufia»(5t, a, r t «rc. 

tusftbarjxaataxts !rt« ta spare. 

*nb (» nwkt tntjatm of 

feat! «s &««r KnotoW»g», mum aiijj tout* 

Aokwt, ' '. r.i.-fh c:*t u-ftu!] rsnprrmuc KM at 

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«*& 3 BWf'Jfcffc JtOSPWWO &*»» P33. Aata. - * 





NO. 32. 

Plaisterrer of London was born March ye 
16th 1742 in the parish of St. Clements 
Danes in the County of Middlesex. Was 
crisend Aprill ye 19th 1742 in ye said 
parish." After the two concordances, 
through which there is no writing but 
the words " Henery Randall " on the last 
page, come Sternhold and Hopkins met- 
rical version of the Psalms, the title page 



■A .-/ V 


no. 33. 

I will give this book to 
Minister in ye Lord, Elder, 
and to his Kstate Susanha 

of which has 
the inscrip- 
tion shown 
in cut No. 
S3, which 
very likely 
was the 
original be- 
quest of the 
bible from 
White to 
Elder Brew- 
ster . On 
the next 
page Hen- 
ry Randall 
is again in 
with the 
date 1 666, and the conjugation of the 
verb " Amo " written on the margin. In 
the metrical version of Psalms, opposite 
Psalm CXXVI, is the note, " This Psalm 
was made after the returne of the people 
from Baybilon and sheweth that the 
meanes of their deliverance was wonder- 
full after the 90 years of captivitie 
forespoken by Jeremy," and on a page 
nearby is the date 1666. All of the 
writing in the book relating to the Ran- 
dalls, and the one entry, "Thomas Ed- 
ridge 1666," seem to be in the same hand. 
After the metrical psalms are a lew 
pages of forms of prayers which end the 

On the fifth page from the last is the 
note shown in cut No. 34 and on the 
third page from the last are the words 
" Robert Burdette was born 25th of march 

On the last page are the figures " 1743 


r - 


From the foregoing it appears that this 

bible was owned by William White in 1608 

in Holland and was brought over by him 
in the Mayflower in 1620. That it was, 
carried back to England and returned 
in 1622-3. That it was not carried back 
on the Mayflower as the entry (cut No, 
23) states that '' Ye Ship Mayflower 
departed from us," after which no ship 
except the Fortune in 162 1 sailed from 
this country to England previous to 1623 
when the entries show that it was for a 
second time brought to this country. 
Two ships came that year, the " Ann " and 
the 'Little James." It must have been 
again taken to England as according to 
the entries it was brought back to this 
country on the ship '-Lyon" in 1632. 
After this there are no entries indicating its 
ownership until 1666, which date occurs in 
connection with the Randalls and Thomas 
Edridge. The next dates 
are in connection with the 
Burdetts and range from 1696 
to 1743, the latter date prob- 
ably representing a time when 
it was in their possession in 
London, England. From that 
time to 1813 there is no re- 
corded date. And from the 
time that Thomas Corser of 
Bridgnorth had it in 1823 its 
record is a blank until 1888. 
It is hoped that some solution 
as to its true history and its 
whereabouts meanwhile, may 
be found. 

It is certainly a unique and 
most interesting book, being 
the only one so far as we 
know, containing anything of 
similar nature. Not the least 
interesting are the pictures so 
suggestive to us of the every- 
day life and surroundings of 
the Pilgrims, possessing as 
they do that always attractive 
human interest. 




THE Massachusetts Commission for 
the government of the three towns 
located on the Connecticut River was not 
to '-extend any longer time than one 
whole year from the date thereof." It 
expired therefore March 3, 1736, O. S. 
The General Court also provided that thev 
might " recall the said presents if they see 
cause," and if there should be " a mutual 
and settled government condescended 
unto, by and with the good liking and 
consent of the said noble personages or 
their agent, the inhabitants, and this 
commonwealth." This shows that the 
Court only undertook the government of 
the new settlements for one year as a 
matter of necessity, and as a preparatory 
step to a " mutual and settled govern- 
ment " to be established. 


This commission was really the first 
organic law or constitution of Connecti- 
cut, and had a most important bearing in 
shaping its subsequent history. It was in 
effect a grant of a territorial government 
to the three towns located in fact outside 
of Massachusetts. It was an enabling 
act, made necessary by the stress of 
circumstances, and acquiesced in by all 
concerned. Chief Justice Shaw in the 
case of Commonwealth v. Roxbury, 9 
Gray's Rep. 493, laid down the rule for 
construing such a grant, as follows : — ■' In 


the construction of a grant, the court will 
take into consideration the circumstances 
attending the transaction, the situation of 
the parties, the state of the country, and 
of the thing granted, at the time, in order 
to ascertain the intent of the parties." 
So judged the intent of the grantors and 
grantees of this commission was evidently 
to extend Massachusetts law into the 
territory of Connecticut for one year. 
This is made more evident by the passage 
by the General Court, at the same session 
when the commission was issued, (March 
3, 1635, O. S.) of an act defining more 
fully than ever before the powers of towns 
under their government, as follows. 

"" Whereas particular tow T ns have many 
things which concern only themselves and 
the ordering of their own affairs and dis- 
posing of businesses in their own town, it 
is therefore ordered. That the freemen 
of every town, or the major part of them, 
shall only have power to dispose of their 
own lands, and woods, with all the privi- 
leges and appurtenances of the said 
towns, to grant lots, and make such 
orders as may concern the well ordering 
of their own towns, not repugnant to the 
laws and orders here established by the 
General Court, as also to lay mulcts and 
penalties for the breach of their orders, 
and to levy and distrain the same, not 
exceeding the sum of twenty shillings ; 
also to choose their own particular officers 
as constables, suiveyors for the highways 



and the like • and because such business 
is like to ensue to the constables of 
several towns, by reason they are to make 
distresses, and gather fines, therefore that 
every town shall have two constables, 
where there is need, that so their office 
may not be a burthen unto them, and 
they may attend more carefully upon the 
discharge of their office, for which they 
shall be Siable to give their accounts to 
this Court when they shall be called 
thereunto." — i Mass. Col. Rec, 172. 

This statute was a veritable bill of 
rights, and made each town a local 
republic or democracy, so far as its 
domestic affairs were concerned, with 
three separate departments of govern- 
ment. The town meeting was the legis- 
lative department, and all the freemen 
were legislators with equal rights. The 
town officers constituted the executive 
department, and every freeman was eligi- 
ble to any office. The magistrates con- 
stituted the judicial department, and as 
the bible was the great statute book, and 
every freeman was taught from his youth 
up to read and reverence it as the 
embodiment of God's law, and to con- 
form his life to its sacred precepts, he 
was well qualified by such training to 
discharge the judicial functions of that 
day, without a great deal of study of 
man-made law. As this statute was 
enacted at the same time that the com- 
mission was issued, the two may fairly 
be presumed to have had some connex- 
ion with each other. The commission 
provided for the colonial government of 
the distant towns, while the statute 
defined their corporate or municipal 
powers. The towns both of the mother 
colony and the daughter colony exer- 
cised all the powers conferred by the 
statute. No similar statute was enacted 
in Connecticut because it was unneces- 
sary. Connecticut was only Massachu- 

setts "expanded " beyond its legal limits. 
The necessity of the case excused the 
revolutionary character of this "expan- 
sion" and its legal defects, and the gov- 
ernment which was inaugurated had the 
consent of the governed (excepting the 
Pequot and some other Indians) and the 
Commonwealth of Connecticut, and the 
three towns therein started on a career of 
civil and religious liberty, which had 
before been unknown in the world's 




Only seven sessions of the General 
Court were held in Connecticut under the 
Commission. At the last session of the 
Court held before the year closed on 
Feb. 21, 1636, O. S., the three towns were 
named Hartford, Windsor and Wethers- 
field, and their geographical boundaries 
were defined as if to send them full 
fledged into the world, prepared for 
independent existence. When the Com- 
mission expired the three towns were in a 
somewhat similar condition to that of the 
American colonies after the declaration of 
independence. Daniel Webster once said 
that — "The revolution of 1776 did not 
subvert government in all its forms. It 
did not subvert the local laws and local 
legislation." — (Cited in North American 
Review, Nov. 1880, p. 386.) 

So while the expiration of the com- 
mission had the effect of severing the 
political tie that bound Connecticut to 
Massachusetts, "it did not subvert the 
local laws and local legislation." These 
continued as before, only the laws of 
Massachusetts were now the laws of Con- 
necticut. The towns retained all their 
corporate powers, and by tacit consent 
the General Court continued to exercise 
its former powers. 



In Penhollow v. Doane's, Adm., rs - 3. 
Dallas, Rep. 54, the Supreme Court of 
the United States, in speaking of the 
powers of Congress during the war of the 
Revolution, denned them as follows. 
lP . 80.) 

" The powers of Congress were revolu- 
tionary in their nature, arising out of 
events, adequate to every national emer- 
gency, and co-extensive with the object 
to be attained. Congress was the general, 
supreme, and controlling council of the 
nation, the center of force, and the sun 
of the political system. To determine 
what their powers were, we must inquire 
what powers they exeicised." 

'• In congress were vested, because by 
congress were exercised with the appro- 
bation of the people, the rights and 
powers of war and peace." 

" Before the articles of confederation 
were ratified or even formed, a league of 
some kind subsisted among the states ; 
and whether that league originated in 
compact, or a sort of tacit consent, re- 
sulting from their situation, the exegencies 
of the times, and the nature of warfare, or 
from all combined, is utterly immaterial" 

This reasoning applies with full force 
to the powers exercised by the General 
Court, and by the several towns, between 
March 3, 1636, O. S., and Jan. 14, 1638, 
O. S., being the interval between the 
expiration of the commission and the 
adoption of the Fundamental Orders. 

Chancellor Kent in his Commentaries. 
Vol. II. p. 2 75, says — "The establishment 
of towns with corporate powers, as local 
republics, was the original policy through- 
oat New England, and it had a durable 
and benign effect upon the institutions, 
and moral and social character of the 

M. De Tocqueville, in his De la 
Democratic en Amerique, torn. I. 64, 96, 
appears to have been very much struck 

with the institution of New England 
towns. He considered them as small 
independent republics, in all matters of 
local concern, and as forming the principle 
of the life of American liberty, existing at 
this day." 

During this two years interval above 
mentioned, Hartford, Windsor and Weth- 
ersfield, were " small independent re- 
publics," and fully exercised their powers 
as such republics, in making war and 
peace through the General Court, in grant- 
ing away the public lands, legislating upon 
their local affairs, electing officers, and 
performing all other acts of sovereignty 
which their uncontrolled will and pleasure 
dictated. They called no man master. 
No king is mentioned in their records. 


The three towns had sent deputies to 
the General Court during their two years 
existence as independent republics. When 
they framed the Fundamental Orders they 
carefully preserved, in the eighth order, 
the power of each town " to send four of 
their freemen as deputies to every General 
Court." The eleventh order provided 
that when a tax levy was to be made, "that 
a committee be chosen to set out and 
appoint what shall be the proportion of 
every town to pay of the said levy, pro- 
vided the committees be made up of an 
equal number out of each town." Thus 
the equality of representation of the towns 
was particularly guarded. 

The charter of 1662 secured a repre- 
sentation to the General Assembly, of 
deputies, "not exceeding two persons from 
each place, town or city." 

In the Constitution of 1818 it was pro- 
vided that — -'The number of represen- 
tatives from each town shall be the same 
as at present practised and allowed. In 
case a new town shall hereafter be incor- 



porated such new town shall be entitled 
to one representative only." Thus the 
equality of representation of several 
towns has been maintained from 1636 to 
the present time. It was held sacred by 
King Charles in the charter of 1662, and 
remained "the same" in the Constitution 
of 181 8. It has worked well in practice, 
has resulted in injury to none, is dear to 
the people of the towns, and will never be 
willingly surrendered by them. 

The argument against such representa- 
tion is an argument against State repre- 
sentation in the United States senate. 
Does any son of Connecticut wish that 
body to represent, not states, but districts 
of equal population ? If not, is the argu- 
ment against town representation based 
upon principle or upon something else? 
Our state senate is the popular body in 
theory, and can easily be made so in prac- 
tice. The fact that it has not been made 
so already is evidence that no great in- 
justice has been felt by anybody. 

The change of the present right of town 
representation, would be fraught with 
danger to the public welfare. The time 
is coming when the population of the 
cities will outnumber that of the country 
towns. If the right of representation 
should be so changed that the city repre- 
sentatives might outnumber the country 
representatives in the legislature, then the 
cities would dominate the state, and if the 

cities should be dominated by the saloon 
and the machine, then the state would also 
be under the dominion of the city saloons 
and bosses. 

That these fears are not altogether 
visionary is proved by the influence ex- 
erted by New York City, Philadelphia, 
and Chicago. The former city almost 
dominated the state at the last election. 
Only the country vote saved the state from 
the rule of the Tammany boss. Rome 
dominated the Roman Empire. Paris 
rules France. 

De Tocqueville, in his "Democracy in 
America," p. 42, gives this warning, " I 
look upon the size of certain American 
cities, and especially upon the nature of 
their population, as a real danger which 
threatens the security of the democratic 
republics of the New World." Wendell 
Phillips once said, — "The time will come 
when our cities will strain our institutions 
as slavery never did." The city is " the 
grave of the physique of our race," is the 
forcible language of another writer. 

Says Rev. Josiah Strong in "The Twen- 
tieth Century City," p. 108, "For years 
we have had in our larger cities, and in 
many of the smaller, not the government 
of the people, by the people, and for the 
people, but the government of the people, 
by the boss, and for the machine." Let 
the state senate represent equal areas of 
population, but do not deprive the towns 
of their time-honored right of representa- 
tion, so sacredly guarded since 1636. 








A sequel to " In Satan's Kingck 



RANK sat 
down upon 
the decayed stump of a tree and buried 
his face in his hands. How could he 
meet Reubena again — or the good man 
his mother had called " an old creature " ? 
He had caught a glimpse of Reubena's 
face, sad and surprised, as she sailed away. 
What mortification and sorrow was his — 
while only one short hour before he had 
tasted bliss fresh from Heaven. Reuben 
meanwhile made rapid haste to get as far 
from the scene as possible — his one 

thought being to flee with the 
sweet girl at his side who could 
not keep back her tears. Tears 
and Reubena were a rare combi- 
nation ; the poor uncle was half 
distracted at the sight ; regretting 
Frank Medbury had ever crossed 
their path, he gave utterance to 
his feelings but Reubena would 
not listen to this. No resentment 
towards her lover would she enter- 
tain, and though her eye lashes 
were still wet upon her return, she 
greeted him with the sweetest of 
smiles as their eyes met. 

" My dear friends," said Frank 
Medbury in a voice husky with 
emotion, — " What reparation can 
I make you?" He tried to make 
an explanation and an excuse for 
his mother but made little progress 
toward alleviating the painful situation. 
Reubena comprehended not at all, never 
having been educated along the lines of 
Mrs. Medbury 's theories. It never oc- 
curred to her that her social position was 
misunderstood or her relationship to this 
old uncle whose name had always been so 
reverenced in her home circle. She was 
most hurt that this woman who had so 
given way to temper and vulgarity was 
mother to the man she loved. She pitied 
Frank from the bottom of her heart and 
sought to comfort him. Taking one of 



his hands in hers she gently stroked it, no 
word passing her lips but "molten golden" 
love dropping from her eyes until Frank 
Medbury could not control the impulse 
to fold her to his breast. Had Reubena's 
mother been near to advise in a trouble 
like this, things might have gone differ- 
ently ; but the dear child, so sweetly 
natural, did not entertain long the idea of 
a mother with a fish-woman's temper 
coming between herself and her lover. 
She nestled close to his heart and the 
cloud of the hateful occurrence rolled 
away, while Reuben stood aside, his heart 
overflowing with pity for his friend, the 
" high school boy " of his earlier life, that 
he had made so unfortunate a marriage. 

Soon after this misadventure Frank 
Medbury prepared to take his departure, 
his horse having entirely recovered. He 
had a long talk with " Uncle Reuben," 
trying to learn the secret of his serene 
contentment and happy life, something 
difficult for Reuben to explain but he told 
the story of his life and the part his niece 
Margaret— Reubena's mother— had played 
in it. Nothing he said led Frank to 
think Reubena's home in California was 
aught but an humble one which only 
served to endear her to him. 

The time came for the leave-taking. 
Tears from the eyes of Reuben and Jane 
Maria stole down their cheeks, so much 
had they become attached to the young 
man whom to know was to love. Their 
presence did not prevent Frank Medbury 
from folding Reubena to his heart. 
Silence reigned, when to the surprise of 
the young pair, Jane Maria broke into 
one of her prayers so full of pathos and 
eloquence and deep feeling that the 
lovers trembled in each others arms, at 
last being unconsciously moved to kneel 
at her feet when Jane Maria, dropping a 
hand upon each dear head, ended her 
prayer with words which seemed to draw 

down from Heaven a benediction en- 
veloping the happy pair like a roseate 
cloud. It is a singular gift that in rare 
instances is possessed by the most unlet- 
tered, the use in prayer of Heaven com- 
pelling diction, stirring hearers' hearts to 
depths of which they were previously 

Jane Maria possessed this gift, and her 
utterances on this occasion sank deep 
into Frank Medbury's soul, giving his 
inner vision such illumination that he saw 
as in one swift glance the dominant lines 
of the struggles and the successes of his 
future life. Still under the spell thus 
thrown about him, he pressed Reubena's 
lips and almost as in a dream drove away, 
Reubena listening in an enchanted silence 
until the last faint hoof-beat on a distant 
bridge had died away. Then throwing 
herself upon her aunt's broad lap she 
twined one arm about her neck and with 
the hand at liberty stroked the wrinkled 
old face, too full of quiet joy for speech. 
Reuben coming in from seeing Medbury 
off, broke the spell by saying that the scene 
made him think of the way " Margaret 
used to set when she was a getting 
better." Whereupon Reubena rose and 
for an hour let out her soul in song at the 
piano, beginning with " There's ne'er a 
lover can love like mine." 

In a short time Reubena received her 
first real love letter. She took it at once 
to her room — now the one but lately 
occupied by Frank Medbury — and sitting 
down underneath the picture of "Reu- 
bena McDonald at the Age of Fifteen " 
drank in its contents. How dear to her 
was this room and now not the less dear 
that she could detect the faint suggestion 
of a delicate perfume that Frank Med- 
bury sometimes used. She closed her 
eyes for a day-dream of her lover, where- 
upon she fell asleep and for a time blissful 
reality was indeed hers. Then a change 



came; she dreamed they were together 
by the sea when a cruel wave swept them 
apart and she awoke with a scream. In 
vain she tried to shake off the depression 
caused by the dream, and later gladly ac- 
cepted an invitation to drive to Satan's 
Kingdom with Uncle Reuben who had 
noticed the shadow on his darling's face. 

As they were passing the spot where 
they had been assailed by Mrs. Medbury 
on that never - to - be - forgotten 
day, the miserable episode re- 
turned to Reubena with renewed 
force. She had not given it 
serious thought before but now a 
horrible presentiment overcame 
her that its results were to come 
between her and her lover. The 
next morning Reubena arose 
with her usual spirits, balmy sleep 
having knit up the few ravelled 
stitches in her little sleeve of 
care. They all missed Frank 
Medbury, and talk about him 
was ever welcome to all. Reu- 
bena spent a part of the morning 
in writing him one of the sweet- 
est of love letters which, grievous 
to state, was found long after- 
ward by Reubena and Frank 
between the outside and lining 
of Uncle Reuben's every -day 
coat where a treacherous memory 
and defective pocket had con- 
signed it on the day it had been 
given him to mail. 

Reubena began to look for another 
letter, eagerly watching for her uncle's 
return whenever he made his daily trips 
to the store for purchases. One day he 
held up an envelope as he approached the 
house which was a signal for Reubena to 
dart forward with fleet steps to meet him, 
happy in the fond anticipation of revelling 
in the loving words she felt sure the letter 

contained. Her disappointment, there- 
fore, was keen and bitter as she saw an 
unfamiliar handwriting upon the envelope 
which was postmarked " Lenox." A 
terrible foreboding seized her as she tore 
open the letter with a shaking hand. Well 
it might have — a more cruel missive was 
never penned. It came from Mrs. 
Medbury, who gave Reubena to under- 
stand that her son was engaged to a young 



lady at Lenox, adding that her son was 
somewhat given to flirting for a pastime, 
particularly with country girls whom he 
usually found ready conquests. Other 
and still more cruel things were there for 
her to read until with a shriek Reubena 
threw up her arms and would have fallen 
to the ground had not uncle Reuben 
caught her and bore her to the house for 
fane Maria to nurse and comfort. 

1 66 


What a change came over their pet. 
She watched anxiously for another letter 
from her lover but days and weeks crept 
wearily by and none came. At last 
Reubena wrote a despairing letter to her 
mother who on the instant started for the 
east and hastened across the continent to 
her darling. So wan and pale, so utterly 
unlike their joyous Reubena she found 
her that Kenneth McDonald was summon- 
ed in like haste by wire and two or three 
days later found all en-route for Europe. 

Frank Medbury left Reuben Wiswall's 
hospitable home a happier and wiser and 
far more serious man than when he first 
entered it. Happy that he loved Reubena 
with a love that was returned, wiser that 
his inner vision had been quickened as to 
enable him to plan for his future with 
clearer light but sad and serious indeed 
at the unhappy occurrence that had caused 
so much sorrow and estranged him from 
his mother. Youth and hope do not 
however readily part company, Frank 
Medbury's case being no exception. 

Happy thoughts soon held dominant 
sway as he journeyed on to Hartford His 
way led by way of Farmington, passing 
through Farmington Street, which was 
then, as it is now, one of the most beautiful 
streets in the state. Frank's first glimpse 
of Hartford was from what is now known 
as Vanderbilt Hill ; here a beautiful and 
impressive panorama greeted him. On 
every hand could be seen rich fields of 
golden grain framed by a back ground of 
the loveliest blue and purple hills. He 
crossed Little River through the little old 
covered wooden bridge that then spanned 
the stream and passed on to Lord's Hill 
and from there was but a short distance to 
his destination. 

Frank Medbury passed a few pleasant 
days in Hartford with his old college 
friend ; he stood under the Charter Oak 
and thrilled with patriotic pride in its his- 

torical associations ; he had other experi- 
ences of that sort in the Atheneum ; and 
he took the keenest interest in the great 
armory which the genius and the mar- 
velous executive ability of Samuel Colt 
had created, then the foremost exhibit of 
advanced invention and fine mechanism 
in the world. 

Frank Medbury remained a day or two 
longer in Hartford than he had planned, 
awaiting the missive he expected Reubena 
would write him at this place, for how 
could he know of the letter struggling with 
all the pent up ardor it contained to free 
itself and fly to him from the lining of old 
uncle Reuben's coat. So he laid the 
blame on the innocent post-office and 
took his departure after declaring that 
same post-office to be the only mis- 
managed thing he had met with in Hart- 
ford and ordering the letter when it came 
to be sent after him. 

A few days more found Frank one of a 
jolly group, full of good comradeship, sit- 
ting around a camp fire in the heart of the 
Maine woods a few miles from Mt. Kineo 
on Moosehead Lake. His arrival had 
been greeted in a wildly hilarious manner 
for Frank Medbury was a universal favor- 
ite. Not much time passed however 
before " What's the matter with Frank?" 
became a conundrum asked many times a 
day, with no solution. They jokingly in- 
quired if he had fallen in love and this 
question was received with such reticence 
as to lead them to half believe this was 
the solution of the mystery. 

A week later a cold drizzling rain set in 
which caught the campers such a distance 
from camp they were thoroughly drenched, 
the result of which was that Frank took to 
his bed with a hard cold and a couple of 
nights later the campers were roused in 
the middle of the night by a wild cry of 
" Fifteen Love " emanating from Frank 
Medbury's cot. The comrades rushed in 



a body to his side where, by the dim light 
he was discovered to be in the delirium 
of "fever wildly gesticulating and inces- 
santly repeating the words "Fifteen Love," 

With the first ray of morning light one 
of the alarmed comrades pulled out for 
the lake where luckily he caught one of 
the little steamers bound for " Kineo." 

f At the Age of Fifteen," " In the Courts There he telegraphed the situation to 


of Heaven," " Vast as Eternity Thy Love," 
an'outbreak which was repeated at short 
intervals the entire night and indeed for 
many a day thereafter, for Frank Medbury 
was suffering from acute brain fever. 

Frank Medbury's mother and an urgent 
summons to a doctor of well-known high 
repute at Bangor, but it was more than 
twenty-four hours before that physician 
could make the necessary home arrange- 



ments and reach the patient in the 

Meanwhile, fortunately, a young M. D., 
a guest at Kineo, offered his services which 
were gladly accepted, with happy results 
for this young doctor, who was the son of 
a widow, a woman of culture, beauty and 
refinement, whose husband died while 
their only child had not yet finished his 
education, leaving her with only means 
enough to about support herself when 
living very simply. The son, however, 
proved himself equal to the occasion and, 
working his own way, finished his course 
at the medical college, as well as a subse- 
quent one at a hospital with great credit. 
The effort, however, so told upon his 
physical strength that he gladly accepted 
an invitation from the proprietor of the 
Kineo House to be his guest for a season, 
acting in the meantime as house physician, 
in which capacity he made many valuable 
friends among the guests. The season 
was soon to close and he was casting 
about with no little anxiety as regarded 
his future when the college boy from camp 
arrived with his story and the young 
doctor immediately offered his services. 
When the physician from Bangor arrived 
at camp and learned what had been done, 
he said that his young confrere had used 
remarkable judgment in his treatment of 
the case and later on, after a better 
acquaintance, took the young doctor as 
an associate in his practice at Bangor 
where he not only won the hearts of the 
people in general but the heart of the old 
doctor's handsome daughter in particular. 

To-day Dr. B. tells his children of 

his trip to Kineo and of his canoe ride 
where he " cast his bread upon the waters" 
with excellent results in the return. 

Mr. and Mrs. Medbury arrived in all 
haste from Lenox, Mr. Medbury having 
just returned from abroad, reaching home 
almost simultaneously with the telegram 

announcing the illness of his son. Mrs. 
Medbury was beside herself with grief and 
anxiety. It was t u e first time she had 
ever been brought face to face with a real 
trial ; fancied ones she had often, this] 
however, dwindled all others into insignifi- 
cance. Her darling child sick unto death 
in the wild woods ! It was trying to the 
heart strings to hear her implore him to 
speak to her — to call her " mother" and 
to forgive her. How could she bear it 
were he to die without a word. The 
thought that she had parted from him in 
anger drove her to the verge of madness. 
With her head clasped between her ha^ds 
she walked the ground for hours at a 
time with unbroken tread, trying in vain 
to solve the mysterious and oft- repeated 
cry of "Vast as Eternity Thy Love" 
which issued from her son's lips on and 
on through the dreadful days and nights. 

As the sun went down one night, 
Frank's failing strength seemed to finally 
ebb, with the prospect to the doctor's eye 
that when the sun next broke over the 
Spencer Mountains the young man would 
have passed on to the higher life. The 
doctor told his fears to the mother as 
gently as possible but to his surprise she 
heard his words with entire calmness — a 
calmness more pitiful to witness than had 
been her wildest grief. The stress and 
pressure of a great grief were freeing her 
nature from some grosser elements which 
had overlaid that within her which was 
finer and purer. Pale as the death whose 
quick coming was expected, she stood at 
the bed of her dying boy and again heard 
from his lips the murmur "Vast as Eternity 
Thy Love." Bending over she gave him 
one long kiss and in anguish inexpressible 
passed into the outer air where all was 
bathed in glorious moonlight. 

The young collegians grouped near by 
were startled by the expression upon her 
face which they interpreted as meaning 



that the death of their comrade had already 
occurred. They hurried to her side, 
found her seemingly destitute of even the 
power to move and gently seated her in a 
camp chair. Occasionally a shiver shook 
her frame as by a severe chill. They 
chafed her cold and clammy hands in 
their own which were firm and warm. 
Death seemed coming to the mother too. 
A little color and warmth stole back into 
the pallid lips which moved as if to speak 
and then dropped from them in tones 
scarcely distinguishable "Vast as Eternity 
Thy Love." 

In another instant 
Mrs. Medbury's face 
underwent a change 
under the gleaming 
moonlight which was 
nothing less than a 
transformation ; i t 
told of motives and 
assurances from some 
invisible source to 
which her soul had 
been a stranger till 
that time. Sliding 
from her chair to the 
ground she fell upon 
her knees, her hands 
still clasped by those 
of her young friends. 
For some seconds 
she knelt thus in silence, her face turned 
heavenward with the moon's silver radi- 
ance falling full upon it. Then the 
solemn stillness was faintly broken by 
"Vast as Eternity Thy Love," issuing 
almost inaudibly from her lips. And then 
began the first prayer to God that she had 
ever put up to Heaven since she had 
made the simple petitions of her child- 

Slowly and haltingly came he]- utter- 
ances at first, under the working of the 
new force which had come into her soul 

her petition soon flowed on with a depth 
and strength such as has its fountain only 
in a purified mother-love. The surround- 
ing trees were glorious with all the rich 
colors of the autumn ; at short intervals 
the soft sibilant whisper of one of the 
feathered night watchers of the woods cut 
the air with its silvery swish ; a gentle 
breeze rustled lightly in the leaves ; the 
waters of the lake lapped the shore in 
soothing cadence ; the group of collegians 
were as motionless as statues; and over 
all the full orbed moon poured its 


It was this picture that held the 
doctor spell-bound as he stepped 
into the outer air to tell the mother the 
glad news that the fever had evidently 
passed its crisis, that the ebbing life had 
apparently stopped its outward flow and 
that Frank Med bury was in that sleep 
which bridges the interval between the 
descent to death and the first feeble steps 
of upward climb to renewed life. The 
change was slight but it had revived the 
anxious doctor's fading hope. With 
caution and reserve he told his hope to 
the mother who ever after, all through life, 
believed that God had saved her bov's 



life in direct answer to this her prayer in 
the Maine woods and no day after ever 
saw its close without renewal of her thanks 
to Him for this special interposition. 

Frank Medbury came back from death's 
door through which he had looked, but 
not to satisfactory conditions. Indeed 
the physician could not account for the 
mental condition following this tedious 
illness as the patient constantly gained in 
physical strength. He recognized his 
family and friends, but a strange hallucina- 
tion possessed him ; at times he addressed 
his conversation to unseen persons, now 
and then breaking into song with "Before 
Jehovah's Awful Throne," rendering the 
hymn in a rich baritone. Occasionally 
he would have his cot moved before one 
of the little windows and burst into chant 
" Oh, Ye mountains and hills — Bless Ye 
the Lord, Praise him and magnify Him 
forever" — or "To tell of thy loving kind- 
ness early in the morning." A theme he 
dwelt upon, with many arguments with 
his unseen audience, was—" What lasting 
honors shall we bear — Almighty Maker to 
Thy name," the burden of his thought 
seeming to be how to so dispose his life 
as to bear honor and glory to the Almighty. 
When not quite as well as usual the theme 

would be intermingled with " Fifteen 
Love," "The age of fifteen," and so on 
and on. Not once was Reubena Mc- 
Donald's name mentioned ; had it been 
Mrs. Medbury would have lost no time in 
communicating with that young lady, but 
in her extreme anxiety the episode wherein 
Reubena figured was lost sight of. 

By this time the weather was unbear- 
ably cold and it was quite impossible to 
keep comfortable in the camp. By 
ingenious methods devised by the college 
boys, Frank Medbury was moved to the 
Kineo House and later to his own home 
in a western city. Here the family 
physician, with whom they had been in 
correspondence all along regarding the 
case, was quite as non-plussed as his 
Maine brethren. Being in need of 
change from overwork the doctor had 
planned for himself a trip to California 
and now he urged the Medbury family to 
accompany him, a proposition which met 
with hearty approval on all sides and in two 
weeks they were all en-route. With this 
excellent opportunity the doctor hoped 
to make a complete and thorough study 
of the case, with very encouraging 

( To be concluded. ) 



HE beginning of 
systematic care 
for the blind in 
our state was 
as humble, as it 
was honorable 
to the best im- 
pulses of the 
human heart. 
No committee 
met to devise relief for the unfortunate. 
No definite plan was formulated in their 
behalf. A single soul was touched by 
a single sorrow and disability, and moved 
to its practical relief. This was the 
little rill now broadening into a river 

whose steady current, it is to be hoped 
may carry blessing to a great number 
of these children of need. In the 
history of the blind in Connecticut the 
story of a little Italian boy deaf to the 
English language handicapped in body, 
besides his blindness will be ever a 
notable one. He made his mute appeal 
to a Hartford lady, who found him in 
one of the purlieus of the lower part of 
the city. What could be done for him? 
Again, the will found a way. He was taken 
to her pleasant home by his kind patron, 
Mrs. Emily Wells Foster, and there little 
by little a new world opened upon his 
darkened spirit. Kindness could open the 






inner eye while the outer was sealed to the 
verdant fields, and the human face divine. 
He woke up to a sense of happiness in 
these new surroundings, joy touched and 
enlarged his boyish heart. The response 
elicited from this neglected child, was in 
the nature of a revelation to his friend, 
while the satisfaction it gave her own 
spirit, became an incentive to new en- 
deavors in the same direction. Were there 
not others who might be lifted out of the 
shadows? Patient inquiry impelled by lov- 

difficulties vanished before resolution re- 
enforced by sympathy, and so from time 
to time the enterprise enlarged in what 
might seem a purely natural way. 

Waifs were drawn toward the tem- 
porary home from all quarters, and an 
interest in the blind was enkindled 
throughout the state. The children thus 
drawn together found a new life in social 
contact, and the softening and elevating 
influence of music added greatly to their 
sources of enjoyment. A little boy from 


(Connecticut Institute for the Blind.) 

ing solicitude soon brought knowledge of 
various cases in different portions of the 
state. In October 1893, a small house 
on Kenyon street was engaged, and a 
shelter thus provided for blind children, 
especially for the children of the poor 
and neglected. Some of the children 
gathered here were very attractive despite 
their infirmity. There were sweet voices 
for speech and song among them. In 
some cases children were with difficulty 
rescued from bad surroundings. But 

Meriden who came in later days was 
unable to stand alone. At seven years of 
age, the muscles from disease had become 
weak and useless. In fact the little 
fellow's life had been chiefly spent in bed. 
His mother, a working woman had no 
skill to care for the development of the 
blind child. The pale, unintelligent 
child was taken in charge immediately by 
Miss Hurford, the tactful matron of the 
children, and in three months he could 
walk about the house and enter heartily 



into kindergarten games. Xo wonder 
when he waked in the night he used to 
sing " Ring, ring happy bells '. " 

After this boy had been taught to walk, 
his father called at the Nursery to see him. 
Appearing to one of the teachers he 
inquired in broken English for "his little 
blind and crippled boy." ;> Oh !" said 
the teacher,"'you have no crippled boy any 
more." When the little fellow appeared 
and was recognized, the father was over- 
come with emotion as he embraced the 

other evidence of his skill and persever- 
ance. In October, 1^94. the growing 
wants of the mov ment required enlarged 
accommodations and the group of chil- 
dren and teachers were moved to more 
eligible quarters in the double three-story 
house at 1207 Asylum Avenue. Mean- 
while friends were secured both among the 
seeing and the blind, who gave encourage- 
ment to the plan of ameliorating the con- 
dition of the blind wherever found in the 
state. A notable figure among; these was 


child who appeared to him at least half 

Musical instruction has been given 
from the start, and has proved a most 
valuable aid in raising hope and inspiring 
mental aspiration in the children. Mr. 
Marshall, himself blind, but a graduate of 
the Perkins Institute of Boston, has been 
the indefatigable and successful teacher 
of these rescued sufferers . Any one who 
has heard the rehearsals of his children's 
orchestra, and marked the proficiency of 
his pupils from year to year, will need no 

F. E. Cleaveland, Esq., a blind attorney in 
the city of Hartford. Few tongues have 
been more eloquent in pleading for the 
rights of the blind than that of this ener- 
getic and well informed lawyer. Thor- 
oughly familiar with the literature of the 
achievements of his class, and himself a 
fine instance of what they may do in a diffi- 
cult field, his carefully prepared addresses 
carry conviction wherever they are heard. 
He pleads for no infantile legislation on 
behalf of the blind. He asks only for a 
fair opportunity for them with simply a 



just recognition of their disability. One 
is startled, who hears for the first time his 
assertions of their capacity even when 
handicapped by loss of sight. Hear his 
well chosen words in the following 
appeal : 

" Your reason is like a king who in his 
palace sits enthroned. Your sense of sight 
is but one of five grand avenues of approach 
along which swift-footed messengers bring 
tidings of what transpires throughout your 
kingdom. You lose this sense of sight and 
you have but closed the palace gates of one 
of these grand avenues. But the messen- 
gers who are thus debarred, are only hin- 
dered, not dismayed. For quickly they 
approach the throne along the other four. 
Before you lost your sight you thought 
that little more could be accomplished for 
the blind than to provide them food, rai- 
ment and shelter, but now, with plenty of 
time to think it over and revise your 
former opinion, shall you feel compelled 
to iesign the office you now hold and live 
in idle dependence on your fortune or 
friends, or perchance, if your fortune and 
friends should be swept away, will you be 
content to take a place in some neglected 
corner of a town poor-house? Or will you 
say in your mind, what blind men have 
accomplished may be again accomplished 
by the blind ? Remembering Mr. Fawcett, 
who was chosen by Gladstone as a Cabinet 
Minister, would you not say if it was possi- 
ble for him to make an eminently successful 
Postmaster-General of a great empire, will 
it not be possible for me to retain the 
office I now hold, and still find a way in 
which I can faithfully discharge my duty 
as a public servant ? 

Would you think it possible for a blind 
man to use the eyes of others as men use 
spectacles, and become one of the most 
celebrated naturalists of this day? Turn 
to your encyclopedia and read the life of 
Huber who is still the leading authority 
on the particular lines he followed out." 

Mr. Cleaveland has stoutly and persist- 
ently claimed from the beginning ; First, 
that blindness itself is not an impassable 
barrier preventing a person with this 
limitation from becoming a self-reliant, 

self-sustaining and useful member of so- 
ciety. Second, that the only reason why 
all blind people who are otherwise men- 
tally and physically sound, do not become 
self-sustaining, is not because they are 
blind, but because the general belief en- 
tertained by all their seeing friends, (in- 
cluding their parents,) has in the case of 
children, robbed them of that training and 
discipline essential to a successful career 
even on the part of those who can see, 
and in the case of the adult blind operat- 
ing to confirm them in the belief that they 
are rendered helpless by the loss of sight. 
These assertions do not however hang in 
the air. Witnesses are not wanting to 
their truthfulness, in measure, at least, 
who have watched for a few years past the 
progress of the children gathered in the 
Asylum Avenue home. Two years have 
sufficed in some instances to inscribe new 
signs of intelligence and happiness over 
these young faces. It is of course true of 
the blind as of the seeing, that differences 
in original capacity and native energy, 
manifest themselves in different degrees 
of progress, under a course of education. 
There is an able physician in Hartford, 
who in a condition of nearly total blind- 
ness meets with efficiency a variety of 
engagements. This is partly due to an 
element of courage and resolution, the ab- 
sence of which in another case of similar 
misfortune would result in folding of the 
hands, and retiring from an active life. 
There is however an influence very radical 
in its character, upon blind pupils as upon 
all others, from the healthful rivalry of 
social training. Beyond this the blind 
from the natural aversion to activity pro- 
duced by their condition are greatly in 
need of regular physical training. With- 
out external help they become very shy of 

The report of the Assistant Secretary of 
the Board of Education for the Blind for 
the year ending September, 1897, says: 


/ D 

" Physical training is of the utmost im- 
portance also ; it strengthens and straight- 
ens forms, and encourages active and free 
movement. Few of our children have ever 
had any free exercise before coming to us, 
and strong bodies will strengthen minds, 
we know. 

here. Gymnastic drills, timed by chime- 
bells, are of great benefit, too. Musical 
dumb-bells enable us to do much work in 
classes which, without the aid "of sound, 
would have to be taught individually. 
Sloyd Knitting is also a factor in both 
mental and manual training." 

Our feet are free to come and go, 

While theirs are chained with doubt 

and fear. 

"The loss of sight hampers them in 

walking. Running is almost an unknown 

power unless urged upon them. Physical 

inactivity can but result in impaired health; 

so, generally speaking, our work is begun 

One of the marvels disclosed to our 
home constituency in connection with this 
work has been the deftness and facility of 
the blind in industrial work. Experts 
who have thoroughly studied the capac- 
ities of the blind in this direction had 
made what seemed to outsiders extrav- 



agant claims in their behalf as industrial 
workers. It became necessary to meet 
doubters with practical demonstrations. 
The report for the year 1896 gives the 
details of an industrial enterprise in behalf 
of the blind. 

" For the use of the industrial depart- 
ment, the Trustees purchased of the School 
Fund a lot of land 108 fret front by 
900 feet in depth, situated on the east 
side of Wethersfield avenue, Hartford, two 
miles south of the City Hall. On this 
has been erected a three-story brick build- 
ing with an eight foot basement, sixty by 
fifty-five feet, a frame work- shop twenty 
by forty feet, occupied as a mattress 
factory, carriage house, barn, and other 
minor improvements. The main building 
on Wethersfield avenue, used by the 
industrial department is occupied as 
follows : The first floor of the north half for 
a store, where general merchandise is 
kept ; this store is in charge of and 
managed by blind people, under the 
inspection of the book-keeper of the 
Institution, whose office is in the store. 
The store serves as a medium through 
which the supplies are purchased for the 
Institution at first cost, and being located 
in the suburbs, is patronized by the 
citizens of the vicinity, and furnishes also 




an opportunity for certain of our pupils to 
acquire knowledge of a business in which 
many blind people have been successful. 
The south half of the first floor is equipped 
for and used as a job printing office ; the 
second floor is occupied as kitchen, dining 

They do creditable work such as to 
justify the claim that a printing office is 
one of the places, where a blind person 
can make himself useful and in some 
cases at least earn a livelihood. Blind 
pupils operate the wire-stitching machines 
and do many other 
things which a few 
years since it wouid 
have been thought im- 
possible for them to do. 
Who can estimate the 
satisfaction to them- 
selves, of these workers 
as they thus become 
aware of capacities la- 
tent until they were 
helped to discover them 
and taught to give them 

room, reception and 
music rooms and the 
third floor as a dormi- 
tory. Some of our 
pupils, matron, teachers 
and other help are 
obliged to find quarters 
outside of the Insti- 

The work of the blind, 
along certain industrial 
lines has passed the ex- 
perimental stage. The 
question no longer is, what can the blind 
do, but what have they done ? There are 
four blind pupils who have been taught to 
feed the smaller printing presses. One 
feeds a cylinder press. 


practical expression ! If the man who 
makes a tree grow where none grew 
before merits gratitude, what shall we 
say of one who releases a soul from its 
incapacity and leads it into a new world 

i 7 8 


of helpful and joyful activity ! Out of 
these new experiences comes self-iespect, 
increased sense of personal worth, and a 
lessening estimate of their disabilities to 
the blind. 

The state of Connecticut became a 
factor in this work in the year 1893. 


The movement had assumed such pro- 
portions, by reason of the number of 
blind children found in various parts of 
the state needing aid, that it seemed 
legitimate to make an appeal to the com- 
monwealth to share in the necessary 

expense involved, and to adopt these 
children as wards deserving its succor. 

In 1893 definite action was taken by 
the legislature in the appointment of an 
Educational board for purposes of 
counsel and authority in furtherance of 
the work. The Governor of the state as 
ex - officio, together 
with the Chief Jus- 
tice were made per- 
manent members of 
the board, to which 
were added two other 
persons, one seeing, 
the other blind. 

"This Board was 
charged by law with 
the duty of inquiring 
into the condition of 
the blind children 
and youth of this 
state, and was em- 
powered to adopt any 
and all measures nec- 
essary to secure for 
them a continuous 
course of instruction 
calculated tojobtain 
the best results in the 
way of enabling them 
to become self-reliant 
and self - sustaining 

The kindergarten 
and nursery depart- 
ment have been very 
fortunate in the char- 
acter of the teachers 
employed. In some 
cases at least, these 
teachers have seemed 
to possess a genius 
for the patience and 
constancy of effort required at their 
hands. It should be understood that in 
most cases the children have to be sought 
out and the parents persuaded to place 
them in the care of the institution. Mrs. 
Foster says in her report for '97 : 



"Up to two years ago, of thirty children 
gathered, but two applications had been 
made by parents. That at least four such 
applications have been made during the 
past year, is a gratifying evidence that the 
work is becoming known and more appre- 
ciated. Another most natural reason why we 
may hope to get the children while younger 
is that parents are more reconciled to allow- 
ing them to attend school within the 
state's border. Again, we are learning of 
the existence of these children even while 

condition of over-excitement, or the other 
extreme, benumbed and dormant. The re- 
sult of our work in many of these cases has 
gladdened our hearts and this part of our 
labor might well be termed "rescue work," 
while in several instances ( although we 
can claim to have helped all we have been 
forced to relinquish hope after hope as to 
satisfactory progress or at least results 
sufficient to warrant us in keeping them at 
the state's expense, and so have given 
them up." 



Connecticut Institute for the Blind.) 

they are infants, and we can keep trace of 
them and look after them in proper time- 
This leads me to refer once more to the un- 
due number of children whom we have 
termed "backward" — a result in almost 
every case of not being taken in time. 
Undeveloped they were, mentally and 
physically, untrained and helpless, muscles 
feeble, vitality low for want of exercise, the 
brain and entire nervous svstem either in a 

Those who have watched the industrial 
feature of work for the blind are more 
than ever earnest in their appeal for its 
perpetuation. Dr. E. Park Lewis, of the 
New York Institute for the Blind, says of 
this work : 

"Assistance, to be effective, must be 
ready in two ways : It is imperative that 
the state should establish and maintain 



industrial training schools for adults as 
well as for children, and the various trades 
should be thoroughly taught. Of the few 

a blind man. Maurice de la Sizeranne, 
appreciating the difficulties that his blind 
co-workers were obliged to meet, estab- 
lished by indefatigable effort an organiza- 
tion well-nigh perfect in its details, one 
chief function of which is to bring the 
educated blind in touch with those by 
whom their services might be required." 

The fourth annual report made in 1897 
gives the following statistics of the num- 
ber of pupils taught. 

"The number of state pupils receiving 
instruction during the year was sixty- 


whom the state has already educated, a 
large number have become successful in 
their work. But, that a much larger pro- 
portion may become so, the assistance 
must not cease at the critical time when 
the blind man starts out to face an un- 
informed and practically unsympathetic 
public, equipped to earn his own living. 
This public, while it would contribute, collectively, 
this support, zvere he in a poor-house or asylum, 
would not, individually, know how to receive him. 
" It is at this point that French philan- 
thropy has been more far-seeing than our 
own, and that chiefly through the eyes of 




seven, being less by five than the number "There is a beautiful story of a company 

receiving instruction at the expense of the of celestial beings, who in disguise. 


state during the previous year. Of these 
sixty-seven, nineteen were in attendance 
at the Perkins Institution for the Blind at 
South Boston, forty-eight at the Connecti- 
cut Institution, twenty-one of whom were 
adults and twenty- seven were children in 
the kindergarten department. In addi- 
tion to the foregoing number of state 
pupils, the institution has been able to 
furnish profitable employment for sixteen 
adult blind people, seven of whom are 
employed as instructors in the several 

From the beginning it has been a part 
of the purpose of those engaged in the 
work, to transfer from the primary depart- 
ment in Hartford, such pupils as have 
reached a proper stage of development, to 
the Perkins Institute at Boston and in this 
way to secure for these pupils the superior 
advantages of the Boston School. 

entered an ancient city upon a mission of 
mercy. Departing hurriedly in some 
way a fair young child was left behind 
and lost. In the morning when men 
came upon the streets they found a sweet 

boy with sunny hair sitting upon the steps 
of the temple. Language had he none. 



He answered questions with streaming 
eyes and frightened face. While men 
wondered, a slave drew near, carrying a 
harp. Then the child signaled for the 
instrument, for this language he could 
speak. He threw his arms about the 
harp as the child about its mother's neck." 
The promoters of the work we have 
imperfectly outlined, have sought to 
furnish the blin-i children of our state, 
not with a liteia! harp but with that 

facility for self-expression which by 
reason of their blindness they do not 
possess. Has not the present measure of 
success more than justified their purpose? 
This noble work which has been so 
practically inaugurated deserves not alone 
the money of the state, but the gifts and 
prayers of all the humane, who are also 
widely thoughtful, and persistently 
practical. Let all its legitimate wants be 
cheerfully and generously supplied ! 



They walk awhile in darkness on the earth ; 

The matchless glory of green fields, bright skies, 
And mountain brooks, veiled from their patient eyes, 

And the sun, mounting in his golden mirth. 

But these blind ones, since dwelling in a dearth 

Of pleasant sights, the sweeter sounds and sighs 
Of Nature's quiring voices yet surprise 

With rarer cunning — granted them at birth. 

Ah, shall not, when the sun of Judgment dips 
Below the earth-line in the ominous west — 
Man's vision blinded by life's fierce unrest- 
Shall not the eyes chastened with long eclipse, 
Be opened on the Lord's apocalypse 

Clear as the poised eagle's on her nest. 


HILL was born in Danbury, Conn., 
November 15, 1836, where she lived until 
her marriage in 1856. Her taste for his- 
torical and genealogical research, her 
literary acquirements, her marked per- 
sonality, and her ardent attachment to 
the home and state of her nativity well 
warrant a sketch of her chequered life in 
this magazine. 

Her educational opportunities were 
limited, but she was a quick and ready 
learner, and a good reader. She inherit- 
ed musical gifts from her father and 
played the church organ when quite 

Her published reminiscenses of her 
youth, in the then old country village, 
reveal a strong love of nature, intense 
love of friends and companions, and a 
love and sympathy for animals which 
would have stocked a whole Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty. At twenty she 
was married to Mr. George B. Fairfield, 
then a young merchant in New York city. 
In a few years they were settled with Mr. 
Fairfield's parents in Hudson, N. Y., the 
quaint old city of his birth. 

Though spent with varying fortunes, 
her life for many years in the hospitable 
Fairfield mansion, opposite the Court 
House green, was a pleasant one. Her 
friendliness and graciousness could not 
but win for her, lite long friends. The 
near Hudson and distant Catskills satis- 
fied her great love of natural scenery. 

Lett with but little means after the 
death of her husband, her only son having 

gone to New Orleans to seek his fortune 
on arriving at the age of manhood, she 
came back to the friends of her earlier 
years in Danbury. 

While there she began writing letters in 
behalf of her son who was one of the 
supposed heirs of the "Townley Law- 
rence" estate in England — said estate 
being one of those immense British inher- 
itances which from time to time dangle 
before the dazzled eyes of would-be heirs 
in this country. Mrs. Fairfield's letters 
were mostly answered by Mr. Alden F. 
Hill, also a claimant in the same estate, 
and at the time acting for its acquirement 
for the multitudinous American "heirs." 

Mr. Hill became after a time so much 
interested in Mrs. Fairfield's correspond- 
ence, that he visited Danbury to make 
her acquaintance. The acquaintance 
ripened into marriage, and the twain 
sailed away to the British Isles to pursue 
together the " Ignis fatuus" of the Town- 
ley Lawrence estate. No tour of pleasure 
and sight-seeing was theirs, but working 
over dusty tomes, and ransacking record 
offices for missing links in ancestral 
chains. Of the shipwreck on the way 
across, and the story of their minute 
search, each has written interestingly, but 
the brevity of this sketch forbids quota- 
tion from her letters, or from the little 
book written by Mr. Hill showing that 
the whole quest was, and will always be 
useless. An honest conclusion not always 
reached by fortune seekers. This English 
trip of 1884 was the beginning of Mrs. 
Hill's interest in ancestral and genealogi- 

1 84 


cal work, and from that time '• search 
work" was her favorite occupation. Mr. 
Hill had been a great traveler — was a 
man of decidedly literary tastes — and 
probably his influence largely determined 
the direction of her pursuits. On their 
return to this country they settled down 
in a cottage on Hampton Beach, New 
Hampshire. There she spent several 
years until, (having already lost when 
abroad her only child) there came in 
quick succession about 1892 the deaths 
of her husband and her two brothers. 

So, sadly bereaved, and no longer 
young, she found herself not only thrown 
on her own resources, but with the duty 
imposed on her, as she imagined, of 
carrying out the plans her husband had 
formed for developing " The Beach " on 
which their little farm was situated. One 
can hardly blame her for the futile at- 
tempt. Her Hampton home, standing 
midway between the famous " Boar's 
Heads," just south of Rye Beach, was 
indeed, "beautiful for situation." It 
stood on a slight elevation that sloped 
gently down to the ocean. A tiny lake, 
white and odorous with pond lilies during 
the summer months glittered on the south 
edge of the cottage grounds. On the 
north, a pine grove of many acres, whis- 
pered across the winding road that led 
through banks of wild roses to Old 
Hampton village. Full in front, spread 
the wide blue expanse of the ocean rolling 
its great waves crested with foam on a 
perfect beach of smooth white sand. 

No wonder that in her sense of loneli- 
ness, fearful of losing so exquisite a home, 
her sorrow found vent in verses that 
photographed the landscape around her, 
and whose composition acted on her tired 
nerves "like dull narcotics, numbing pain." 
Among her fugitive pieces published in 
the Boston Transcript is the following : 

"The dashing waves sweep in across the 

bar ; 
Ivow in the West goes down the evening 

In arching purple heavens serene and far, 

The white moon gleams. 
Soft through the dusky pines the night 

winds moan ; 
Sweet voices of the night, so sad and lone, 
Cannot you comfort me ? I miss my own, 

Who only come in dreams, 
Waves dash and break upon the darkling 

shore ; 
Winds of the forest sing to me once more ! 
O Mother Nature, take me to your breast, 
In sleep so sweet, and deep, in perfect rest 

That so I may 
Find strength to live my life another day." 

Her last long visit to her native home 
was when she was engaged to complete 
the unfinished " History of Danbury " left 
incomplete by the death of Mr. James 
Montgomery Bailey — the " Danbury News 
Man " as he used to be called. To her it 
was indeed "a labor of love." It was not 
only the natural and acquired aptitude for 
the work of historical and especially anti- 
quarian research that made it a pleasant 
task — but to pursue the search in her 
native town after so long an absence- 
and among the friends of her childhood — 
to re-read the records and votes of the old 
settlers — to regather the local traditions 
of the historic town — to decipher the 
names and dates on the moss covered 
grave stones was to her a welcome toil of 
which she never seemed to grow weary. 
Her compilation, re-arrangement, and re- 
search added greatly to the volume and 
value of the History. 

Fortunately she had exactly the faculty 
and training for that part of the work for 
which Mr. Bailey was least qualified and 
which was least congenial to him. Her 
style was easy and flowing — yet with due 
regard to brevity. 



The history itself, embodying the long 
labors of both authors, rounded out by 
Mrs. Hill's careful revision, thoroughly 
illustrated by life - like pictures, has a 
variety and interest not often found in 
the town histories of the state. 

It has deservedly received the highest 
encomiums from historical journals and 
the critics best qualified to pass judg- 
ment upon it. 

In this most cursory sketch of a lifelong 
friend whose rare personality, sunny 
disposition, and bright intelligence we 
feel we have hardly outlined, we have 
omitted to speak of her many contribu- 
tions to the local press wherever 
she resided. Her contributions were 
always welcome. Several of the editors 
for whom she wrote spoke of her 
death as of a personal loss. Her tribute 
to Mr. Bailey in the introduction to their 
mutual work is as tender as it is true and 

She died at Hampton, Sept. 24, 1898, 
of pneumonia after a very short illness 
and was laid to rest on the following 

Tuesday, beside the husband of her 
youth and their only son. 

Perhaps the readers of the Connec- 
ticut Magazine will pardon us for reprint- 
ing with the change of a single pronoun 
the lines she wrote on Robert Louis 
Stevenson (her last work) published in 
the October number of the Connecticut 
Quarterly, 1898. They seem a fitting 
requiem for our friend. 


" Home and at rest; oh, trees that guard 

her sleep, 
Watch well the sacred treasure that you 

And starry sky with all your golden eyes, 
Shine soft upon the summit where she lies 
In slumber sweet — never to wake again 
To all life's weariness and bitter pain. 
We stand beneath the shadow of her tomb; 
She dwells where flowers of thought 

immortal bloom, 
Through spaces wide, her happy spirit 

And finds new wonders all the heavenly 

days." A. N. B. 

L. D. B. 



When unsymmetric chaos in its might 
Ruled the dim, desolate earth and held it bare, 
In gloomy caves there wandered everywhere 
Amorphous monsters, larvae of affright, 
Deep in the vast, impenetrable night, 
They lived and loved, dreading no future care 
Until their souls were fired to strange despair, 
When God to dazzle them created light. 
Groping like them through sin and ennui's gloom, 
I lived in callous stupor strangely dumb ; 
Pleased with a changeless lot as dull time flies. 
Oh pardoning woman in thy summer's bloom, 
Why to illumine my dark soul did'st thou come, 
To haunt me with the splendors of thine eyes ! 



Continued from No. 4, Vol, IV, Connecticut Quarterly. 


Aug. 24 

Sept. 4 






Oct. 16 


Nov. 5 


Dec. 1 



Infant Child Freeman Kilbourn. 
William Wadsworth [b. July 16, 2I 

J 75 2 ] [Son of William and 
Mary (Cook) Wadsworth], 1787. 

aged 34. Jan. 2 

Wife of John Kilbourn, aged 43. 
Child of John Trumbull Esq, 

aged 5. 
Infant Child of Edward Gray. 
Infant Child of Roderick Bunce. 
Infant Child of Daniel Smith. 
Geo. Nichols [Son of Cyprian and 

Agnes (Humphrey) Nichols> 

bapt. First Church, Dec. 13, 

1741,] aged 44- 
Ebenezer Kneeland (born in 

Hebron, Sept. 8, 1753, son of 

Ebenezer and Sarah (Rowley) 

Kneeland), aged 33. 
The Mother of Samuel Barnard, 

aged 66. 23 

Child of Ephraim Root, aged 1. 
Child of James Steele Jr., aged 2. 
Child of Geo. Burnham, aged 2. 
Child of David Oakes, aged 2. 
Mrs. Rebecca Paine (Daughter 

of Capt. John and Rachel 

(Olcott) Knowles, married 

May 12, 1758, Benjamin Payne, 

aged 51. 
Infant Child of Alpheus Abbott. 
Child of Jared Skinner, (Infant). 
Mrs. Richards, Intered at Exp. 

of Aaron Seymour, aged 80. 
Child of Jonathan Chapman, 

aged 1. 
Simeon Judd, aged 68, [Born Jan. May 

6, 1719, son of Joseph and 






April 6 


Hannah (Bidwell) Judd, of 
The Wife of Elisha Lord, aged 

Wm. Stanley, [Died Dec. 31, bapt. 
Sept. 8, 1724, son of Col. Nath- 
aniel and Anna ( Whiting ) 
Stanley ; in his will he be- 
queathed a silver tankard to the 
South Church. He gave his 
niece Elizabeth Whitman, 
twelve acres on the west side 
of Hog River, and his sister, 
Mrs. Abagail, wife of Rev. 
Elnathan Whitman was to 
have the use of all the remain- 
der of his real estate; after 
his death all this large estate 
was bequeathed to the South 
Church, ] aged 63. 

Daughter of David Bull, aged 17. 

Child of David Wadsworth, aged 

Eli Wadsworth, [Son of Capt. 
Samuel and Meliscent (Cook) 
Wadsworth, born March 3, 
1752], aged 35. 

Child of John McAlpine, aged 1. 

Infant Child of William Skinner. 

Infant Child of Solo. Smith. 

Child of Timo.Wadsworth,aged 2. 

Mrs. Sarah Robinson, aged 65. 

Jonathan Calas, aged 57. 

Infant Child of Samuel Webster, 
aged 2 days. 

Infant Child of Jeremiah Barret. 

Capt. William Knox [Died April, 
30. ] [ He came from Strabane, 


June 24 

July 7 





















Jan. 5 


Feb. 9 



Co. Tyrone, Ireland ; md. 
March 28, 1762 Jennet Morison ; 
he kept a tavern near the ferry, 
and some of the English officers 
who were prisoners, were 
lodged with him], aged 52. 

Wife of Benj. Watrous, aged 53. 

Infant Child of Consider Burt. 

Child of William Hosmer, aged 1. 

Infant Child of Jesse Root Esq. 

Infant Child of Dr. Cutler. 

Archibald Greenfield's Wife, 
aged 20. 

Hezekiah Seymour's Child, aged 

Daniel Westerly, aged 25. 

Child of Roger Wad sworth, aged 

Infant Child of Isaac Bliss. 

Wife of John Brace, aged 41. 

Jane Ellery [Dau. of John and 
Mary (Austin) Ellery, born 
Dec. 1745], aged 42. 

Jonas Chadwick, aged 27. 

Wife of Jonas Flagg, aged 42. 

Infant Child of Whiting Sey- 

Solomon Smith, aged 24. 

Infant Child of Samuel Day. 

Child of William Ward, aged 1. 

Infant Child of James Bigelow. 

John Roberts, aged 20. 

Daughter of Charles Cad well, 
aged 24. 

Two Infant Children of William 

Epephras Judd. No age given. 
[Born Aug. 10, 1752, son of 
Simeon and Elizabeth( Norton) 
Judd, of Farmington and Hart- 

Child of Solomon Porter, aged 2. 

The Wife of John Kilbourn. 

Wife of Daniel Jones (Olive) 
[Daughter of Sylvanus Tinker 
of East Haddam], aged 27. 

Infant Child of William Skinner. 

Infant Child of William Andrus. 

Infant Child of Geo. Goodwin. 

James Marsh [Son of Ensign 
Daniel and Irene (Bigelow) 
Marsh, born 1746], aged 42. 

Infant Child of John Jones. 

Mar. 13 



April 30 
Mar. 30 
April 14 

May 19 



June 5 


July 2 

Aug. 11 





Sept. 7 

Daniel Steele. 

Child of Catherine Patterson, 

aged 10 mo. 
Jona. Bigelow is charged the 

burial of a Stranger, aged 40. 
The Wife of Alvin Bigelow, aged 


Peter's Daughter, Burial charged 
the Town, aged 18. 

The Wife of William Andrus 
[Mary], aged 27. 

Infant Child of Henry Butler. 

Child of Geo. Wadsworth, aged 4. 

Nancy Butler, aged 50. 

Child of Daniel Wadsworth, aged 
5 mo. 

Child of Ebeneser. Moore, aged 2. 

Blackledge Wells [Son of 
Thomas and Abigail Wells, 
bapt. Aug. 23, 1724, First 
Church], aged 64. 

Infant Child of James Hosmer. 

Child of John Burkett, aged 2. 

William Procter, aged 23. 

A Frenchman, [Alexander 
Picard] Burial charged Jere- 
miah Wadsworth, Esq. [sui- 
cide], aged 62. 

The Wife of Deacon Ebenezer 
Crosby [Sarah], aged 77. 

Huldah Collyer, aged 27. 

Ariel Howell [d. Aug. 9, Mary 
wife of Mr. Ryal Howel, Con- 
rant], aged 43. 

Jane Chenevard [Daughter of 
John and Margaret Beauchamp 
Chenevard], aged 63. 

John Currie's Child, aged 1^. 

Daughter of Capt. Samuel Marsh, 
aged 11. 

Hepzibah Seymour, Daughter of 
Deacon Daniel and Susanna 
(Pratt) Merrill, born April 14, 
1712, [relict of Thomas, Esq], 
aged 77. 

Ozias Pratt [Baptized Feb. 17, 
1716-17, son of John and Han- 
nah (Norton) Pratt], aged 71. 

The wife of Chauncey Goodrich 
(Abigail Smith) [daughter of 
Deacon Solomon and Abigail 
(Talcott) Smith}, aged 24. 
( To be continued.) 



WM. A. E. THOMAS, Editor. 

Querists are requested to write all names of persons and places so that they cannot 
be misunderstood, to write on only one side of the paper, and to enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope and ten cents in stamps for each query. Those who are subscribers 
will be given preference in the insertion of their queries and they will be inserted in the 
order in which they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent 
to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked, Genealogical Department. Give 
full name and post office address. 

It is optional with querist to have name and address or initials published. 

Answers to Queries of this year which we have been able to obtain will be published 
in April number. 




Jan. 18. A child of Mr.— 


[Zephaniah is written in and crossed out 
and what looks like Ward written above. 

Feb. 7. Polley child of Mr. John 
Maguire aet. 9 yrs. 

Mch. 2. Nabby child of Mr. Appleton 
Osgood aet. 6 yrs. 

Mch. 4. Mr. Amariah Storrs in the 
78th year of his age. 

Mch. 9. A child of Mr. Nat'l. Niles aet. 
3 ys. 

April 7. Widow Sarah Chase in the 
92nd year of her age. (Probably she was 
Sarah b. May 1716, dau. of Seth and 
Mary (Rossier) Dean and widow Elisha 5 
Chase (John 4 , John 3 , Wm. 2 , Win. 1 ) 

April 9. Nancy child of John Tucker 
aet. 4 yrs. 

April 30. A child of Nehemiah Dodge 
aet. 3 yrs. 

May 23. The wife of Mr. Jonathan 
Snow aet. 57 yrs. 

May 25. The widow Sarah Ingals in 
the 100th yr. of her age. 

June 23. The wife of Mr. 


July 2. Mr. Ebenezer Stoddard in the 
85th yr. of his age. 

Sept. 4. Mr. Jonathan Slade aet. 58. 

Dec. 24. Thomas, child of Captain 
Thomas Grosvenor ae. 4 yrs. 

Mch. 19. The wife of Dr. Baxter 
aet. 64. 

Mch. 26. A child of Mr. Nat. Niles 
aet. 8 mos. 

Mch. 10. Sarah wife of Dr. Joshua 
Grosvenor ae. 45. 

Apr. 21. Mr. Amasa Stoddard ae. 50. 

July 3. A child of Benj'n Wheaton. 

Aug. 1. The widow Betty Ripley in 
the 72nd yr. of her age. 

Sept. 15. Mr. Stephen Utley in the 
71st yr. of his age. 

( To be continued?) 




Vol. I. 

Page 362. Benjamin Peck son of Jesse 
Qiyjune 10, 1783 Elizabeth dau. of 
William Nickerson. 

Thomas Benedict Jr. 2nd son of 
Thomas m. Oct. 10, 1781 (or 7). Mercy, 
eldest child and only dau. of Dr. Elihud 
Rockwell late of D anbury. 

Zadock Stevens, Son of Ezra m. Oct. 
5, 1800, Phebe, dau. of Thomas White, all 
of D anbury and had 

1. Mercy, b. Sept. 27, 1801. 

2. Thomas Philips, b. Jan. 22, 1803. 

3. Silvester, b. Sept. 12, 1804. 

4. Jerusha, b. Sept. 24, 1806. 

5. .Angelina, b. Mch. 5, 1809. 

6. Zadock White, b. Sept. 26, 1810. 

7. Epaphras Bull, b. June 24, 181 2. 

8. Joseph Frederick, b. Aug. 24, 1814. 

9. Charles Lewis, b. Nov. 21, 1816. 
Eliakim Barnum 4th son of David m. 

Oct. 20, 1 7950 Mercy eldest dau. of Seth 
Benedict and had 

1. Abigail, b. July 17, 1803. 

Page 363. Elkana Peck, son of 
Phinehas m. June 8, i8oq£) Hannah, 
dau. to Elisha Parker of Lower Salem 
N. Y. and had 

1. Phineas Parker, b. June 23, 1801. 

Thomas Picket, son of Ebenezer m. 
Sept. 7, 1797 Prudydau. of Joseph Bearss 
of New Fairfield and had 

1. Mariah b. Apr. 6, 1799. 

2. Betsey b. Jan. 27, 1801. 

3. Levi Bearss b. July 15 ,1803. 

4. Pollina b. Feb. 21, 1806. 

5. Harriet b. Aug. 4, 1808. 

Caleb Picket, son of Ebenezer m. Sept. 
16. 1801 Sally dau. of Nathan Stewart of 

Page 364. Noah Barnum, son of Seth 
m. Mch. 1, 1801, Sally, dau. of John 
Sherwood of Reading. 

Nathan Wood, son of Nathan m. Nov. 
27, 1799 Lorana, dau. of Seth Shove of 
D anbury and had 

1. David b. Mch. 10, 1801. 

John C. Gray m. Oct. 25, 1807 Esther 
Benedict and had 

1. Oliver Benedict b. Sept. 3, 1808. 

2. John Noble b. Aug. 23. 1810. 
Page 365. Elind Comes, son of John b. 

July 28, 1779 m. Nov. 1799, Dinah dau. 
of Jonathan Stevens and had 

1. John b. Sept 6, 1800. 

Noah Wood, son of Daniel Jr. m. Apr. 
16, 1797, Deborah Piatt and had 

1. Joseph Piatt b. June 29, 1797. 

2. Harvey b. Mch. 29, 1799. 

3. Lucy b. July 28, 1802. 

Page 366 Ezra Starr b. Aug. 9, 1753* 
m. Apr. 24, 1 781 Elizabeth b. Aug. 23, 
1762, dau. of Capt. Geo. Codwise of N.Y. 
and had 

Ezra b. May 1, 1782. 
Maria b. Feb. 22. 1784. 
Rachel b. Feb. 13, 1786. 
George Codwise b. Apr. 2, 1788. 
Eliza b. Mch. 18, 1790. 
Rebecca b. Feb. 28, 1792. 
Daniel b. Aug. 3. 1794. 
Page 367. Caleb Gregory son of 
Ebenezer m. June 30, 1799 Fanny dau. of 
Peter Brewer of White Plains and had 
1. Stephen Townsend b. Oct. 5, 1800. 
Rums Clark son of Timothy of New 
Haven m. Oct. 8, 1797 Sarah dau. of 
Christopher Glover of Danbury and had 

1. Wm. Louis b. Jan. 29, 1799. 

2. A daughter b. Jan. 19, 1801. 
Page 368. Samuel Hustead son of 

Andrew m. Nov. 2 

: Z£2 

Esther dau. of 

Samuel Wildman and had 

1. Evelin (a son) b. Nay 22, 1800. 

James Beaty m.- 
Sturge and had 

'48 Ruhama 

1. James b. Sept. 2, 1749. 

2. Anne b. Aug. 30, 1754. d. Dec. 12, 




Ruhama b. Oct. 17, 1758. 
Catherine b. Jan. 20, 1761. 



5 . Daniel 

6. Sarah 

b. Aug. 23, 1767. 

Ruhama his wife d. Mch. 9, 1797. 

James Beaty m. Jan. 1798 his 2nd wife 
Elizabeth Northrop of Ridgfield. 

Moses Hoyt son of Noah b July 2, 1 763 
m. Dec. 13, 1784 Amarillis b. Dec. 23, 
1763, dau. of David Dibble and had 

1. Joseph Dibble b. Dec. 23, 1785. 

2. Hulda b. Nov. 27, 1787. 

3. Betsey b. Mch. 18, 1790. 

4. Enoch Comstock b. Sept. 28, 1792. 

5. Sally b. July n, 1794. 

6. Billy b. Apr. 17, 1798. 

Page 369. James Taylor Hoyt son of 
James m. Jan. 11, 1798 Rachel dau. of 
Samuel Starr. 

Isaac Gregory of Danbury m. Oct. 10, 
1798 Phebe Wheeler of Newtown and had 

1. Eliza Ann b. Sept. 21, 1799. 

2. Chary Ann b. Oct. 1, 1800. 
Elijah son of Demmon R. and Sarah 

Converse b. Aug. 16, 1789 in Danbury. 

( To be continued.') 

25. (a) Shailer. — Thomas 1 was a set- 
tler in Haddam, Ct. 1662 ; m. about 
1670 Alice wid. of Thomas Brooks and 
dau. of Jared and Hannah Spencer; 
Thomas 1 and Alice had Thomas 2 
Shaylor b. Dec. 26, 1670 d. June 4, 
1753 in Haddam; m. Oct. 22, 1696 in 

H., Catharine who d. after 1756 ; 

who were her parents? who was 
mother of Alice? Thomas 2 and 
Catharine had Samuel 3 Shailor b. Feb. 
6 17^- d. Oct. 26, 1753 Haddam; m. 

Mary ; she d. July 4, 1795 ; 

who were her parents? she m. 2nd. 
Gideon Dudley* Samuel 3 and Mary had 
Asa 4 Shailer b. Mch. 1, 173-f d. Dec. 
13, 1805 m. Sept. 15, 1755 Susanna 
Cone b. Apr. 30, 1736 H., d. Apr. 16, 
1826. Asa 4 and Susanna had Rev. 

Simon 5 Shailer b. 1776 (exact 

date is desired) d. Aug. 27, 1864 m. 

1797 (exact date is desired) 

Dolly 5 Shailer b. Oct. 6, 1778 d. Apr. 
25, 1872. Rev. Simon 5 and Dolly 5 
Shailer had Rev. Nathan Emory 6 b. 

1803 d. July 10, 1879 m. Ann 

Webb b. Mch. 6, 1806 d. Jan. 16, 1891 
and had among others Simon Webb 7 

(b) Shailer, Ens. Hezekiah 3 (Thomas, 2 
Thomas 1 ) b. May 9, 1706 d. Sept. 10, 
1752 m. Nov. 24, 1727 Elizabeth (d. 
Sept. 13, 1 761 ae. 56) dau. of Joseph 
and Elizabeth, ( Burge) Lewis ; who 
were parents of Joseph and his wife 
Elizabeth? Hezekiah 3 and Elizabeth 
Shailer had Hezekiah 4 b. Feb. 2, 1747 
d. Dec. 6, 1834 m. Oct. 12, 1770 
Hannah (d. Sept. 30, 1828 ae. 78) 
sister of Stephen Dickinson : who 
were her parents? Hezekiah 4 and 
Hannah were parents of Dolly 5 Shailtr 
who m. Rev. Simon 5 Shailer. 

(c) Parmelee, Catharine b. June 30, 
1768 d. July 15, 1851 m. Nov. 15, 1787 
Reynold b. Oct. 9, 1759 d. Mch. 20, 

1834 son of Samuel and Mary ( ) 

Webb. Tradition says Catharine was 
born in Vermont and came on horse- 
back to Killingworth Ct. where she was 
married. Who were her parents? 

(d) Kirkham, Samuel is said to have 
come from Scotland to Guilford Ct : 
he m. Chloe Field, said to be a relative 
of Cyrus W. Field. Samuel and Chloe 
had George A. Kirkham m. Julia b. 
July 9, 1805 dau. of Bennet and Mary 
(Rutty) Towner ; Mary was dau. of 
Asa Rutty. Who were parents of 
Samuel, Chloe, Bennet and Asa? 
Desired the birth, marriage and death 
dates in full of Samuel, George A., 
Chloe, Bennet, Asa and Mary. 

(e) Howell, Philena, dau. of Nathan 
and Miriam m. Horace son of Ebenezer 



and Nabby (Mack) Clark. Nabbywas 
dau. of John Mack. Who were parents 
of John, Miriam and Nathan? 

S. R. S. 

26. (a) Webber.— Abel 1 b. in N. H., 
prob. Plymouth ; d. in Chenango Co. 
N. Y. ; wife supposed to be Susanna 
Tucker. Abel 1 had 1. Hiram 2 m. 
Hannah Ham 2. Abel 2 m. Mary Ham 
abt. 1829 a cousin of Hannah wife of 
Hiram 2 3. David 2 killed in Ohio by 
a tree, falling. 4. Almira 2 m. an Edson 
in Mich, and had Edward 3 Stella 3 
and Frank 3 5. a sister 2 m. a Hunt in 
Wisconsin. Abel 2 and Mary Webber 
had 1. Philander 3 b. Sept. 5, 1831 
Monroe Me. m. Rosaline Th(o)urlo(w) 
ugh 2. Almira 3 m. Ed. Foster 3. 
Lorenzo Dow 3 b. July 2, 1833 4. 
Federn 3 m. Almy dau. of Asa Thurlo 
5. Susan 3 m. a Harrison 6. Jonathan 8 
d. unm. 7. Nathan 3 d. unm. 8. Mary 3 
m. Sherman Burwell 9. Mary Ann 3 d. 
unm. 10. Abel 3 d unm. Who were 
parents and grand parents of Abel 1 and 
his wife ? 

(b) Ham, Mary had brothers and 
sisters Benjamin, Isaac, Thomas (d. Oct. 
""^1895 Winterport, Me.), Esther, Lydia, 
Henry, Sally, Lucy (m. a Treat), and 
Mrs. Hurd. Esther m. a Gillison. Who 
were parents of these ? H. W. W. W. 

27. (a) Beecher. — Henry Ward w as so n 
of Roxana (Foote) Beecher. Roxana 
b. 1775 was dau. of Eli (Daniel, 
Nathaniel) and Roxanna (Ward) Foote 
— see p. 197 Dickerman Ancestry. 
What relation was Fenner Foote Sr. of 
Lee to these? 

(b) Foote, Fenner Sr. of Lee was a 
revolutionary soldier. Where did he 
enlist from and when discharged? 

G. S. B. 

28. Gladding ( Gladen, Gladwin) — 
Silas, son of Joshua was born May 8, 
1730 in Saybrook Ct. d. Jan. 3, 1814 : 

m. May 14, 1762 Hannah Jones b. 
Nov. 15, 1741 d. June 13, 1814 : who 
were her parents? Silas and Hannah 
had I. Hannah b. Nov. 16, 1762. 
Whom did she marry? II. Anna b. 
Aug. 29, 1764 m. 1st. Hezekiah Post 
m. 2nd. Seth Savage III. Elizabeth b. 
Aug. 8, 1767 d. Nov. 29, 1816 m. 
Samuel Spencer IV. Silas b. May 20, 
1769 m. 1 st Sally Bailey (ch. were 1. 
Silas prcb. m. a Spencer but no ch. :. 

2. Marietta m. Olmstead Brainard 

3. Gideon m. Pelatta Bailey and had 
A. Silas IB. George ;C. dau. m. a 
Spencer) : Silas m. 2nd. Elizabeth 
Madan from N. Y. no ch. V. Ebenezer 
b. July 7, 1 77 1 d. Oct. 8, 1793 whom 
did he marry? VI. James b. Jan. 1, 
1775 d. Oct. 2, 1850 m. Jan. 1, 1797 
Margaret Tripp VII. Timothy b. June 

20, 1777 d. June 24, 1807 m - ist Rhoda 
Smith (ch. were 1. Eliza m. a Hopkins 

2. Nancy m. ) : Timothy m. a 

2nd wife ; name not known : but had no 
ch. VIII. Livinia b. Nov. 4.1779 d. Apr. 

4. 181 1 m. Jan. 1807 Jeremiah Cone 
IX. Willard b. Mch. 26, 1783 d. June 

21, 1837 m. Sabray Bailey (ch 1. Maria 
m. Gilbert Ward 2. Amelia m. Asabel 
Bailey) X. Submit b. Nov. 24, 1787 
d. Feb. 5, i860 m. Thomas Tripp d. 
Dec. 8, 1835 ae. 57 (ch. 1. Amasa b. 
Dec. 8, 1807 m. a Parker and have 
Nehemian m. Kate Sisson. 2. Thomas 
b. 181 1 m. a Clark3.Gilesm.aBushnell 
4. Eliza m. Chancy Spencer 5. Hannah 
m. Benj. Mack). The above Joshua 
was in Saybrook as early as 17 10. 
From whence did he come? Who 
were his parents ? Who was mother of 
Silas b. 1730? W. P. P. 

29. Cone. — Daniel 1 of East Haddam 
Ct. m. abt. 1677 a dau. of Ensign 
Spencer : what was her name and his 
name? Daniel 1 had Capt. Caleb 2 
Cone b. abt. 1679 d. Sept. 28, 1742 in 



his 63rd yr. in Haddam : m. Dec. 16, 

1 701 Elizabeth who d. Nov. 14, 

1 7 14 who were her parents ? he m. 2nd. 
Sept. 6, 1723 Elizabeth Cunningham. 
Caleb 2 had by his 1st wife Joseph 3 Cone 
bap. June 3, 1705 born Jan. 26, 1704-5 
Haddam m. there July 7, 1727 Susanna 
— — — : who were her parents ? They 
had Susanna 4 Cone b. Apr. 30, 1736, 
Haddam. S. R. S. 

30. Tripp. — Thomas b. in Eng. ; was 
brought when abt. 6 yrs. old from near 
London to Essex, Ct. by Capt. Thomas 
Starkey. Mr. Tripp m. 1st. Ruth 
Stannard and had 1. Ruth m. Nov. 23, 
1 79 1 Tabor Tooker: m. 2nd. Current 
dau. of Capt. Thomas Starkey and had 
2 . Thomas m. Submit Gladwin 3 . Betsey 
m. Sept. 2, 1790 Richard Tryon 
4. Mary m. Nov. 23, 1794 Cornel Ely 
Denison of Essex 5. Richard Oscar 
lost at sea. 6. Wm. m. Sept. 15, 1796 
Sarah Tooker 7. Margaret b. July 1, 
1782 d. Dec. 9, 1 86 1 m. James Gladwin 
8. Ansel m. July 1815 Temperance 

9. Charlotte m. Capt, Philip 

Tooker 10. Currence m. Rev. Horace 
Bartlett. Who were parents of Thomas 
Tripp and Thomas Starkey ? B. M. 

31. Arnold, — Elizabeth b. Aug. 9, 1766 
d. 1837 North Plainfield, O., m. Sept. 
28, 1784 Timothy b. Feb 4, 1761 
Colchester Ct. son of Amasa and 
Jemina (Strong) Bigelow. Who were 
parents of Elizabeth? Also brothers 
and sisters? H. R. 

32. Chace. — Isaac 5 (see page 228 vol. 
IV. Conn. Quarterly) m. pub. Oct. 22, 
1737 to Thankful b. May 25, 17 16 dau* 
of John and Mary (Hopkins) Maker. 
The notes of Wm. Davis says he was 
92 when he died and as he was b. Mch. 
28, 1 714, his death would be about 
1806. The exact date and place are 
desired of his death and that of his wife. 
He is supposed to have lived in 

Southeast or Carmel N. Y. Isaac 5 and 
Thankful had 1. Reuben 6 b. Nov. 24, 
1738 2. Obadiah 6 b. 1740 m. abt. 1774 
Susannah Knapp 3. Isaac 6 b. 1750 m. 
abt. 1770 Mary dau. of Jonathan 
Holmes 4. Lot 6 5. Thomas 6 6. Barney 6 
7. Judah 6 said to have settled in 
Jamestown N. Y. 8. Thankful 6 did she 
m. abt. 1766 Samuel Sackett? 9. John 6 
What became of these children ? We 
only know of Obadiah 6 and Isaac 6 . 
On May 8, 1757 Isaac Chase's sons 
Thomas, Joseph, Joel and Solomon; 
and daus. Sarah and Elizabeth were 
baptized by Rev. Ebenezer Knibloe of 
Carmel, N. Y. Who was this Isaac? 

H. W. C. 
^$. Campbell. — Charles b. Dec. 17, 
1766 ; Andrew b. Feb. 7, 1768 • Archi- 
bald 2nd. b. Oct. 14, 1773. Andrew 
m. Feb. 21, 1792 Mary Bacon and 
about this time moved to Killingworth 
bt. prob. from Middletown, Westfield 
district. When did this family come 
trom Scotland ; place in Scotland ; and 
when and where they first settled in 
America? We desire to connect with 
the Argyle family from whence these 
came. Tradition says they came from 
the south-west part of Central Scotland. 

H. A. C. 

34. Holmes. — Elkanah Dec. 25, 1760, 
witnessed the will of Martin Dewey of 
Crum Elbon_Precinct, N. Y. Who 
were parents of this Elkanah ? D. H. 

35. Wright. — Lois dau. of Cornelius b. 
abt. 1787 m. abt. 1807 Israel Pelton 
and had two daus. We desire to trace 
her ancestry back to first settler. It is 
thought this family are from Saybrook 
but we somehow can't just connect. 
There was a J osiah Wright m. 1761 Lydia 
Whittlesey and had a son Cornelius b. 
abt. 1964. This Cornelius is supposed 
to have had a large family somewhere 
in N. Y. State. His brother Paul is 
supposed to have lived in Troy, N. Y. 

W. P. P. 


THE trustees of Trinity College, at a 
meeting held at the college Saturday, 
decided to erect, at a cost of $40,000, a 
building for a National Science Hall at 
once, and also to provide the Jarvis 
laboratory with the latest and most im- 
proved electrical equipment. 

Professor William Lispenard Robb, who 
holds the chair of physics at the college, 
is to be congratulated upon the action of 
the trustees, in voting the enlarged and 
more complete electrical equipment for 
Jarvis Hall, thus insuring for him the 
facilities for carrying on the researches of 
his department upon a broader and more 
modern basis. 

The trustees at the same meeting also 
appointed a committee composed of 
Bishop Niles of New Hampshire, the Rev. 
Francis Goodwin of Hartford, and William 
E. Curtis of New York to take into con- 
sideration the subject of a memorial to 
Bishop Williams, which shall take the 
shape of a building or other suitable 
expression of regard entertained for the 
dead bishop by his Alma Mater. 

The Connecticut Legislature last month 
passed the bill protecting the National 
flag from desecration, mutilation or 
improper use. 

Governor Roosevelt of New York cele- 
brated Washington's Birthday by affixing 
his signature to the bill to prevent the 
desecration, mutilation or improper use 
of the Nation's flag. 

The Rt. Rev. John Williams, D. D., 
LL. D., bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, diocese of Connecticut, and 
senior bishop of the House of Bishops of 
the Episcopal Church of America, who 
died on the 7th of last month, was one of 
the most honored and widely known 
clergymen in this country. 

Bishop Williams was born in Deerfield, 
Mass., Aug. 30, 1 81 7, and was con- 
sequently in his 826. year at the time of 
his death. The late Bishop's life has been 
one of great and unceasing activity, con- 
tinued almost up to the day he died. He 
has been in turn, college tutor, parish 
priest, college president, bishop coadjutor 
and the presiding bishop of his church. 
He was a man of splendid scholarship, of 
wide experience and lofty ideals. His 
personality had all the frankness of youth, 
united to the dignity of a grave, thoughtful 
and earnest man. The news of his death 
has been received with profound sorrow, 
not only by those of his own communion, 
but by those of other denominations 
as well, and this grief has extended 
throughout the whole country, occasioning 
to all who knew him something akin to a 
personal loss. 

It is not possible at this time to more 
than briefly mention the death of Dr. 
Williams, reserving for another issue a 
more extended review of his career. 

(The Easter number will contain a 
memoir of Bishop Williams, written by 
Rev. Samuel Hart, D. D., of Trinity Col- 
lege, Hartford, Conn.) — Editor. 



At the meeting of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution held at Danbury 
recently Mrs. Kinney was re-elected State 
Regent. Mrs. Kinney had stated that she 
could not be a candidate for re-election 
but was induced to alter her determination 
through the efforts of the members of the 
society who presented forty-one petitions 
signed by 3,300 people requesting her to 
remain in her present position. 

Connecticut is no longer the banner 
state among the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution in point of membership, 
but she is still the banner state as regard- 
ing the number of real daughters. 

The historian general, in her report at 
the second day's session of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution held in 
Washington last month, had this to say of 
Connecticut ; " Connecticut is the banner 
state, for her total number of real daughters 
has been 79 ; it is now 69. 

The first session of the eighth Con- 
tinental Congress of the National Society 
of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion began at the Grand Opera House in 
Washington, on the 20th of last month 
and was very largely attended, the Opera 
House being filled to its full capacity. 
Mrs. Daniel Manning, President General 
of the Society, presented the opening 

address. It dwelt especially on the aid 
the Society had given to the soldiers and 
sailors of the United States during the war 
with Spain. The Society, she said, 
furnished over #300,000 in money and 
supplies and was the means of introducing 
one thousand thoroughly trained women 
who became nurses. 

The third days session of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution was devoted 
mainly to the consideration of the Con- 
tinental Memorial Hall project. The 
report of Mrs. Shepard of Chicago, 
chairman of the Continental Hall Com- 
mittee was read and this report showed a 
balance in the fund of $43,773- The 
delegates were given an opportunity to 
make contributions to this fund with the 
result that #7,500 was added to it. The 
hall will be located in Washington, D. C. 

* * 

The Tenth Annual Banquet of the 
Connecticut Sons of. the American Revo- 
lution was held at the Hotel Winthrop in 
Meriden on Washington's Birthday and 
was one of the most successful the society 
ever held. President Jonathan Trumbull 
presided. Governor Lounsbury, General 
Stewart L. Woodford, ex-minister to Spain, 
Congressman C. H. Russell and Rev. 
John Rhey Thompson were among the 
principal speakers. Hon. H. Wales Lines 
was toast-master. 



We spuke last month, in these notes, of 
" The Brothers Of The Book ;" since that 
time, a still more limited coterie of book 
lovers has come under our notice in " The 
Triptych," of New York, who describe 
themselves as " a trio of lovers of good 
literature and good printing," whose desire 
and intention it is " to present from time 
to time some fugitive bits of the former in 
a fit clothing of the latter." 

"The Triptych " has certainly lived up 
to its ideals in its initial production, a 
presentation in most satisfying pamphlet 
form, of "Two Love Sonnets" by the 
Venetian Gaspara Stampa, whose touching 
and heroic love-story has come down to 
us from the sixteenth century in a few 
beautiful sonnets. 

Mr. Wilbur Macey Stone, formerly of 
Hartford, is a member of this literature- 
loving trio, and if he has associated 
himself with two like spirits, much may 
safely be looked for in right feeling and 
artistic sensibility from "The Triptych." 

And just here, a plea for these little 
groups of thinking, appreciative people ; — 
that they are beneficial and stimulating 
can hardly be denied ; their very sponta- 
neity and freedom from material motive 
is in their favor. It is a labour of love, 
this presentation of the beautiful in 
letters, perfectly clothed. And whatever 

tends, in however slight a degree, to 
cultivate and enrich the higher intellectual 
life, makes just so surely for a nobler and 
happier civilization. The influence of 
these private presses, these dainty, preg- 
nant brochures, these dear, enthusiastic, 
hobby-riding people, is fresh and fine and 
good. Let the book lover and his associ- 
ation increase and flourish ! 


Among the valuable books of the past 
holiday season, is Richard Burton's "Lit- 
erary Likings." We have not read a 
book in a long time with so much of 
pleasure. Albeit that we have learned to 
know Mr. Burton best as a poet, this his 
first prose output, but shows us another 
side of his ability, — a scholarly, substantial 
side, full, none the less, of nice discrim- 
inations, and delicacies of touch. 

As Mr. Burton himself says, in the essay 
on Stevenson ; — " In the essay an author 
stands self-revealed ; he may mask behind 
other literary forms, in some measure ; 
but commonplaceness, vulgarity, thinness 
of nature, are in this kind instantly un- 
covered. The essay is for this reason a 
severe test." It is a test which Mr. Burton 
has endured gallantly, for one cannot lay 
down his book, the last sentence digested, 
without a sense of gratitude, of improve- 
ment, of genuine respect and liking for 
the serious, truthful, inspiriting mind that 
planned the whole. 



We would like to dwell upon the several 
essays, did space permit, for each one is 
worthy to be separately reviewed. The 
causerie on Robert Louis Stevenson will 
perhaps secure the mostuniversal applause, 
since that winsome master lends himself 
peculiarly to Mr. Burton's felicitous and 
sympathetic portraiture. 

Finally, of " Literary Likings," — it is so 
good that there should be a tax levied on 
all who have not read it." 

One of the latest contributions to our 
Connecticut Genealogies is a work entitled 
"The Rev. John Beach, John Sanford, 
and their descendants." It is compiled 
by Rebecca Donaldson Beach and Rebecca 
Donaldson Gibbans, and is from the press 
of Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, New 
Haven. The title does not properly con- 
vey an idea of the contents. In advance 
of the genealogies, there are 216 pp. of 
historical and biographical matter. New- 
town and Redding, their settlement and 
old families, and a careful study of the 
life and word of their first missionary from 
" The Society for the Propogation of the 
Gospel in Foreign parts," the early days 
of Yale College in New Haven, the con- 
dition of Church and State, Milford 
magnates, and Stafford founders, to whom 
many of these families trace their ancestors, 
are but a few of the topics of general 
interest. It is evidently no professional 
work, and for that reason the more com- 
plete, as the compilers have had access 
to valuable family papers from which 
quotations are frequent. The genealogical 
tables seem unusually full, simply con- 
structed, and are not confined to descent 
in the male lines only. The book, bound 
in Church red, shows the usual care and 
good taste of this publishing house. A 
limited number of copies can be ordered 
from the publishers, or from Mr. Beach, 

78 Wall St., 
a copy. 

New Haven, for $5.00 

The Richmond Genealogy comprises 
650 pp. including 18 insertions and an 
index. The book is handsomely bound 
in russet leather and canvas. The paper 
is heavy, deckle-edged ; of the best quality, 
and the pages have broad margins with 
fine head bands and initials. The type 
and printing are very attractive, and the 
leaves are uncut. The author, Mr. Joshua 
B. Richmond, 114 State St., Boston, Mass., 
is selling the volume at $7.50 per copy. 
About eighteen thousand persons are men- 
tioned in the genealogy — including over 
eleven hundred grand — and great-grand- 
children of Richmonds in the female line. 
The book traces the descendants of John 
Richmond b. 1594 in Eng. ; Taunton, 
Mass., 1637 : sometime of Newport, R. I., 
where many of his descendants went. The 
work has cost the author considerably 
more than the price at which it is offered. 
There are many in this state who descend 
from John, of Taunton and here is a fine 
chance to get their ancestry. 

Genealogy of the Whittlesey — Whittel- 
sey Family — Compiled and Published by 
Mr. Charles Barney Whittelsey, Hartford, 
Conn., — 414 pp. 8 vo. 1898 price $5.00 
cloth $8.00 full leather. Edition limited 
to 500 numbered copies. This splendid 
illustrated volume gives the descendants 
of John Whittelsey b. 1623, Cambridge- 
shire, Eng., [son of John and Lydia 
(Terry) Whittelsey] who came to America 
in 1635, settled in Saybrook, Ct., and 
married in 1664 to Ruth Dudley. The 
author has wisely inserted the authorities 
for his statements. The work contains a 
fine index. We read that " Only sixteen 
months have elapsed during the compila- 
tion of this work " and we congratulate the 
author on the fine volume he has produced. 


^ : Vi&t^ci 




IN our comment upon the Governor's 
Message last month we noted his ref- 
erence to the forthcoming report of the 
Committee appointed by the last legisla- 
ture to investigate the State Receipts and 
Expenses. The report has recently been 
published and the Committee estimates 
that the adoption of their suggestions 
would save the State $409,000 a year. 
The most important changes recommended 
and the largest amounts involved are 
in the Judiciary, Humane Institutions, 
Schools, Legislative Expenses and the 
purchase of State Supplies. To show that 
the cost of our judiciary is excessive they 
give a table of the cost per capita of the 
judiciary in seven states, it being (ap- 
proximately, we omit the fractions,) 7, 
11, 18, 14, 35, 14. and 46 cents in Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, New Jersey, and Connec- 
ticut respectively. To reduce this expense 
they recommend that the Courts of 
Common Pleas and the Waterbury District 
Court be dispensed with and their work 
done by the Superior Court ; that sheriffs 
be not salaried by the State and receive 
no " Key Fees " from the State j that the 


clerks of courts be salaried and the fees 
now received by them go to the State. 
This they show to be right, as the State 
maintains the courts and the fees of sheriffs 
and clerks are received by virtue of their 
official position and should not be personal 
emoluments ; further that their incomes 
have been out of proportion to the ability 
required to perform the duties of their 
respective offices, some of them under the 
present system receiving more than twice 
as much as the salaries paid the judges. 

They also recommend the transferring 
to towns the costs of criminal prosecutions 
up to the service of the mittimus thereby 
saving many unwarranted suits begun " in 
behalf of the State." 

Regarding a State tax on the towns the 
Committee says : " We believe further 
that laying a State tax on the towns would 
be one of the best measures of economy 
that the Legislature can adopt, as it puts 
upon the representatives of the various 
towns the responsibility for appropriations 
which is not and cannot be felt where no 
tax is levied, and when funds come from 
sources not felt by the people of the State 
at large." They also think that the 
support of town wards in county homes, 
and of the pauper and indigent insane in 
institutions should be borne by the 
towns instead of the State and although 


they see no justice in the State's assuming 
an expense that rightfully belongs to the 
counties, such as board of prisoners in 
county jails, they do not feel it their duty 
to question the policy of Connecticut in 
this matter but advise that reductions be 
made in price of board allowed. They 
also recommend that reductions be made 
in the price of board paid by the State 
per capita for boys at the Connecticut 
School for Boys, as well as in salaries and 
general expenses there, and for girls at 
the Connecticut Industrial School for 
Girls ; also for the State's wards at The 
Connecticut School for Imbeciles. 

Other recommendations are that the 
per capita rate paid by the State for 
pupils in the common schools be reduced 
from $2.25 to $2.00; that one of the 
three normal schools be dispensed with 
and the number of agents employed by 
the State Board of Education be reduced 
and the agents salaried instead of receiv- 
ing a per diem rate for number of days of 
service ; that reductions be made in the 
appropriation for Storrs College, and that 
appropriations for the Governor's Guard, 
the Industrial Home for the Blind, the 
Mystic Oral School and State Firemen's 
Association be withdrawn ; that a saving 
can be made on the printing of public 
documents and that the Labor Bureau 
be discontinued or combined with the 
duties of the Factory Inspector. 

They suggest that all accounts of the 
courts be kept in uniform manner, like- 
wise the accounts of the various State 
institutions and those which receive State 

They call attention to the fact that bird 
life has decreased in Connecticut seventy- 
five per cent in the last twenty years, a 
higher percentage than in any but three 
out of thirty states named and recom- 
mend that provision be made for the 
enforcement of the game laws. A wise 

suggestion upon a fact which we have had 
occasion to comment before. The 
flagrant violations of the laws relating to 
the destruction of our small birds and 
their eggs are a disgrace to the State and 
a menance to our agricultural interests. 

They score the biennial raid upon the 
State Treasury in the shape of gratuities 
given at every session of the Legislature, 
especially those given to the representa- 
tives of the various newspapers, which 
alone have amounted to over $40,000 in 
the last ten years. Also legislative 
expenses might be lessened by having 
shorter sessions and reducing the number 
of superfluous clerks and pages and 
having one representative from each of 
the eighty-four towns which now send two. 
In this connection we note the remarks of 
Speaker Brandegee in his address at the 
opening of the present Legislature when 
he said : — " Our constituents are a frugal 
but not parsimonious people. They favor 
liberal appropriations for necessary and 
meritorious purposes, but they are unalter- 
ably opposed to the expenditure of the 
public funds for gratuities, unnecessary 
offices, useless commissions or the glorifi- 
cation of particular localities." 

The report is on the whole a good one, 
exhaustive, able and fearless. It is self- 
evident that it will be extremely difficult 
to carry out all the measures proposed on 
account of the many conflicting interests 
and the willingness of all concerned to have 
their own departments let alone and the 
reductions made in some other, but if the 
members of the General Assembly are 
true to the high ideals of their office, of 
their sense of absolute justice, of their 
duties to the best interests of the people 
of the State, they will not allow themselves 
to be influenced by party or personal 
interests. They will act upon these 
recommendations upon the broad basis of 
humanity, they will vote so they can 



view the situation as they would like to 
view it in retrospect when they are cool 
over the issue. 

Upon this same basis of humanity and 
the rights of the people alone in view, we 
do not see how the members could be 
blamed if they failed to adopt some of 
the retrenchments recommended. One 
of these is the restriction of trials by jury, 
one of the most important bulwarks of 
our constitutional liberty from the time 
of the Magna Charta, the tendency of 
which restriction is toward government 
by injunction, the worst kind of an 
autocracy with which any civilized people 
could be cursed. 

We can go back still further and show 
what an important part the recognition of 
these natural rights of man played in the 
history of the Anglo-Saxon race from 
more than two thousand years ago in the 
forests of Germany to the time of the 
Magna Charta. We quote from the 
speech of Jeremiah S. Black made in the 
Supreme Court of the United States in 
1866 in defense of this right where he 
says : — " How the rough virtues and sound 
common sense of that people established 
the right of trial by jury and thus started 
on a career which has made their posterity 
the foremost race that ever lived in all the 
tide of time. The Saxons carried it to 
England and were ever ready to defend it 
with their blood. It was crushed by the 
Danish invasion and all that they suffered 
of tryanny and oppression, during the 
period of their subjugation, resulted from 

the want of their trial by jury 

Alfred, the greatest of revolutionary heroes 
and the wisest monarch that ever sat on 
a throne, made the first use of their power 
after the Saxons restored it, to re-establish 

their ancient laws He was obliged 

to hang forty-four judges in one year for 
refusing to give his subjects a trial by jury. 
When the historian says he hung them it 

is not meant that he put them to death 
without a trial. He had them impeached 
before the grand council of the nation, 
the Wittenagemote, the parliament of that 
time. During the subsequent period of 
Saxon domination no man on English soil 
was powerful enough to refuse a legal 

trial to the meanest peasant It 

was again trampled down by the Norman 
conquerors, but the evils resulting from 
the want of it united all classes in the effort 
which compelled King John to restore it 
by the Great Charter." 

All subsequent history has shown its 
vital importance to the interests of the 
people and Section 21 of Article First of 
the Constitution of Connecticut reads ; 
" The right of trial by jury shall remain 
inviolate." The above is but one of 
many passages that could be cited in 
support of this position. 

And with the struggles of the early 
educators in procuring needed funds for 
our educational system in mind, and the 
example of its beneficient results before 
them, we should expect the members to 
avoid undue parsimony in this department 
as well as in the education and the indus- 
trial training of the blind. This we have 
had occasion to look into in connection 
with our article upon "Work for the Blind 
in Connecticut" in this number of the 
Magazine, and we believe that, even if 
placed upon no higher ground than that of 
financial economy, the expense of this 
training can be shown to be justifiable by 
the number of persons it has placed and 
can. continue to place upon a self-support- 
ing basis, thus relieving the State of a large 
future expense. 

But we do not see how they can escape 
censure if they fail to retrench where the 
cause is just, and if they ignore all influ- 
ences brought to bear for selfish personal 
ends they will be doing their duty. 


THE series of articles on " Backward 
Glances at Hartford " by Julius G. 
Rathbun was discontinued for this 
month's issue on account of space, but we 
expect to resume them in April number. 
The article on Early Milford is but one of 
a number of sketches by Miss Greene on 
that historic town which will appear from 
time to time. The second article " Iron 
Mining in Connecticut" by Prof. Pynchon 
has been unexpectedly delayed on account 
of the February snow storm preventing 
our getting suitable illustrations. 

In early future numbers, we expect to 
have articles on Waterbury, Torrington, 
North Haven, Durham, Haddam, Say- 
brook, Cheshire, Windham and many 
other places. A special feature in our 
May issue will be an article on The Capitol 
building, finely illustrated. We have many 
other interesting features planned for 
this year. 

We have received several articles in 
response to our prize offer and will 
announce our decision, as previously noted 
in the April number. 

Many instances have been called to our 
attention of persons wanting genealogical 
or historical works that have become rare 
and hard to procure. Such notices have 
been productive of the desired results, 
when mentioned in this magazine and we 
desire to call attention to its value as a 
medium for the insertion of "Want" or 
" For Sale " notices. We shall be pleased 
to correspond with anyone desiring a card 
insertion of the above nature. 

Our readers will be interested to know 
that our April (Easter) number will be 
adorned with a special cover printed in 
colors ; the design from the pen of Mr. 
Harry E. Billings of Hartford. 


Honest Extracts, like honest men, should be 
honest all the way through. 

When buying a bottle of 

Vanilla Extract the consumer 
should take into consideration 
the fact that a full strength 
extract made from the very best 
materials, is far cheaper to use, 
than inferior goods at any price. 

It is the delicacy of flavor that 
you want in your cookery. 

Ever since 1S54 Williams' 
Extracts have been " the Stand- 
ard " in thousands of homes. 
The demand has rapidly increased 
each year which proves that 
merit wins. If you have never 
used Williams' Choice Extracts 
we hope you will try them. They 
are sold by all the best Grocers. 

Manufactured by 


Hartford, Conn. 

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The Thomas Miner Diary 

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Ready for delivery about March 1st. Sub- 
scription price $2.00 per copy. 

For particulars, communicate with 

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Russell's Historical Collection. 

It will interest those of our readers who 
are lovers of antique furnishings to see Mr. 
John 8. Russell's extensive collection at 
1238 Main street, Hartford. For many 
years Mr. Russell, who is an industrious and 
critical collector, has devoted a great deal of 
his time in securing rare old pieces of furni- 
ture, crockery, bric-a-brac and curios, and 
particularly those that have historical asso- 

Mr. Russell's collection of Indian relics is 
very interesting. He has stone pipe bowls ; 
Indian clubs, long and narrow, with butted 
ends ; tomahawks of stone, and arrowheads 
without number. 

The many unique pieces of furniture in- 
clude Martha Washington chairs, spinning 
wheels, bureaus, claw foot tables, quaint old 
mirrors, and an endless variety of bric-a- 
brac that our forefathers used. 

Mr. Russell prides himself on his collection 
of historical plates, and rare old crockery. 
They are displayed to good advantage on 
shelves along the walls and in handsome 
mahogany cases. 

On the day that our representative called, 
Mr. Russell was making a sale to a gentle- 
man from Boston, and a lady from the 
metropolis was looking over the old plates, 
the knowledge of which had brought her 
over a hundred miles to examine them. 

Mr. Russell has customers from all parts 
of New England, his collection being per- 
haps the most extensive in this vicinity. 



U. S. and 
Foreign Patents. 

No* 2 Central Row, 

Continuously in this business for thirty years, except 
when Commissioner of Patents, 1891-3. My Wash- 
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profession. It is my undertaking to furnish, at home 
and abroad, a service unequalled in every respect. 

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Fifty-third Annual Statement 




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Net Assets, January 1, 1898, $61,408,550.38 SCHEDULE OF ASSETS. 

RECEIVED IN 1898. ^ »»"» ^ J****"! "*"• ' ^^/ZZ 

Loarjs upon Stocks and Bonds, . . 2,300.00 

For Premiums, . . $4,768,230.48 Premium Notes on Policies in force, 904,622.19 

For Interest and Rents, 3,070.247.66 Cost of Real Egtate owned by the Co i P ,977. 642.71 

2^38,478.14 Cost()fBondSi 18,865,603.62 

$69,247,028.52 Cost of Bank and Railroad Stocks, . 473,504.16 

Cash in Banks 1,688,745.26 

Bills receivable, 5,367.79 

DISBURSED IN 1898. $61,817,975.12 
_, . , ■ , •-' . Less Agents' C edit Balances, . . . 10,907.59 
For claims by death, ft _____ 

matured endowments, $61,807,067.53 

and annu ; ties, $4,283,365.44 Add 

Surplus returned Interest due and accrued, $968,702,63 

to policy-hold's, 1,272,693.78 Rents due and accrued, 12,572.27 

Lapsed and Sur- Market value of stocks 

rendered Polcies, 656, "40. 55 and bonds over cost, 1,065,955.64 

Net uncollected and de- 

m , _, , , ,. mi ..„. B ferred premiums, . . 333,156.99 

To'l to Policy-ho'd'rs, $6,212,099.77- 1 ' ..„,....,. 


Commissions to Agents, GRQgg A ^ $64,187,755 06 

Salaries, Medical Ex- 
aminer's fees, Printing, Liabilities : 
Advertising, Legal, Amount required to rj- 
Real Estate, all other insure all outstanding 
Expenses, and Profit Policies, net, Com- 

■ and Loss., 843,876.97 pany's standard, . . $55,379,912.00 

Taxes, 383,984.25 All other liabilities, . . 1,285,933.20 

7,439,960.99 $56,665,845.20 

Bal Net Assets, Dec. 31, 1898, $61,807,067.53 Surplus, $7 521,909.86 

Ratio of expenses of management to receipts in 1898, - - 10.77 per cent. 
Policies in force Dec. 31, 1898, 86,862 Insuring, - $158,078,850.00 

JACOB L. GREENE, President. JOUS M. TAYLOR, Vice-Prest, 
HERBERT H. WHITE, Secretary, DANIEL H. WELLS, Actuaty. 

ALFRED T. RICHARDS, General Agent, Room 16, Company's Building, Hartford, Conn. 
FRANK W. SWEET, General Agent, 865 Chapel Street, New Haven, Conn. 

WILLIAM H. PROTHERO, Agent, 35 Shetucket Street, Norwich, Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 




Thirty-fifth Annual Statement 



Chartered 1863. ( Stock. ) Life and Accident Insurance. 


Hartford, Conn., January 1, 1899. 

Paid-up Capital, - 


Real Estate, ------- $2,009,684.43 

Cash on hand and in Bank, - 1,510.090.17 

Loans on bond and mortgage, real estate. - 5,785,92-3.99 

Interest accrued but not due, - 261,279.62 

Loans on collateral security, - 1,182,327.64 

Loans on this Company's Policies, - - 1,175,489.24 

Deferred Life Premiums, - 324,697.95 

Prems. due and unreported on Life Policies, 251,120.97 

United States Bonds, ----- 14,000.00 

State, county, and Municipal bonds, - - 3,614,032.58 

Railroad stocks and bonds, - - - 6,658,373.37 

Bank stocks, ------- 1,066,122.50 

Other stocks and bonds, ... - 1,462,300.00 



Reserve, 4 per cent. Life Department, 

Reserve for Re-insurance. Accident Dep't, 1 

Present value Installment Life Policies, 

Reserve for Claims resisted for Employers, 

Losses in process of adjustment, 

Life Premiums paid in advance, 

Special Reserve for unpaid taxes, rents, etc., 

Special Reserve, Liability Department, 

Reserve for anticipated change in rate of interest, 


Total Assets, 


Total Liabilities, 
Excess Security to Policy-holders, 
Surplus to Stockholders, - 



Life Department. 
Life Insurance in force. ___--- 

New Life Insurance written in 1898, - 

Insurance on installment plan at commuted value. 

Returned to Policy-holders in 1898, - 

Returned to Policy-holders since 1864, ._-...- 

Accident Department. 
Number Accident Claims paid in 1898, - 

Whole Number Accident Claims paid, - 

Returned to Policy-holders in 1898, - 

Returned to Policy-holders since 1864, - 

Returned to Policy-holders in 1898, - 
Returned to Policy-holders since 1864, 



$ 1,382,003.95 





f 2,636,509.76 

SYLVESTER C. DUNHAM, Vice-President. 
JOHN E. MORRIS, Secretary. 

H. J. MESSENGER, Actuary. 

EDWARD V. PRESTON, Supt. of Agencies. 

J. B. LEWIS, M. D. Surgeon and Adjuster. 
F. R. LOYDON, State Agent. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 



The Phoenix Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, 


Of Hartford, 


Issues an Endowment Policy to 
Either Men or Women, & & 

which (besides giving five other options ) GUAR- 
ANTEES when the insured is fifty years old TO 
PAY $1,500 IN CASH FOR EVERY #1,000 OF 
INSURANCE in force. 

Sample policies, rates, and other information will 
be given on application to the Home Office.* ; 

Jonathan B. Bunce, President. 

John M. Holcombe, Vice-President. 

Charles H. Lawrence, Secretary. 



r, ERFE ff,r OMO 

Dress Shields == 

No Rubber. 
No Chemicals. 


Redfern endorses 
them, and so does 
every other dress- 

Every Pair 

Manufactured by the 

Omo Manufacturing Co 


For Sale by every Dry Goods Dealer in the 
United States. ^ Write for Booklet giving 
description of its manufacture. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 

Vol. V. 

April, 1899. 

No. 4 


1 ravelers.. 


JAMES G. BAT TERSON, President. 

Paid=up Capital, = = $1,000,000. 


Covering Accidents of Travel, Sport or Business, at home and abroad. 

Yearly, or premium paid-up in Ten Years with return of all premiums paid, and 
running till 70. Death Only, or Death and Weekly Indemnity. No medical examination 
required. Not forfeited by change of occupation, but paid pro rata. No extra charge for 
foreign travel or residence. 


Granting stated sums of indemnity for disability caused by sickness. 
All Forms of 



The liability of Manufacturers and other Employers to strangers who may be injured 
upon their premises. The liability of Contractors to Employees and to strangers for 
injuries sustained upon buildings or other works under contract. The contingent liability 
of Owners having buildings or other works under contract. The liability of Owners of 
buildings for accidents (including Elevator). The liability of Owners of Horses and 
Vehicles for driving accidents. 


All Forms, Low Rates, and Non-Forfeitable. ITS INCREASING LIFE PLAN 
affording options of conversion into temporary or life annuities, with liberal surrender 
values, is offered by no other company. 

Assets, Liabilities, Surplus, 

$25,315,442.46 $21,209,625.36 $4,105,817.10 

Returned to Policy Holders since 1864, $36,996,956.27 

S. C. DUNHAM, Vice-Pres't. JOHN E. MORRIS, Secretary. 

H. J. MESSENGER, Actuary. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 





It will pay you to look over our new patterns, they are 
the handsomest papers in the market and sold at one-half 
the regular retail price. New Floral, Damask and Stripe 
effects, 5 cents to 12% cents per roll. Elegant Tapestries, 
Silks, Burlaps, Beautiful New Greens, Reds, Blues, &c, 
12^ cents and up to 50 cents per roll. 

AN AGENT WANTED in every town to sell our Wall Papers on 
Commission. A profitable business requiring no capital or 
experience. Write for particulars. 

844 Chapel Street, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 





We will furnish one merchant in a town with 
these puzzles for distribution at a moderate figure, 
with advertising matter printed thereon, and give 
the firm to which we sell, the exclusive rigbt : " 
the town represented. 

Write for Particulars. 

Charles B. Elmore, 13 Central Row, H'tPd, O. 

Around the Fire=place we find comfort 


_ w ; 

Get our prices before buying. 

The Hartford Mantel <fc Tile Co. 

L. M. GLOVER, Manager. 

Manufacturers and Manufacturers' Agents. 


440 Astlum Street., HAKTFORD, CONST. 

Telephone Connection. 

Mosaics, Interior Marble and Slate; Gas, Combination and 

Electric Light Fixtures; Fireplace Furniture of all Descriptions. 

Fine Resident REAL ESTATE I NVESTMENTS. Choicer * * 

Property & J> = Building Sites 

Read "Griffith's Samples " in the daily papers* 


dt Real Estate Broker, «$ 

Courant Building, 66 State St., HARTFORD, CONN. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


Connecticut Magazine 


Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History, 
Literature, Science, Art and Industries* 

APRIL, 1899. 

Vol. V. 


No. 4. 

The Capitol. , 

The Connecticut Capitol. Illustrated. 

Lucinda^s Light. Poem. Illustrated. 

Backward Glances at Hartford- III. Illustrated. 

On the Sicilian Coast. Poem. 

Fifteen Love. Story. IV. Conclusion. Illustrated. 

Iron Mining in Connecticut. 

John "Williams, D. D. L L. D. A Biographical Memoir. 

From a Distance. Poem. h 

List of Burials Center Church Burying Ground. 

Departments. — Genealogical Department. 

Editorial Notes. 

Book Notes. 

Publishers' Notes. 

William Harrison Taylor, 203 
Elizabeth Alden Curtis, 214 

Julis G. Rathbun, 218 

Edna Sanford, 225 

Mrs. William Edgar Simonds, 226 
W. H. C. Pynchon, 232 

Samuel Hart, 239 

Daniel Hugh Verder, 242 

Annotated by Mary K. Talcott, 242 


George C. At well, Editor. 

H. Phelps Arms, ~| 

Elizabeth Alden Curtis, | 

Milo L. Norton, 
W. H. C. Pynchon, 
William A. E. Thomas, 

} Associate Editors. 

Edward B. Eaton, Business Manager. 
Elliott J. Perkins, Advertising Manager. 
Henry S. House, Subscriptions. 

All communications should be addressed to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, Conn. Remittances 
should be by check, express order, P. O. money order or registered letter. Money by mail at sender's risk. We 
promptly acknowledge by postal card all subscriptions received by mail. When change of address is desired give 
both old and new address. Do not subscribe of a person unknown to you. Our authorized agents have full 

$1.00 a Year. THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE. JO Cents a Copy. 

Published at 66 State St., Hartford, Conn, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 

Copyright, 1899, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. ( All rights reserved.) 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn, as mail matter of the second-class. 


Columbia, Hartford and Vedette Bicycles 

A Michigan rider who wanted to find out about the Columbia Bevel* 

Gear Chainless didn't write to us, but to a number of riders whose 

addresses he obtained from the 1899 Columbia Calendar. He asked : 

"How about your chainless wheel at end of season ? Gears worn out ? 

Shaky? In bad shape ? " The answers were wholly favorable to the 

Chainless, but that is not the point we wish to make here. Like 

our Michigan friend, you have a right to beware of mere assertion. 

Ask Columbia riders. Or at least let us furnish you with proof of 

our claims. Any manufacturer can say that his wheel is "the best." 

Words are cheap. Use whatever means you will to investigate 

the merits of the 1899 Columbias, Hartfords and Vedettes. 

We should be pleased to aid you in every way possible. 

Our 1899 prices are: Chainless, $75 ; Columbia Chain 

Models, $50; Hartfords, $35; Vedettes, Men's, $25, 

Ladies', $26. Catalogue free of any Columbia dealer 

or by mail for one 2-cent stamp. 

Pope Manufacturing Co., Hartf ord,Conn. 







Passenger Accommodations First Class. 

3 Hartford and New York Transportation Co. £ 

Steamers "Middletown" and "Haktfokd"'— Leave Hartford from foot State StJatlS p. m.— Leave New York from Pier 
24, East Kiver, at 5 p. m.— Daily except Sundavs. CJ 1 '^ . 

Shipments received on pier in New York until 6 p. m. and forwarded to all point* mer turned on Connecticut river, and 
points North, East and West from Hartford. We also have through traffic arrangements will lines out of New York lor 
points South and West, and shipments can be forwarded on through rates, and Bills ot Lading obtained from offices of the 
_Companv. For Excursion Rates see daily papers. _^ — ^_ 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisets. 


any one of THESE PREMIUMS GIVEN *** 

To any person sending us five (5) new yearly subscriptions to The Connecticut 
Magazine at $1.00 each. 

Send in each subscription as it is taken and we will give you due credit for each. On the 
remittance of the fifth we will mail you postpaid your choiceof any one of the premiums. 


Handsome and Useful Ingersoll Watches. 

.2 bfj 

m » 

Nickel or gilt, stem wound and stem 
set, and WARRANTED for one year. 
If the watch is not what we guarantee 
it to be we will replace it by another. 
Your choice of either pocket watch or 
the new bicycle watch and attach- 
ment. Watch can be attached to handle bar of any wheel at a 
moment's notice. 

Yotxr Choice— Famous Arms Pocket Books. 

3 O 1 


Fine Morocco Ladies' Pocket 
Book with card pocket. Specie 
pocket, three extra pockets with 
button locks ; card pocket with 

Fine Morocco Combination 
Safety Purse and Pocket-Book. 
Strongly made in neat and at- 
tractive styles, and adapted for 
gentlemen's or ladies' use. 

Three pockets ; double lock. 

Address THE CONNECTICUT MAGAZINE, Hartford, Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


Storrs Agricultural College* 

"A boy is better unborn than untaught." 

But how much shall he be taught? Sufficient to develop him in all his parts. a A 
sound mind in a sound body " has been a good maxim in the past, and is equally good for 
the present, or the future. 

The cost of education is thought by some to be a hindrance to its attainment. The 
cost of travel is something, but may be off-set by free room-rent and free tuition. Clothing 
requires some outlay, and students with limited means should be taught to dress " inexpen- 
sively," but "neatly." 

Students need not be supplied with much "pin money," and should appreciate the 
sacrifice made by their parents, and refrain from spending money for tobacco and " trifles." 

Any young man, who really wants an education, can find a way to attain it, even if 
entirely dependent upon his own resources. 

The State College on Storrs Hill, in the town of Mansfield, proposes to equip young 
men and young women for their life work by the development of their powers, physical and 
intellectual • and impress upon them the idea that all labor is both noble and dignified. 

The new catalogue will soon be ready for distribution, and we would call the attention 
of patrons, and all interested, to the courses of study there outlined. Students, who are 
intending to enter college, and get the most for their time and money, will find it to their 
advantage to be well prepared beforehand. 

Agriculture, Horticulture, English Language, Literature, History, Mathematics, Physics, 
Chemistry, Political Economy, Civics, Mechanical Drawing, Iron Work, Wood Work. 
Domestic Science and Music, with practical work in all lines, gives the student, who desires 
it, an ample field for gaining practical knowledge and culture. 

The Spring term will begin April 3, and end on Commencement Day, June 14. The 
Summer term of eight weeks will begin June 27 for the special study of Entomology by the 
Junior class, but will be open to all desiring to spend part of the Summer vacation in the 
delights of Nature. 

Address all communications for catalogues and information to the President, G. W. 
Flint, Storrs, Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


PERHAPS there is no industry with which the general public is less familiar than 
with the photo-engraver's business. In these days of superb illustration we turn 
to hundreds of periodicals throughout the country, and find that the general 
tendency among publishers is to supply to their readers as many handsome and 
life-like illustrations as possible. 

The readers demand it, and the great circulations attained by certain periodicals 
can be attributed in no small degree to generous illustration. 

The merchant as well as the publisher in recent years realizes that greater success 
attends his advertising efforts if he illustrates his ads. freely and with appropriate 

The illustrations that have appeared in The Connecticut Magazine for the past 
four years have all been produced by the Hartford Engraving Co. This company 
makes all kinds of cuts for catalogue and book illustrations, as well as designs and 
cuts for advertising purposes for newspapers and magazines. 

The merchant who wants an advertising idea is at liberty to consult the Engraving 
Company, who will furnish proper advertising methods for giving his business the 
right kind of publicity. Estimates are furnished by mail on designing and cut work. 


Courant Building, 66 State Street. HARTFORD, CONN. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 



With only one change of cars 
between Hartford and Chicago, 
via the 


The shortest, cheapest and most 
convenient route. Train leaves 
Hartford at 12.40 P. M., connects 
at Campbell Hall with fast ex- 
press over O. W. and Wabash 
road, arriving at Chicago next 
day 9 P. M. Only one night 
on road. 

For information apply to 

W. J. MARTIN. Gen'l Pass. Agent, 

Hartford, Coxx. 



U. S. and 
Foreign Patents. 

No. 2 Central Row, 

Continuously in this business for thirty years, except 
when Commissioner of Patents, 1891-3. My Wash- 
ington associate was a member of the Board of 
Appeals in the Patent Office for twenty years. My 
associates in the foreign capitals are foremost in their 
profession. It is my undertaking to furnish, at home 
and abroad, a service unequalled in every respect. 


for 1897. 

In looking over our files we 
find we have one hundred vol- 
umes of the 1 89 7 Connecticut 
Quarterlv, complete, which we 
take pleasure in offering to our 
readers who desire copies of the 
the Quarterly for that year for 
5 1. 00 per volume. 

The Connecticut Magazine, 

Hartford, Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


How About Those TWINS 

There can be only one BEST 

The public have learned to know that all Rubber 
collars stamped with the TWIN trade mark are abso- 
lutely the BEST. At EASTER we are all looking for 
new Spring styles. 

If you want to see the very latest and best, write for 
our illustrated catalogue of 65 different styles of rubber 
collars. We are the only manufacturers making a line 
of fancy goods, illustrated by the cut. They are abso- 
lutely waterproof, cannot be told from the best linen, 
and always appear the same. 


Just the thing for U. 

We want hustling agents. Write for terms. Dept. B. 

M. & M. MFG. CO., Springfield, Mass. 

Watch this space for something new next month. 

THE Genuine. 


The ^Windsor 

Water Proof. 

Rubber Collars, 


Shirt Fronts and 


Are made of a composition 
solid, not interlined with cloth. 

They will give you satisfaction, 
comfort and style that laundered 
linen will not. 

The first cost the only cost. Get 
a set of our goods. You will find 
they will please you more than 
your Spring suit or Easter bonnet. 
They are worn the year round. 

Send for Circular showing line of goods made. It's sent for 
the asking. 

Call on our Agents for goods or send to us and we will mail 
to you. Collars 35c, Cuffs, 65c pair, Fionts, $1 and Ties, 25c. 

Don't be fooled by imitations ! Look for trade mark when 
buying Rubber goods. 

Trade Mark 


Water Proof 

Chicago, 111. 


Lock Box 15, 
Windsor, Conn. 


In Recognition of benefits Received from 



Spec/al Oppep - 7b a// wfio wr/fe i/s /nenffon- 
W/ng f/?/s paper, we sen of a 6oo/fconta/n/ng por- 
'fra/fs a/?cf encfonre/ne/its o/£mpepops, £atppess s 
Pp/s/cesSapd/a/als, Apc/*b/shops> an of of/tercf/s///?~ 
gi//s/?ect personages. 

Ma/?/an/ & Co., 52 W£sr/5 T fSr. /Vsw/op/f. 


PAP/s-l/Bouteydra'h'aussmdm loatdon-S3 Mortimer Sr. Montrea/~87$rJamesSt. 

Please mention TTfF. CoNNF.CTTrnT Ma^aztnf. when von 

ite to advertisers. 

5 1 








i\i\ \w 

!»1"i .rrfTT 


The Connecticut Magazine 

Vol. V. 

April, 1899. 

No. 4. 



N 1893 the people 
of this country 
were given an 
enduring object 
lesson in the pos- 
sibilities of muni- 
cipal architecture 
by having the 
ideal made reality in the white city on the 
shore of the great lake at the Chicago 
World's Fair. The encomiums that have 
been lavished upon the projectors and 
executors of those plans are well deserved, 
and the beauty and symmetry of it all will 
remain a joy forever in the hearts of the 
American people. Twenty years previous 
to this time the people of Connecticut 
planned for a state house, which was 
destined to prove as remarkable an ex- 
ample of a model building, for the pur- 
pose designed, as was that prototype of 
what a city might' be, so forcibly im- 
pressed upon us in the summer of 1893. 

The location so favorable, happily 
chosen by most excellent judgment, for 

our Connecticut Capitol building, the 
style of architecture, so perfectly adapted 
to the location and the thoroughness, 
honesty, and economy with which the 
building operations were carried on and 
completed, are cruse for congratulation 
for the people of the state and all who 
were identified in its construction. 

The first regular session, in its entirety, 
of the General Assembly that was held in 
the new Capitol was in 1879, but for a 
few days just prior to adjournment of the 
previous session the members met in the 
new building, the first time they 
assembled there being on March 26, 
1878. Richard D. Hubbard was then 
the Governor, Francis B. Loomis, Lieu- 
tenant Governor, and Charles H. Briscoe, 
Speaker of the House. 

Connecticut had had four state house 
buildings before this. Previous to 17 19 
the state owned no building for its 
especial use. The records do not say 
where the legislature met. but it is be- 
lieved to have met in some church. 



The first state house built in 1719, was administration of Governor Jonathan 

a wooden building with a gambrel roof Trumbull. In 1796, when the present 

and a cupola, and stood in front of where city hall was completed for a state house, 

the old state house, now Hartford's city the old wooden structure was removed 

hall, now stands, the front part of it being to Church street, and was long ago de- 


on the sidewalk on Main street. It was molished, some of the timbers having been 

partially destroyed by fire on April 20, used in building the stables in the rear of 

1783, when there was a celebration in the United States Hotel, where they un- 

honor of the treaty of Paris, during the doubtedly are to-day. 




The second Connecticut state house 
was the brick one on the Green in New 
Haven, built in t 763. 

The third one was Hartford's present 
city hall, before referred to, commenced 
in 1792 and finished in 1796. At the 
May session of the Assembly in 1793, the 
sum already provided having been in- 
sufficient to complete the building, the 
building committee were authorized to 
hold and manage a lottery to raise $5,000. 
The scheme, however, failed, as they did 
not realize the required amount. The 
total cost was $52,480. The architect 
was Col. Jeremiah Wadsworth. The 
bricks used in this building were made in 

The old building is rich in historical 
associations ; there the famous Hartford 
Convention assembled in 18 14, and the 

Constitutional Convention in 181 8, 
when our present constitution was 
adopted. There General Lafayette 
was received with military honors 
in 1S24 and there the supreme 
court room has been the scene of 
many celebrated cases argued by 
our most able lawyers. Upon the 
occupancy of the new Capitol this 
building was turned over to the 
city of Hartford. 

The next building erected by 
the state for legislative purposes 
was on the Green in New Haven \ 
begun in 1827 and finished in 
1830. With an imposing front of 
massive Doric columns it was a 
famous landmark thereuntil 1887, 
when it was removed. The archi- 
tect was Ithiel Towne, and total 
cost $41,500. The last session 
held there was in 1874, after which 
H it was turned over to the city of 
Wik New Haven. 

In July, 1 87 1, the Legislature 
appointed a commission and di- 
rected it to procure plans and build a 
state house at a cost not to exceed 
$1,000,000. The commission invited 
bids, to be in by January 1, 1872, for 





plans for a building, not to exceed 
$900,000 in cost. Five sets of drawings 
were sent in, but the commissioners were 
unable to decide from among them, 
and a new competition was invited. 
Eleven sets of plans were submitted in 
response, one of which was agreed upon, 
and a contract was made with J. G. 
Batterson to erect a building for $875,000. 
Foundations for the building had already 
been put in, and the work well under way 
when the General Assembly at the May 
session, 1873, ordered all work stopped and 
authorized the governor to appoint a new 
commission with authority to draw on the 
comptroller for $500,000, in addition to 
the previous appropriation. The new 
board decided it was best to proceed with 
the existing plan with such modifications as 
would give a thoroughly fire-proof build- 
ing, and an alteration of the design, the 
most significant change being the substi- 

tution of a dome for the clock tower of the 
first design. The improved plans were 
submitted to the General Assembly of 
1874 an d the following act was passed in 
relation to the appropriations needed for 
the completion of the building, according 
to the altered plans: "Resolved by this 
Assembly, That the further sum of 
$1,000,000 of any moneys in the hands of 
the treasurer of this state be, and the said 
sum is hereby appropriated, for the pur- 
pose of completing the new State House. 
And the president of the Board of Capitol 
Commissioners is hereby authorized to 
draw his orders upon the comptroller for 
the above amount, as it may be needed 
for the construction of said building, pro- 
vided that no greater amount than 
$400,000 of said appropriation shall be 
drawn in one year. 

"Approved July 22, 1875." 



The city of Hartford gave $500,000 in 
addition toward the building, and donated 
the site of 13 acres, which was purchased 
from Trinity College for $600,000. 

Upon the completion of the labors of 
the commissioners they reported to the 
state the sum of about $13,000 unex- 
pended of the appropriation. 

The building was completed in 1S80 at 
a total cost of $2,532,524.43, which sum 
included heating and ventilating apparatus, 
elevator, statuary, etc., amounting to 
nearly $100,000. The furnishing of the 
building cost about $100,000 in addition 
to the above-named sum. 

It is with satisfaction that we comtem- 
plate the fact that the building material, 
East Canaan marble, found by a 
commission appointed to examine it, to be 
durable and eminently suitable for the 
purpose, comes from within the borders 
of our own state, and it is not to be 

wondered at, with the experience of some 
of our sister states in capitol building 
before us, that the honest work of our 
commission and contractors is worthy of 
more than passing comment and dwelt on 
with pardonable pride by our people. To 
the Connecticut Capitol Commissioners, 
especially to the chairman of the board, 
Alfred E. Burr, and to the contractor, 
James G. Batterson, the Capitol stands a 
monument more eloquent than any words, 
descriptive of their work, can be. 

In architecture the building is an 
example of modern secular Gothic, on a 
general ground plan of a parallelogram. 
Its extreme length is 295 feet 8 inches ; 
depth of center part 189 feet 4 inches; 
depth of wings, in feet 8 inches ; depth 
of intermediate parts, 102 feet 8 inches; 
height from ground line to top of crowning 
figure, 256 feet 6 inches ; level of building 
ground line is 84.7 feet above mean low 





water at Saybrook. It has four fronts, 
nearly corresponding with the four 
cardinal points of the compass, but the 
main front, the north one, is little used, 
compared with the others. It is the east 
front, the entrance most used by 
pedestrians from the city, that is the most 
attractive. Upon this are the medallions 
of the Charter Oak, the march of Hooker 
and his party to Hartford and the 
preaching of Davenport to his flock upon 
their arrival at New Haven. Above these 
are bust medallions of Noah Webster, 
Horace Bushnell, Joel Barlow, George 
Berkeley, John Trumbull and Jonathan 
Edwards, and statues of Roger Sherman 
Thomas Hooker, Jonathan Trumbull and 
John Davenport cut in fine statuary 
marble, are placed in positions designed 
for them. Places have been left on all 
sides of the building for many statues, 
busts and historical designs. 

Just inside the east entrance in the 
lower corridor is a statue of Nathan Hale, 
head thrown back in a spirited, defiant 
attitude, indicative of the nature of the 

man, on the granite pedestal of which is 
cut his memorable last words, '" I only 
regret that I have but one life to lose for 
my country." This statue was dedicated 
in 1887. On this floor in the north cor- 
ridor is the figure head of the '' Hartford," 
a bronze tablet to John Fitch, a native of 
Windsor, the first to successfully apply 
the principle of steam to propulsion of 
vessels through water, and the model of 
the bronze statue which crowns the dome. 
This statue was ordered by Mr. Batterson 
from the celebrated sculptor, Randolph 
Rogers, of Rome, Italy, and was cast in 
Munich. The plaster model belonging 
to Mr. Batterson was presented to the 

In the center of the floor directly 
under the dome is the gun captured from 
the Spanish battle-ship Viscaya, recently 
placed there. In the west corridor is the 
statue of William A. Buckingham, gov- 




ernor of Connecticut for nine successive 
terms ; our war governor, serving through 
those troublous times of the early sixties, 
it is especially fitting that, sitting here, he 
should be guarded on either side by the 
emblems of those stirring times, the 
battle flags of our Connecticut regiments, 
eloquent in their silent reference to days 
of pathetic memories ; he it was who put 
them into the hands of the troops and 

the marks of battles thereon. Here also 
is the grave-stone of the most famous of 
Connecticut's war heroes, the redoubt- 
able Putnam, who dared to lead where no 
one dared to follow.* 

There are portraits of General Putnam 
and Governor Buckingham in the gover- 
nor's room on the second floor, which is 
the main floor of the building, containing 
the legislative halls of the Senate and the 


received them when they returned with 
the commendation and sympathy which 
their achievements merited. They were 
placed here on Battle Flag Day, Septem- 
ber 17, 1879, amid the greatest celebration 
that ever took place in Hartford. His 
statue was placed there later and 
dedicated on June 18, 1884. Here is 
the historical wheel, with its records and 

House of Representatives, lieutenant gov- 
ernor's room, secretary of state's office, 
and other state offices. In the secretary 
of state's office is the famous charter 
granted by King Charles in 1662, — or the 
duplicate charter, probably — framed in 
wood from the Charter Oak, and the 
original document of our constitution of 
181 8. In the Senate chamber is the 

*The quotation "where any dared to follow" we have purposely changed to make 
agree more nearly with actual facts. — Editor. 



Charter Oak chair, one • of the most 
beautiful pieces of workmanship in the 
building, and the original full length 
portrait of Washington, by Gilbert Stuart. 

Concerning this picture Mr. James B. 
Hosmer, an intimate friend of Daniel 
Wadsworth, writes in his diary or note 
book, which is in the possession of the 
Connecticut Historical Society, — 

" Mr. Wadsworth says that the portrait 
of Washington in the Senate chamber of 
the State House was painted by G. Stuart 

ington ; Washington was 6 feet 2 inches 
in height. Stuart kept it until his wants 
were such that he was obliged to sell it — 
the state bought it and paid I think $800 
for it." 

One of the most interesting of all rooms 
is the state library on the third floor. 
Here are the pictures of the governors of 
the state from the first one to the present 
time, with the exception of fourteen of the 
early ones, of whom no likenesses could 
be procured. 


for the City of Charleston, S. C. The 
citizens did not take it because they pre- 
ferred him in military dress. Stuart was 
glad to have them leave it for he thought 
it the best likeness he had ever painted of 
him. It was painted while Washington 
was President of the United States, — the 
head was taken from life, the person from 
a young gentleman near the size of Wash- 

When the present librarian, Dr. Charles 
J. Hoadly, was appointed to the position 
in 1854, there were no complete sets of 
books, and in fact all the books could be 
put into one side of one of the present 
book cases. To-day there are over 
twenty-five thousand volumes belonging 
to the library, and it is one of the best and 
most complete in the United States. 


21 I 

Besides his untiring efforts in perfecting 
it as a law library, for which it was designed 
and maintained, Dr. Hoadly, who is dis- 

letter of credit taken by Governor Win- 
throp when he went as agent to procure a 
charter for the Colony of Connecticut, 
signed by John Tallcott, in 
response to which the char- 
ter of 1662 was procured ; 
the commission appointing 
William Ellery postmaster 
at Hartford when Benjamin 
Franklin was postmaster- 
general, and signed by 
him ; one of the original 
lottery tickets issued to 
build the state house in 
Hartford, before mentioned 
in this article • an original 
invitation to an election 
ball ; a series of Connec- 
ticut coppers, coined by 

tinguished as one of 
the most accom- 
plished historical stu- 
dents in the country, 
has collected a vast 
amount of the most 
interesting and valu- 
able material per- 
taining to the state's 
history. Among the 
most important of 
valuable documents 
here are the commis- 
sion of Jno.Winthrop 
as first magistrate of 
Nameock, now New 
London, Oct. 27, 
1647, which has on it 
the oldest known im- 
pression of the seal 
of Connecticut ; the 








authority of the state, besides many 
pieces of Colonial paper money issued by 
the state, and various other records and 
documents which are priceless. 

There are other objects of interest about 
the building that appeal to many who go 

the north corridor, the picture of 
General Nathaniel Lyon in the office of 
the adjutant general and the picture of the 
Putnam wolf den now in the representa- 
tive's hall, soon to be framed and hung in 
the state library. 


up to see where our laws are made, such 
as the portraits of the former state officers 
in the various rooms, the Tingue collection 
of buttons, the statues of ex-Governor 
Hubbard and Colonel Thomas Knowlton 
on the Capitol grounds, the Krupp gun in 

The arrangement of the eighty rooms 
of the building for the use of the state 
officers, committees and members of the 
Legislature, suggests the attention paid to 
the convenience of the officers and the 
public having business with them. 


The interest of all visitors naturally a female figure, representing Force, Art, 
centers in the dome, from the time its Law, Commerce, Science and Agriculture, 
first glitter is seen, perhaps from miles two each. One-half size models, ex- 
away, until the 212 steps from the elevator quisitely graceful, are standing at the en- 
landing, or 275 from the ground floor, trances of the gallery to the House on the 
have been climbed and the magnificent third floor. The large figure representing 
view of the country for fifty miles in the Genius of Connecticut surmounts the 
extent is spread before them. The dome cupola and holds two wreaths, one of 
is constructed of marble, like the rest of immortelles and one of laurel, and on its 
the building, is richly adorned with arcades, head a crown of oak leaves, 
columns and galleries, and its area of May the influence of our tutelary Genius 
4,100 square feet was covered at time be for the good of the commonwealth, 
of building with 87,500 leaves of gold, 23 whose inhabitants showa just appreciation 
karets fine. In 1894 it was regilded. At of their State Capitol, 
•each angle of its twelve sides is placed 

The paragraph reproduced below, is taken from the editorial sheet of one of 
the great London Dailies ; the subjoined paragraph to which it relates, appeared last 
year, in an American newspaper. 

" In one of his most tender and profound passages Lord Tennyson puts a question 
which has been asked, without any certain answer, in many a place and by many a 
generation: 'Of love,' he writes, 'which never found its earthly close, What sequel? 
streaming eyes and broken hearts? And all the same as if it had not been?' That 
pathetic query of the poet, comes irresistibly to mind on reading the subjoined 
simple, but striking, paragraph in the columns of an American newspaper. It 
runs as follows : ' Miss Lucinda Day died to-day at the age of ninety., in a quaint 
little brick house, where she had lived all her life. Seventy years ago Miss Day had a 
love affair. Her lover was a sailor, and on his departure for a voyage Miss Day 
promised to place every night a lighted candle in the window to greet him if he 
returned in the night. He has never since been heard from, but Miss Day has always 
refused to believe him dead. To-night was the first time for seventy years that a 
■candle had not shone in the window.' " 



What time, upon her outbound enterprise, 

A fishing vessel let go anchor, there, 

Peopling to life an old New England quay, 

Flocked sundry fisher-folk of humble guise, 

To bid farwell each to his own, and cheer 

The busy crew with quibble and kind chaff 

At parting. The green sea flew snowy ensigns 

In the cheerful sun, that favorable noon, 

And here and there fluttered at some bronzed throat 

A scarlet knot, offsetting a dun sail. 

' Yea, I will light the candle every night, 
And put it in the casement till you come. 


Apart from these, a slender, earnest girl 
Stood with a proud, young sailor, silently, 
Until a scattering in the little group — 
An ominous hush, like prelude to a storm, 
Warned them to part. And then she held her lips, 
Sweet, trembling lips, to meet his lingering kiss, 
Her fair cheek flushing like a rosy shell : — 
"Yea, I will light the candle every night, 
And put it in the casement till you come" 
And he, seeing her eyes suffused for him, 
The while she bravely struggled with a smile, 
Leapt up the plank, and from the outbound deck 
Looked back to see her kerchief's mute farewell, 
And wave in answer, thinking how his eyes 
Should strain to pierce the fog-bank and the dark, 
And glimpse, beyond the waste of lapping seas, 
Her beacon candle, flashing out its sign 
Of happy welcome to her gentle arms. 

That night a month, a ship in deadly plight, 
Tortured from all old semblance of herself, 
Trapped in the pitiless mountains of the sea, 
And scourged by all the howling winds of heaven, 
Turned like a harried, death-stricken wolf at bay, 
And with one shudder of her hulk, went down, 
Disgorging all her pallid, hapless crew 
Into the boiling whirlpool of the deep. 
One, with the lithe, clean sinews of his youth, 
Made superhuman effort for his life ; 
Battling and praying with the merciless wave, 
Clung to the futile plank that bore him still, 
And felt his great heart bursting with the thought 
Of home and peace, and raved to think of one 
Who set a nightly beacon for her love. 
Then the man's soul sent up so great a cry 
It pierced the very tumult of the night ; 
But last he smiled, and 'twas the blessed thought 
Of his dear maiden's trustful, radiant face, 
That set such beauty on his carven lips. 



Lucinda grew from youth to womanhood — 

Changed to a white-haired dame, bereft of all 

Save hope, and of her heart's great fealty ; 

And nightly, when the little seaport town 

Was wrapped in darkness, she would dumbly set 

A lighted candle on her lonely sill. 

" Why ? " she would say, if friend or stranger asked, 

" That my dear sailor, when his good ship comes, 

May see the light, and know I watch for him." 

And careless children, on their way to school, 

Would sometimes bid each other look, and say 

" 'Tis here lives poor Lucinda. There she sets 

A light at evening for her lover's ship 

That father says was lost, O years ago." 

But sea-worn, weary mariners that made 

The home-port in the dark, would often hail 

That faithful candle, lighted for his sake 

Who never claimed the welcome it had spoke 

In seventy years' supreme fidelity : 

For after that, Lucinda calmly went 

To meet her sailor-lover — to renew 

That sweet communion, granted them awhile, 

And then denied so long, and now at last 

Restored perpetually ; — beyond the reach 

Of winds and waves, of partings and of tears. 

This is the history of one who kept 

The letter of her promise all her life, 

And pinned her faith unto eternity : 

" For she loved much," and entered, I believe, 

From life into eternal blessedness. 






IN speaking of the East Side of Hartford 
it is of course understood that it 
means the territory east of Main street 
which, in former times was the principal 
part of the city. 

In 1635 several families from Dorches- 
ter and Watertown, Mass., had settled at 
Windsor and Wethersfield, and the same 
year John Steel, and a few others from 
Newtown (Cambridge), had located 
between the two towns. When the fol- 
lowing year Rev. Thomas Hooker and 
his little company of one hundred men, 
women and children from Newtown, 
arrived on the west bank of the Great 
River, they found a small company 
already on the ground. 

The tract of land between Windsor and 
Wethersfield, extending six miles west of 
the river, into the wilderness, was pur- 
chased of the Suckiaug Indians, whose 
sachem was Sequassen. 

The Dutch, in 1633, had built a small 
fort, called the " House of Hope," on the 
north side of Little River, at its junction 
with the Great River, two small cannon 
being mounted, with a small garrison in 

This high point of land, which has 
always been known as Dutch Point, long 
since disappeared, from the action of 
the waters. 

The land lying east of Front street was 
called the "Little Meadow," and after 

being cleared was divided among the first 
settlers, the principal men receiving three 
to four acres each, the others a smaller 

Here, it is supposed, the first log huts 
were built temporarily. 

As soon as possible a broad street was 
laid out, a little more than a mile in 
length, from " Ceritinel Hill" on the 
north, to a point about where the present 
South Green is located, which is the 
present Main street, but much wider than 

A fort or block-house was built at 
each end of the street, one about opposite 
Morgan street, the other a little north of 
the South Green, so that the guards who 
were there stationed, could see and signal 
one another. 

The English settlers and the Dutch 
lived as neighbors, with some friction, until 
1653, when war was declared between 
England and Holland, and the Dutch 
were driven out of Connecticut. 

It is not known where the first houses 
were built, or the first streets laid out, but 
in all probability houses were erected on 
the lots first assigned, and in the vicinity 
of the block-houses, because of their pro- 

It is probable that School (Arch), Front 
and State streets were among the earliest, 
for it is known that Rev. Thomas Hooker 
resided on School street in 1649, that 


2 ig 

Front was the road running to Windsor, 
also that a street was laid out from the 
river to the public training ground, and 
the meeting house, which stood near the 
north east corner. 

From good authority it is believed that 
the frame of the house still standing on 
the corner of Main and Talcott streets, 
commonly known as the Brooks house, 
was erected about 1649. H this is true, 

Grove street derived its name from a 
fine grove of trees which stood between 
Front and Commerce, extending north 
from Potter street, where Mechanic street 
is now. This was a favorite spot lot- 
celebrations of various kinds ; within my 
own recollection, Fourth of July, Sunday 
school, temperance and other celebrations 
have here been held, it being the most 
central and convenient place in the city. 


with the exception of the old stone 
house in Guilford, it is without doubt 
the oldest building now standing in Con- 

Other streets which were early opened 
were the present Commerce, Potter, one 
leading up to the house of Capt. John 
Talcott on Centinel Hill, the present 
Talcott street, Grove, Kilbourn and Ferry 

Another favorite spot was on the eastern 
slope of Charter Oak Hill, one gathering 
in particular, which I recall was during 
the "Clay and Frelinghuysen " campaign 
in 1844, when many thousands of people 
were assembled, and made a day of it. 

One of the most prominent streets for 
residents was Front street, and from fifty 
to sixty years ago, many of the leading 
merchants resided there. 




Mr. Samuel Taylor of Charter Oak 
Place, who has nearly all his life resided 
east of Main street, has been of the 
greatest assistance in recalling the names 
of residents in his boyhood days. I am 
also indebted to him for several of the 
illustrations in this number, as well as of 
others to follow later on. 

For several years Mr. Taylor has spent 
much time and money in securing photo-, 
graphs of public buildings and old land- 
marks in various parts of the city, many 
of which have been torn down to make 
room for more modern buildings. In this 
matter he has been a public benefactor. 

The street known as Potter street, from 
Front to Dutch Point, has always been 
quite a business street. On the site of 
the gas company plant, there 
was once a large distillery, 
east of this was quite a ship- 
ping point ; Imlay's wharves 
were located there, where 
the steam propeller Mohawk 
and other vessels used to 
land their cargoes. 

In the early days of rail- 
roads, the car works of 
Fales & Gray were built 
next the gas works, and a 
large business done for sev- 

eral years. Many readers 
will recall the fearful ex- 
plosion which occurred in 
March, 1854, causing a great 
loss of life and property. 

Several well-known busi- 
ness men resided on Potter 
street; one of these, Noah 
Wheat on, a prominent 
builder. Among the build- 
ings erected by him were 
the first railroad depot on 
Spruce street, and the Pearl 
Street Church. 
On Dutch Point, about one thousand 
feet west of the site of the old fort, stood 
the steam planing mill of Preston & Taylor, 
afterward Edwin Taylor's, the first of its 
kind built in Hartford County. This was 
destroyed by fire in the daytime, just a 
halt-century ago, April, 1849, probably 
the hottest fire which ever occurred in 
Hartford, the firemen being unable to 
approach near enough to be of any service, 
the extensive mill, with a large amount of 
lumber, being entirely destroyed. 

A. and T. Hanks had a foundry prior 
to 1834 on a high bank overlooking the 
river, afterwards Hanks & Woodruff on 
Commerce street, where the power 
house of the Electric Light Company, 
is now. 




Some of the prominent families residing 
on Front street, from Arch to State, about 
1839-40, on the West side, were Holman, 
Wildman, Bradford, William Goodwin, 
Brockett, Conner, Stillman, Webster, 
Treat, William Brown, E. Taylor, Foster, 
Kimball, Townsend, Chappell, Blodgett, 
Orrin Smith, Skinner, Austin Dunham, 
Henry and Isaac Perkins, Whiting, Ely 
and C. Glazier. 

On the east side, going south from 
State, David Clark, Isaac D. Bull, Z. 

Thomas and Dr. James McManus, was in 
charge of the yard. 

Directly opposite where Foster & Co. 
now are, stood the Fielding house, in 
which Betsy Fielding had a school for 
little children. Many well-known men 
and women, here learned their ABC's, 
and then graduated to the '• Old Stone 
Jug" on Market street. I recall the names 
of four business men, who attended the 
school of Betsy Fielding about the same 
time : F. R. Foster, A. C. Dunham, Samuel 


Preston, Fielding, Levi Lincoln, Woodruff, 
Burbank, Goodsell, W. L. Wright, W. 
Roberts, Bolles, Webster's Pottery, Whit- 
more, Mason Smith, Joel Hills, E. T. 
Preston, Goodsell and Hicks. What a list 
of active, well-known business men ! The 
pottery was an interesting place for the 
children to gather on evenings when the 
kilns were fired. 

Bergh and Boughton's coal yard was on 
the northwest corner of Front and Grove 
streets. They were succeeded in 1844 
by Thomas M. Day. The father of Gen. 

Taylor and the writer. And there are 
several well-known ladies now residing 
here who attended the same school. The 
old wooden dwelling is still standing just 
east of Foster & Co.'s. 

Further north on Front street, resided 
C. G. Smith, Melvin Copeland, Ellery 
Hills, Geo. D. Morgan, and the Church 
and Pease families. 

Arch, Prospect, Grove, Morgan, Temple 
Talcott, and Kilbourn were residence 
streets Prospect, still a fine street, is too 
well known to require names, but I give a 



few of the prominent residents of others : 
on Arch street, Henry Hudson, Thomas H. 
and Henry Seymour and Major Putnam, 
who was Commandant of the Governor's 
Foot Guard and was buried with military 
honors about 60 years ago. He resided 
just east of Main street. On Grove, Rev. 
Dr. Joel Hawes and Daniel Buck ; on 
State, Charles H. Northam, A.H.Pomeroy, 
Robert Buell, Solomon and A. S. Porter, 
John B. Russell, and W. A. Ward; on 
Morgan, Rev. George Burgess, R. R. 
Hinman, D. P. Crosby, William Isham, 

with the West Indies, and other foreign 
countries, besides having a large coasting 
trade. From the West Indies, rum, sugar, 
molasses, etc., were imported, and this 
was the distributing point for northern 
and western Connecticut, western Massa- 
chusetts and southern Vermont. Goods 
were sent inland by means of heavy teams 
and stages, while flat boats and scows 
carried merchandise by way of the river 
to the north. 

The wharves, and streets near the river, 
were lined with warehouses, especially 


Denison Morgan, Griffin Stedman, Abner 
Church, (now living) S. G. Boughton, and 
the Montagues ; on Temple, Allen S. Still- 
man, C. C. Lyman, Henry Benton, S. G. 
Chaffee, Eli Gilman, E. Cushman, E. S. 
Hamilton, and the Collyer's ; on Talcott, 
J. F. Judd, Benning Mann, E. G. Ripley, 
and George Roberts ; on Commerce, Asa 
Farwell and A. M. Gordon. 

After the close of the Revolutionary War, 
for about fifty years, Hartford was a great 
business center ; it grew rapidly, so that by 
the census of 1820 the population was 
6901. A very large business was carried on 

Commerce and lower State street, and 
frequently vessels three deep, were waiting 
to discharge and receive cargoes. The 
advent of railroads gradually lessened the 
water traffic, as well as the trade in 
West India goods. 

About 1840 there were two lines of 
steamboats (stern wheelers) running to 
Springfield daily; the "Massachusetts" 
and "Agawam" from foot of State street, 
and the " Greenfield " from foot of Tal- 
cott. Several freight and tow boats, were 
towed on each trip as far as Springfield, 
four going regularly to Greenfield, but the 



opening of the railroad to Springfield in 
1844 broke up the steamboat business. 

William, or " Billy " Brown, who lived 
on Front street, opposite the Pottery, was 
a character in his day. A very large man, 
with a very small wife. The old house is 
still standing. 

Ferry street was a busy place. Daniel 
Bartlett's tavern on the south side was a 

drawn up on the shore, dressed and taken 
home by the purchaser. Later, Church's 
fish market was established, so that busi- 
ness might be conducted under cover. 

The ferry across to East Hartford was 
established in 1681, leaving from Kilbourn 
street, and afterward from Ferry street, 
the boats being propelled by horses, one 
on each side. 


popular hostelry. Weeks & Pomeroy had 
a large wholesale and retail grocery. On 
the south corner of Commerce was the 
three-story, brown-stone store of Asa Far- 
well, the first stone business block in 
Hartford, erected about 1832, still stand- 
ing. At the foot of Ferry, was the open 
fish market ; a busy place during the shad 
season. The fish were sold from boats 

A charter for a bridge was secured in 
1808, and a bridge built at a cost of 
$96,000, a toll bridge, with the expectation 
of soon making it free. In 181 8 the ferry 
was suppressed, again restored by act of 
Legislature in 1836, suppressed in 1841, 
again opened in 1842, pending a decision 
by the courts, resulting in favor of the 
bridge company. 




The story of the destruction of the old 
bridge by fire, on the evening of May 17, 
1895, the erection of the temporary bridge, 
as well as the history of the great freshets, 
are too well known to be repeated. 

I cannot close this article without 
alluding to the old City Hall, recently 
demolished to make room for the new 
Police building, opened a few months ago. 

A night watch, establishei in 1815, 
guarded the city until i860, when the 
police force was organized ■ Hartford at 
present having a 
police fprce, consist- 
ing of a chief, cap- 
tain, lieutenant, four 
sergeants, eighty-five 
regulars, and one 
hundred supernu- 

The old City Hall, 
fronting on Market, 
Temple and Kinsley 
streets, a little to the 
north of the site of 
the first meeting- 
house built in Hart- 
ford, was erected for 
city government pur- 

poses in 1834, Samuel Belcher and Gen. 
William Hayden being the contractors. 
The main entrance was by a semi-circular 
stairway from Kinsley street, under which, 
in the basement, was the "lockup" for 
those arrested by the two constables of the 
city ; the remainder of the basement on a 
level with the street being occupied by 
various market men. This was the cen- 
tral market place. Accidentally I am in 
possession of the names of well-known 
men who occupied the stalls in 1842, as 
follows : — Erastus Woodruff, John Leg- 
gett, George Starkweather, Joel Rockwell, 
William Wells, Lemuel Howlett, Horace 
Waters, Abiram Spencer and N. M. Morse. 
On the second floor, were the city offices ; 
courts, common council rooms, and 
armories of the Light Guard, Light In- 
fantry, and Governor's Foot Guard, the 
latter on the Temple street end. The 
third floor, was the City Hall, the prin- 
cipal public hall, used for public meetings, 
and rented for concerts and various enter- 
tainments, the two great annual occasions 
being the Firemen's Ball, and the " Hart- 
ford County Agricultural Society " Fairs, 
when all the two upper stories were 
utilized. It was a great event for all the 



region round about, lasting several days Alice Adams, of Coventry, who was 

and evenings. engaged to Capt. Nathan Hale, but 

Many men of national reputation have because a sister had married Hale's 

addressed large audiences in the old hall, brother, the family objected to the 

perhaps the most notable, Abraham Lin- marriage. While Hale was in prison, she 

coin, in March, i860. wrote to him, but the British officer who 

In closing I will call attention to the old received the letter, tore it up, so that it 

wooden dwellings which stood on State was not delivered. Afterward, she 

street, between the Exchange Bank and married Mr. Lawrence. Her death 

Market street, occupied by William and occurred about 1840. 
Samuel Lawrence. The former was the For these facts I am indebted to Henry 

father ol William Roderick Lawrence, the A. Stillman, Esq., of Woodland street, who 

"poet-painter," and. the daughters, Mary was an intimate friend of the family. 

("Polly") and Margaret, who died about 
1830-6. Mrs. William Lawrence was 

{To be continued.") 



Pale evening paused on a purple peak 
To greet the sun ere he sank to rest, 
Her brows he kissed and her pallid cheek, 
And left a blush on her dusky breast. 
Viewless lassoes she softly threw 
Over the necks of all living things, 
Bringing them home in the twilight blue, 
Mid patter of feet and nutter of wings. 

Into the blue and out of the gold, — 
Sea-birds home to their airy nrsts ; 
Lowing herds to the humble fold, 
And children home to their mother's breasts. 
To-night I paused on a purple peak, 
When daylight died on the darkling main, 
And something moistened my weary cheek, 
As thoughts long dead came to life again. 

But there were no lines my birds to draw, — 
My birds, my herds and my children home, 
The night alone and the stars I saw, 
And shadowy Aetna's sombre dome. 
O restless soul can thy words restore 
The pride and promise of former years, 
Or art Thou a surge on an iron shore 
Which breaks and forever disappears? 


A sequel to " In Satan's Kingdom.' 




MRS. MEDBURY was a changed 
woman, her most intimate friends 
scarcely recognizing one of the old traits 
in her ; indeed she hardly knew herself. 
The scales had fallen from her eyes. 


Utterly insignificant seemed things that 
had carried with them so much impor- 
tance before. All of her existence was 
centered in the one joy that her son lived 
and her faith that he would ultimately be 

restored in mind and body was firm. 
Many times a day she found herself sing- 
ing the hymns that were still the solace 
of the son until at last their voices 
learned to blend together in the same 
songs. It became a 
part of their daily in- 
tercourse, exerting a 
wonderfully mellowing 
and wholesome influ- 
ence. After a little 
while Frank Medbury 
would have seemed 
quite his old self had it 
not been for frequent 
lapses into utterances 
of " Fifteen Love " — 
" The age of Fifteen " 
— "Courts of Heaven" 
and the like, while the 
bewildered family 
could gain no clue to 
its mystery. 

Mrs. Medbury grew 
to, notice that often 
while repeating the 
words a At the age of 
fifteen" her son would 
stand facing the wall 
at a picture thereon 
communicated to the 
doctor one day as they were walking on 
the veranda at Coronado Beach. Re- 
flecting a while the doctor inquired if 

as though gazing 
and this fact she 



her son had ever had an affair of the 
heart. Mrs. Medbury had a flash of 
painful illumination and hesitated a long 
time before answering but at last made 
full confession to the doctor who was an 
old and tried friend of the family. She 
told him of the coaching party and of the 
meeting with her son when he introduced 
her to a beautiful girl — Reubena 
McDonald by name — crediting hei with 
having lor a father the extremely plain 
old man who was then w r ith her and 
who lived in a locality bearing the singular 
name of Satan's Kingdom. She related 
what Frank had then said of his love for 
Reubena which she had found impossible 
to credit or consider. She confessed in 
shame to writing the cruel letter to 
Reubena. This confession was naturally 
good for Mrs. Medbury's soul. She told 
the doctor how differently she viewed life 
from her present standpoint ana of her 
earnest desire to make reparation for 
what she had done. 

With this clue to work upon the doctor 
decided upon his line of action. The 
next time he saw Frank Medbury stand- 
ing before the wall and repeating " At 
the age of fifteen " he sauntered to his 
side, joined him in his gaze at the 
invisible something on the wall and after 
a little while asked in the quietest of 
tones f Is it Reubena McDonald?" As 
the doctor pronounced that name Frank 
Medbury turned and clutched him with a 
vigor that was startling ■ meanwhile a 
new light broke over the young man's 
face which had in it something of joy and 
something of confusion ; this lasted for a 
few seconds and then he asked " Where 
am I? " "Where have I been? " 

The doctor saw r that a long step toward 
mental health had been taken just then 
but that most watchful care would be 
necessary to lead the patient safely along 
the right road. With gentle and soothing 

words, parrying Frank's questions for the 
time, the doctor led his patient to a sofa 
and bade him lie down. The doctor had 
long known that with some patients under 
some conditions he possessed the power 
of bringing their mind and wills under the 
domination of his own. He had never 
felt justified in making use of this power 
except on the rarest of occasions. The 
present seemed to him such an occasion. 
Steadily holding Frank Medbury's gaze to 
his own, with regular strokes of the hand 
upon the patient's forehead and spoken 
words studiously levelled to a low mono- 
tone he soon had the satisfaction of seeing 
that the young man had passed under the 
dominion of the power that we now call 
"psychic.'* This condition reached, the 
doctor had no difficulty in causing Frank 
to relate all that had happened, in veriest 
detail, after he left Lenox and down to 
the seizure with the brain fever in the 
Maine woods. The troubling fact in the 
case was discovered — that Frank held the 
fixed idea, when in his otherwise normal 
condition, that this meeting with Reubena 
— whose name he could by no possibility 
recall— was an unreality, a beautiful vision 
that had come into his life, but nothing 
more, but it had left behind it a hopeless 
and incurable love for the bright being 
who was its central, radiant figure. 

The doctor brought him out of the 
psychic trance and, it being evening, sent 
him to bed for a night of sound dreamless 

The doctor kept his own counsel for a 
few days after the occurrence just related 
meanwhile writing letters east with direc- 
tions to ascertain and wire him at the 
earliest moment possible the whereabouts 
of the young lady in question. Miss 
Reubena McDonald. Frank Medbury 
gained rapidly in physical health, these 
few days making him quite his old self in 
that regard. The doctor suspected from 



the look in Frank's face that the mental 
cloudiness had nearly or quite disappeared 
but Frank made no mention of his lady 
love and the doctor did not think it best 
for him to open conversation on that topic. 
A few days later a trip to San Francisco 
was devised and thither the four went 
securing quarters at the Palace Hotel. 
One beautiful day — a day with sun and 
skies such as are seen nowhere except in 
" Our Italy" — the party started for a trip, 
across the bay and a visit to Oakland 


which bears much the same relation to 
" Frisco " that Brooklyn does to New 
York City. The waters of the bay under 
a clear sun are more than a " silver sea " 
and the party revelled in their delights. 

On stepping off the boat Mrs. Medbury 
went one way with the doctor to make 
certain explorations which he had had in 
mind in coming to the Pacific coast, leaving 
Frank and his father to wander about for 
a time with no definite aim before them. 

The father and son turned their steps to 
the streets where the finer homes were to 
be found. Their stroll was a long one. 
Passing through one of the handsomest 
streets, they were attracted by a house 
which they agreed was possibly the most 
tasty and elegant they had ever seen; 
they crossed the street for a closer view 
just as a carriage, whose appointments were 
in keeping with the house, swept under the 
porte cochere. Mild curiosity led them to 
wait long enough to see what the occu- 
pants of this beautiful home 
were like. Presently the door 
was opened by a man-servant 
and two ladies came out, the 
elder with her arm about the 
younger who looked pale and 
fragile. The two Medbury's, 
farther and son, were as if pet- 
rified in their astonishment, the 
elder having recognized the 
Margaret of his high -school 
days and the younger his Reu- 
ben a. 

"Reubena," involuntarily 
dropped from Frank Medbury's 
lips, with rather more explosive 
force than was absolutely neces- 
sary ; with one swift rush he was 
by Reubena's side and she was 
folded in his arms as if never to 
be let go while the mother was 
stricken with alarm and the 
coachman looked about for a 
policeman. Both were somewhat reassured 
before a word of explanation was spoken, 
though not the less mystified, by seeing 
Reubena's arms quickly find their way 
about the young man's neck. They 
waited in vain for the young couple to 
explain ; neither volunteered a word ; 
they knew they had each other again and 
had lost all sense of the world around. 
But the elder Medbury supplied the lack 
although a little bit dazed by the strange 




happening ; he quickly told Margaret 
who he was and that Frank was his son. 

As soon as the young couple could be 
gotten back to mundane things there 
were questions and answers rapid and 
confused for a time till explanations were 
arrived at. Not everything was made 
clear to all but it did become clear that 
all had acted in good faith and that all 
had suffered. The love of the couple for 
each other was plain without the assis- 
tance of a commentary. The chief 
trouble had arisen out of letters duly 
written but which had failed of being 
mailed at careless hands. 

The carriage was sent back to the 
stable and Reubena's father, Kenneth 
McDonald, returning home at just this 
time, the whole party entered the house 
together. Accustomed as the Medburys 
were to the surroundings of wealth, they 
were struck with the richness, the rare 
judgment and the exquisite taste of what 
they saw within this Pacific coast home. 
Frank had never dreamed that his be- 
loved was a daughter of a home of wealth 
and the facts now before his eyes were a 

Both Kenneth McDonald and his wife 
Margaret had been deeply pained and 
hurt by Reubena's sorrow and suffering 
and in the explanations now continuing 
were, as natural, somewhat slow in becom- 
ing entirely free from resentment, but the 
steady confidence in each other, beaming 
from the eyes of Reubena and Frank, 
g ive Kenneth and Margaret to know that 
somehow it must be all right. 

Medbury the elder had been appearing 
to look out of the window ; really he was 
hiding some happy tears and now to his 
surprise and joy he saw his wife and the 
doctor outside regarding the house with 
the same interest with which he and 
Frank had first looked at it. The wife 
and the doctor had good occasion to be 

more than equally surprised when they 
saw Mr. Medbury, hat in hand, hastily 
descend the front steps, and hastening to 
them to invite them within. Woman- 
like, Mrs. Medbury would not go in with- 
out some adequate explanation of the 
situation. When at last she began to 
understand, her consternation was com- 
plete. How could she meet Reubena to 
whom she had written so cruel a letter? 
Her husband knew nothing of all this and 
marvelled at her sudden pallor. 

In an almost fainting condition Mrs. 
Medbury was borne into the house by 
her husband and the doctor and there 
placed upon a bed, the doctor alone 
knowing the secret of her sudden illness. 
By the aid of proper restoratives she soon 
rallied and made known her wish to see 
Reubena and her mother alone. 

They came, mother and daughter, 
Margaret haughty and resentful, Reubena 
trembling with fear. But what a change 
in the face of this woman which Reubena 
only remembered as that of a tigress. It 
was white as the pillow upon which it 
lay ; but who can describe its trans- 
figuration? With an imploring gesture 
both hands were held out to Reubena 
who immediately flew to the bedside and 
was clasped to Mrs. Medbury's heart with 
the one faint word "Forgive." For 
three hours the ladies were closeted 
together. The doctor essayed once or 
twice to pay Mrs. Medbury a visit, fearing 
lest she overtax herself in her unstrung 
condition, but each time the murmuring 
of sweetly harmonious voices caused him 
to beat a retreat, and when at last Mar- 
garet and Reubena entered the parlor sup- 
porting Mrs. Medbury between them, the 
good doctor knew it would not be neces- 
sary to keep open his medicine case — and 
Frank Medbury knew that all was well. 

What an interview it had been. Could 
this be the proud Mrs. Medbury who had 



thus thrown herself at the feet of the two 
women, prostrate in her self-humiliation. 
Had a horoscope been cast before her on 
the day she sought to crush the daughter 
— as she supposed her — of the "old 
creature," thus enabling her to see her- 
self on this day, could she then have 
believed it? 

Humbly she had confessed all. When 
it was found that the husband and son 
knew naught of the cruel letter both 
Reubena and her mother declared they 
never should, and clothed thus in a 
sweet spirit of love and forgiveness, the 
ladies joined the others, Reubena at once 
taking her place by her lover's side who 
then and there gave her a true lover's 

Here let us diverge a little in order to 
follow the fortunes of Reubena, after part- 
ing with her lover at uncle Reuben's 
home. Two years before the events 
related in this story a Scotchman, canny 
and bonny, son of a distant relative of 
Kenneth McDonald in Scotland, had 
spent a year travelling in America, bear- 
ing with him as his bride upon his return 
Kenneth and Margaret McDonald's 
younger daughter. Parting with this 
daughter was the most serious trial that 
had come to Margaret since her marriage. 
To this daughter they now went with 
Reubena who was sad as well as sick all 
the journey through and altogether unlike 
their usual sunny darling. 

They found their daughter in a beauti- 
ful home where for a time Reubena 
rallied somewhat on seeing again her 
dearly loved sister and on seeing her 
mother so happy in the re-union. 

With this cherished sister for a com- 
panion, Reubena roused herself for a 
time and the reunited family enjoyed 
much together, visiting the many points 
of interest in the beautiful lake region 
which surrounded them. 

Later, however, Reubena began to 
droop again — particularly as letters 
received from uncle Reuben apparently 
showed that none had been sent to her 
by her lover. She lost interest in every- 
thing, food palled upon her taste, and 
upon her expressing a wish one day to go 
home, the worried parents made haste to 
get back to their own home and had been 
there only a short time, with no change 
in Reubena for the better, when the 
meeting with her lover occurred as just 

One of the first things done after the as- 
tonished company had calmed themselves 
and settled down to enjoy the situation 
was to write the whole matter in detail to 
uncle Reuben, so loWnglv was he held in 
remembrance and so well did they know 
that his dear old heart was aching for his 
" Reubeny." Mrs. Medbury, too, wrote 
him a letter inspired by a good angel 
which was read and re-read by both 
Reuben and Jane Maria as tears of 
happiness chased each other down their 
wrinkled old faces. The Medburys 
stayed on in California but the good 
doctor went home to his patients who 
were somewhat of a mind to become im- 
patient over his long absence, but he car- 
ried with him material for a valuable paper 
on " Certain Phases of Brain Disease." 

With the current of true love running 
smoothly, Reubena and Frank both 
speedily regained the abounding health 
and full beauty, manly and womanly, 
which were theirs by nature and by right. 
In the days now following, made radiant 
by the light that never " shown on earth 
or air or sea," Frank Medbury set himself 
to seriously determine what his life's work 
should be. Wealth, enough and more 
than enough, was his, thanks to his father's 
successful business life ; and a union with 
Reubena could only, in the end, add to 
that wealth. 



It grew into a conviction with him that 
the gifts of life, health, education, wealth, 
and a beautiful bride-to-be thus lavished 
upon him made him a debtor to God and 
his fellow men, which made it his bounden 
duty to devote his life to their service 
after the fashion indicated in Abou Ben 
Adhem's " Dream of Peace." He straight- 
way began the studies which should fit him 
for a non-sectarian minister of the Gospel 
of Christ. In collaboration with an archi- 
tect who had been a classmate at college, 
he planned and set in erection, in an 
outlying district of the western city, which 
was, and was to remain, his home, a 
church building fitted to the peculiar needs 
of his future ministry. 

When June came again, the rare June 
of New England, the Medburys and the 
McDonalds all went back to the Wiswall 
home for the marriage of Frank and 
Reubena. This wedding, without the 
presence of Reuben and Jane Maria was 
an impossibility. Then the place was 
sacred to the young lovers as the birth 
place of their love and endeared to them 
by the great trial which there so swiftly 
descended upon them. Kenneth and 
Margaret Mcdonald, Reubena's father and 
mother, for precisely like reasons held the 
locality near and dear. And Mr. Medbury, 
Frank's father, had been born not far 
away and educated in the village below. 

They made the wedding a festal occasion 
which was one of splendour and rare en- 
joyment to all the country side. There 
was hardly a family in the whole vicinage 
not known to one or another of the Mc- 
Donalds and Medburys, all of whose hearts 

were so full of joy and gratitude that they 
were eager to share it with their fellow 
kind in the most bounteous possible meas- 
ure. But their urban friends were not 
forgotten ; stately carriages thronged the 
grounds, and the ladies in rare toilettes 
graced the day. 

The marriage service was read under a 
spreading elm with a background of 
growing vines and roses, such as only Jane 
Maria's skill could produce with nature's 
full sympathy and assistance. 

Jane Maria was now an old lady with 
abundant white hair and a face grown 
spirituelle through long labor in the service 
of God and man. It might have surprised 
new-comers, but it did not those of the 
old days, that when the minister had said 
"What God has joined together let no 
man put asunder," Jane Maria quietly 
moved to the side of the group, folded her 
hands, bowed her head, and asked the 
blessing of God upon those so near and 
dear to her, now joined in the most sacred 
of earthly ties, in words of feeling that 
took all hearts in swift communion to the 
Throne of Grace. 

It was now past mid-afternoon. The 
congratulations, the feasting, the music, 
the dancing, the joyous interchange of all, 
especially the young men and the maidens, 
brought the twilight all too soon. And 
then with the night falling and the stars 
coming out one by one, Frank and Reu- 
bena rode off into the balmy night air of 
June. And when the carriage had passed 
beyond the last sound of the innocent 
revelry behind, Frank took Reubena to his 
heart and breathed into her ear " at last.'* 



II. Smelting. 


IN a previous paper an attempt was made 
to give a brief sketch of the ore-beds 
of western Connecticut and of the extent 
to which iron mining has been carried on 
and is still being carried on in that region. 
It is perhaps even more interesting to 
trace the story of the ore after it passes 
from the miner's hands into those of the 
smelter and to see how prominent a place 
the iron-master has occupied in the history 
of the state. 

If iron ore were always a pure oxide, 
hydrate or carbonate of iron — if it were 
simply the metal combined with oxygen, 

or oxygen and hydrogen, or oxygen and 
carbon — the process of smelting it would 
be almost as simple practically as it is 
theoretically. The chemical and physical 
characters of the commercial ores were 
reviewed in the previous paper. Attention, 
however, again is called to the fact that 
these ores are practically four in number, 
namely^ magnetite and hematite, com- 
pounds of iron and oxygen ; limonite, a 
compound of iron, oxygen and hydrogen, 
and siderite or spathic iron ore, a com- 
pound of iron, oxygen and carbon. 
Theoretically the last two may be reduced 



to the condition of oxides by heat alone. 
In the case of limonite the hydrogen and 
a part of the oxygen are driven off in the 
form of vaporized water, and in siderite 
the carbon and a part of the oxygen are 
driven off as a carbonic acid gas, leaving 
the residue as a compound of iron and 
oxygen only. This, then, leaves all three 
ores practically alike and amenable to the 
same process for the final expulsion of the 
oxygen, when only the metallic iron will 

The question now is, how to get rid of 
the oxygen. This is answered if we can 
find some substance which shall have a 
stronger attraction for oxygen than has the 
iron. This is found in carbon, and the 
fuel with which we heat the iron furnishes 
this element. Theoretically we have only 
to heat the iron with a plentiful amount 
of fuel assisted by a proper supply of air. 
The oxygen of this air is necessary to burn 
the coal, the result being carbonic acid 
gas. But not all of the carbon of the coal 
is thus consumed. Under the influence 
of the heat, the remaining carbon having 
only a partial supply of oxygen, wrests the 
oxygen from the ore, combines with it 
and passes away as carbonic acid gas also, 
leaving behind the pure iron which is 

This is the theoretical process of iron- 
smelting. The practical process which is 
based upon it would be equally simple, 
but for two obstacles. The first is the 
difficulty of supplying such perfectly 
balanced amounts of carbon and oxygen 
as shall do the work without leaving a 
residue of either. The second is the 
presence of certain impurities in both ore 
and fuel which form new and undesirable 
compounds and materially affect both the 
economy of the process and the value of 
the iron produced. To modify the theo- 
retical process so as to overcome these 


obstacles in the most effective manner is 
the practical problem with which the iron- 
master has to deal. 

The first obstacle is not a serious one to 
overcome if a sufficient supply of carbon 
is furnished to dispose of all oxygen 
present. It is true that the iron takes up 
a certain amount of carbon, but this 
addition is valuable in many cases and can 



(The opening at the right is for running 
off the slag, that at the left for drawing 
off the iron. The pipes carry water for 
cooling the walls of the hearth.) 

be eliminated entirely, when desired, by a 
subsequent process. The second obstacle 
is a far more serious one. The presence 
of sulphur or phosphorus is extremely 
detrimental to the quality of the iron, the 
former rendering it liable to crack when 
worked at a high temperature, the latter, 
when it is worked cold. Sulphur can be 
driven off to a considerable extent by a 
preliminary roasting of the ore, but the 



last traces of both are very hard to elimi- 
nate. There are other impurities, mostly 
of a silicious nature, which are found 
always to a varying extent in the ore. 
These are eliminated by smelting, but in 
the process they combine with a portion 
of the iron itself, producing a troublesome 
slag within the furnace and materially 
reducing the amount of pure metal finally 
obtained. In practical smelting this ob- 
stacle is overcome by adding a certain 
amount of "flux," usually limestone, to 
the ore smelted. The lime takes the place 




(Showing the Hearth and two Twyers. 
The pipes carry water for cooling the 

of the iron in the slag and the lime-slag 
thus formed is readily fusible and can be 
readily removed. 

The device universally used at the 
present day for smelting is known as the 
blast furnace. It is essentially a short, 
wide chimney which tapers at both top and 
bottom. There is an opening at the top 
of this "stack" where the " charge," 
consisting of ore, fuel and " flux " can be 

introduced. At the lower end is the 
" hearth," a reservoir for the melted iron 
and for the molten slag which floats upon 
its surface. The oxygen for the smelting 
is furnished by a copious blast of air 
which is introduced near the base of the 
furnace by several air-nozzles, known as 
" twyers " or u tuyers," the pressure being 
obtained from a pumping device of some 
kind. Both the sides of the hearth and 
the ends of the twyers are protected by a 
jacket through which water is kept con- 
tinually running. As the molten slag 
which floats on the surface of the liquid 
iron in the hearth accumulates in sufficient 
quantity, it is drawn off through an open- 
ing provided for the purpose and, when 
sufficiently cooled, is removed. When 
the molten iron has risen nearly to the 
level of the twyers it is drawn off through 
another opening near the bottom of the 
furnace. The liquid metal flows through 
a narrow ditch to where, on the moulding 
floor, it is turned off into numerous short 
side channels where it is allowed to cool. 
These bars, when separated from the 
mass in the long ditch, form the "pigs" 
of commercial iron. 

The chemical reactions which go on 
inside the furnace are not quite so simple 
as the previous statement would suggest 
— the statement represents, practically, 
the final result. The heated gases of 
various kinds which issue from the top of 
the stack may be allowed to escape 
directly into the air where they burn, or, 
more frequently, they are utilized. Of 
course the introduction of cold air into 
the furnace through the twyers tends to 
reduce the temperature of the interior 
and causes a distinct waste of heat. In 
all blast furnaces of the present day it is 
the practice to heat the blast to a very 
high temperature before it enters the 
twyers, and for this purpose the exceed- 
ingly hot gases which escape at the top 



of the furnace are utilized. The blast is, 
however, sometimes heated by separate 

These are the essential feature- ol 
the blast furnace. Its product is known 
as " cast iron.'' This is iron with which 
is combined a considerable amour/ 
carbon. Cast iron is fusible and. upon 
being suddenly " chilled " when hot. 
becomes very hard and brittle. But this 
'• chilled " iron is not capable of taking a 
temper nor does it possess the extreme 
ductility and malleability necessar 
certain commercial uses. These are only 
obtained by subjecting it to a proces 
" refining," which removes the carbon 
and leaves what is known as " wrought 
iron." This cannot be melted, but can 
be heated to a plastic condition when it 
can be wrought into any shape desired. It 
always retains its wonderful tenacity, but 
can be neither tempered nor chilled. 
Intermediate between cast iron and 
wrought iron, both as to the amount of 
carbon contained and the qualities 
possessed, stand the •'•' steels." Steel may 
be melted and chilled like cast iron, but, 
by a subsequent re-heating and :.; 
gradual cooling carried to exactly the right 
point, it may be " tempered," that is. 
brought to a condition where hardness 
and elasticity are balanced to any desired 

The manufacture of steel may be con- 
sidered, in the present — : a matter 
by itself, but the process of refining cast 
iron should receive some mention, as it 
held a prominent part in the iron indus- 
tries of Connecticut. The refining of 
cast iron is carried on in several different 
kinds of furnaces, though what is known 
as the "puddling" furnace is perhaps the 
most important. In all cases, however, 
the process is essentially the same and 
consists in re-melting the pig iron and 
subjecting it to a draft of air. As a final 

result of somewhat complicated react] 
the carbon of the ire nes with 

the oxygen of the air, and the s; 
sulphur, phosphorus, a certain amount of 
the iron itself and a large amount of 
.mbine to form a slag. As the 
particles of infusible pure iron appear in 
the fused mass, they are mechar. 


V -•>■-..: 

-'■■ M 

M \ 

\ ^-~'~ '" : 


_j — t — ; 

; H-' — y'- '■■ '■■" — '—<■ 


O. oven. A. B. C. pipes for heating blast. 
D. E. G. pipes carrving blast to v sra 


collected into masses called "blooms" 
which are extracted from the furnace and 
objected to blows of a power hammer. 
This squeezes out all slag contained and 
compresses the sp g ss into a - 

piece which is subsequently re-heated and 



rolled. Under primitive conditions of 
iron smelting, where ore was rich and 
charcoal plenty, wrought iron was often 
produced directly from the ore, but at a 
great sacrifice of iron and fuel. The 
process was essentially the same as that of 
refining, except that the ore itself was 
treated instead of cast iron. The furnace 
in which this was done was known as a 
" forge." These are still in use in the 
Adirondack region. 

It is rather a common idea that all that 
is necessary to render a locality an iron 
producing region is the presence of rich 


(A and B, blowing cylinders. C, water 

ore in sufficient quantity. Strangely 
enough, however, in this era of economic 
production this is almost the last requisite. 
A very large part of the English iron pro- 
ducing ores are of an inferior quality, — 
much below many ores which are allowed 
to lie unused in this country. What is 
really necessary is that the three essentials 
— ore, fuel and flux — shall exist in close 
proximity. When, in addition, the ore 
is rich and pure, the conditions are ex- 

ceptionally good for the establishment of 
a great industry. For many uses the best 
grades of iron are not at all necessary and 
the cheaper product will fill all needs. It 
is for these reasons that the furnaces of 
Connecticut, which produced the best 
iron that this country has ever known, are 
cold to-day. Exceptional ore and abund- 
ant flux are there, but fuel is wanting. In 
consequence the output must be small and 
the price per ton high. Of late years steel 
has become so cheap that it is used for 
many purposes for which iron was formerly 
employed ; and it is a curious fact that the 
brown hematite of Connecticut, while 
producing the best of cast and wrought 
iron, is not a good steel ore. Nevertheless, 
the demand for this iron for certain 
special uses, notably for the manufacture 
of car wheels, will always keep the in- 
dustry alive. 

But if we return to a time when the life 
of the country was massed along the east- 
ern seaboard, when the great iron and coal 
fields of the continent had not been even 
explored, we shall see that Connecticut 
possessed all the requisites and enjoyed all 
the prestige of a great iron region. The 
history of the development of the in- 
dustry, will however, have to be postponed 
to the third and last paper of this series, 
although it is almost impossible to exclude 
all history from a consideration of the in- 
dustrial and economic phases of the sub- 

The fuel for the modern blast furnace is 
mineral coal, although this has to be 
coked before it comes in active contact 
with the ore in order to drive off the im- 
purities which would be detrimental to 
the finished product. In the earlier forges 
and furnaces charcoal, which is free from 
these impurities, was the universal fuel 
and Connecticut possessed abundant facili- 
ties for producing this. Scattered through 
the chief iron bearing region of the state 



were abundant deposits of pure, white 
limestone and Connecticut thus found 
itself in possession of the three requisites — 
ore, fuel and flux — in close proximity. 
In fact, at the old Maltby works, which 
lie just across the line in the state of New 
York, the ore bed lies directly on one side 
of the furnace and the 
limestone quarry a few 
hundred feet in the oppo- 
site direction. Curiously 
enough there was a fourth 
condition which always 
determined the location 
of a furnace. Of course 
our fathers had no con- 
ception of any motive 
power for machinery ex- 
cept water-power and, as 
a result, we find all fur- 
naces located near some 
stream which could be 
utilized to drive the 
pumps which furnished 
the air-blast. 

The furnaces which are 
scattered through the 
Housatonic region are, 
with few exceptions, es- 
sentially alike, — in fact, 
in some cases they seem 
to be identical to the 
smallest details. I refer 
to those constructed for 
smelting brown hematite : 
the Roxbury plant, con- 
structed for smelting 
siderite, should receive 
separate notice in the paper devoted to 
the history of the industry. The furnaces 
of Connecticut, though their construction 
has been much improved in the course of 
years, still follow to a great extent the old 
models. Charcoal is the only fuel used 
and it is to this fact that the iron owes 
much of its purity. A description of 

Furnace No. 3 at East Canaan, the only 
furnace in blast when I visited the region 
in the late summer of 1898, will give a 
good idea of their construction and 
method of working. 

The actual furnace or "stack" is 35 
feet high and is imbedded in a mass of 


(Showing ore heap, charcoal cars and charging plate where 
the charge is dumped into the furnace. At the right is 
the pipe carrying the blast into the oven.) 

masonry which is about 35 feet square at 
the base, but which tapers to somewhat 
less proportions at the top. At its base 
the masonry is pierced on each side by a 
deep arch giving access to the hearth. 
The arches on the sides accommodate 
two twyers each and the arch at the back, 
one. The arch at the front, which is the 

2 3 8 


largest, gives ample room' for drawing off 
the slag and the iron. In one-half of the 
moulding floor, which lies in front of the 
furnace, are made the moulds in which 
the pigs are to be cast, in the other half 
the slag is received and allowed to lie 
until sufficiently cool for removal. The 
slag is run off twice an hour and the iron 
four times in twenty-four hours. The 
building which contains the plant is built 
upon a side hill in such a manner that the 
floor of the portion behina the furnace is 
on a level with the top of the stack, 35 
feet above the moulding floor. This 
upper floor is occupied by the ore and 
flux bins and by handcarts full of charcoal, 
all in reasonable proximity to the mouth 
of the stack. 

Above and slightly in front of the stack 
is the oven where the blast is heated. It 
is a brick room, some ten feet square, 
closely filled by large U-shaped pipes of 
cast iron, all connected in series, through 
which the blast passes. The entire vol- 
ume of the heated gasses from the stack 
is diverted into this chamber where they 
heat the pipes to a white heat, with the 
result that, when the blast leaves the 
chamber for the twyers, it is at a tempera- 
ture of 900 F. The heated gasses finally 
escape through a chimney to the outer 

The furnace was erected by the Barnum 
Richardson Company about 1872. It 
smelts ore from the Ore Hill and Davis 
beds and has an average output of fifteen 
tons of pig iron daily. The ore yields 
from 40 per cent to 45 per cent of cast 
iron. This is largely used at the com- 
pany's foundry at Lime Rock, where it is 
made into car wheels and into castings 
for the Consolidated Road. A part of 

the charcoal for the furnace is burned in 
the vicinity and a part is brought from 
Pennsylvania. The consumption averages 
about 1,500 bushels a day. The blast is 
supplied by a blowing engine of the type 
in common use in Connecticut furnaces. 
It consists essentially of two large double- 
action pumps connected directly with the 
shaft of a water-wheel, which may be of 
either the undershot or overshot type. 
These pumps, which have a diameter of 
about six feet, discharge the air into a 
large pipe which runs directly to the oven 
for heating the blast. In the furnace in 
question the blowing engine is several 
hundred feet from the stack on the banks 
of the Blackberry River. The accompany- 
ing cuts, which originally appeared in the 
"Railroad Gazette," will show the essential 
features of both furnace and blower. At 
the time of my visit Furnace No. 3 had 
been in blast for some three years. 

There has been no attempt made in 
this article to take up anything but the 
essentials of iron smelting in general and 
the special methods in which they are 
applied in the furnaces of this state, — it 
has been simply a discussion of processes. 

In the remaining article of this series it 
is proposed to trace something of the rise, 
development and present condition of 
the industry, with some brief notice of 
the more famous castings which have 
come from Counecticut's furnaces, in the 
years gone by. It was a Connecticut 
iron-master that took Ticonderoga ; it 
was with guns of Salisbury iron that the 
naval supremacy of Great Britain was 
broken in the War of 181 2. It is this 
history which converts the dull details of 
iron mining and iron smelting into a 



DR. JOHN WILLIAMS was born in 
Deerfield, Mass., August 30, 1817, 
and died in Middletown, Conn., February 
7, 1899, in the eighty-second year of his 
age and the forty- 
eighth year of his 
episcopate. His 
father, Ephraim Wil- 
liams, a well - known 
lawyer and editor of f f^ f 

the first volume of 
.Massachusetts Re- 
ports, was born in 
1760, and thus was a 
youth of fifteen at the 
breaking - out of the 
Revolutionary War. 
His grandfather was 
Dr. Thomas Williams, 
a surgeon in the Colo- 
nial army, who was at 
the battle and mas- 
sacre of Bloody Pond 
near Lake George in 
1756, together with his brother, Colonel 
Ephraim Williams, the founder of Williams 
College. Both Dr. Thomas Williams and 
his wife were descended, though in differ- 
ent generations, from Robert Williams of 
Roxbury, the first of the family in this 
country, and his son Isaac Williams of 
Newtown ; and the wife was also descend- 
ed from two eminent Massachusetts 
divines, John Cotton of Boston and Solo- 
mon Stoddard of Northampton, and was a 
niece of Rector Williams of Yale College. 
The Bishop's mother was Emily Trow- 


bridge, a grand-daughter of Rev. Timothy 
Woodbridge of Hatfield and a descendant 
of Governor Thomas Welles of Connecti- 
cut. In virtue of such ancestry Bishop 
Williams became a 
member of the Con- 
necticut Society of 
Colonial Wars, and he 
was during all the time 


of his membership and 
until his death its 

When only fourteen 
years old, the future 
Bishop entered Har- 
vard College; and 
after two years he 
removed to Trinity 
College (then called 
Washington College), 
from which he was 
graduated in 1835 with 
academic honors and a 
high reputation for ac- 
curate and graceful scholarship. He had 
before this time accepted the teachings of 
the Episcopal Church and been confirmed 
by Bishop Brownell, with whom, as also 
with the eminent Dr. Samuel Farmar 
Jarvis and with other scholars, he main- 
tained a life-long friendship from his col- 
lege days. His early theological studies 
were mostly pursued under the guidance 
of Dr. Jarvis, and he was ordained in Sep- 
tember, 1838, being then, as he was for 
two years later, a tutor in the college at 
Hartford. In 1840 and 1841 he spent 



about twelve months in the British Isles, 
making also a visit to Paris ; and he met 
then some of the most influential of the 
rising generation of English churchmen, 
men who were like him in poetic genius 
and historic enthusiasm and devotion to 
the principles of Anglican theology. He 
did not cross the ocean for a second visit 
until the summer of 1884, when he at- 
tended as chief guest the centenary com- 
memoration of the consecration of Bishop 
Seabury at Aberdeen. 

Mr. Williams was offered the rector- 
ship of the historic parish of Christ 
Church, Cambridge, Mass., and also of 
Christ Church, Middletown, Conn. ; but 
the only rectorate which he ever accepted 
was that of old St. George's Church, 
Schenectady, N. Y., from which, after six 
years of service, he was called in 1848, in 
the thirty- first year of his life, to the presi- 
dency of his alma mater, Trinity College, 
Hartford. With the presidency was 
united the professorship of history and 
literature ; and both as the instructor and 
as the friend of the students, the new 
president exerted a strong influence. 
His incumbency of this important 
position was interrupted by his election 
in 1851 to be the Assistant Bishop of 
Connecticut.* It was terminated three 
years later when it had become evident 
that the Diocese required all his time. 
He did not, however, for many years, 
cease to lecture at the college, and he 
never withdrew from active work as a 
teacher; for, removing in 1854 to Mid- 
dletown, he established there, under the 
corporate name of the Berkeley Divinity 
School, what had been an informal theo- 
logical department of the College. It 
bad its home in the old Washington 
Tavern, which Dr. Jarvis had fitted for a 
residence ; and in it provision was made 

for the Bishop's home, the students' 
lodgings, a chapel, and a library. In 
thirty-five years the school, under Bishop 
Williams' direction, has educated a large 
number of young men in theology ; and 
its one original building is but a part of a 
group which has grown about it to supply 
urgent needs. 

From this home, year after year, the 
Bishop made extended visitations of the 
diocese, preaching in the churches and 
confirming candidates, rarely fewer than 
a thousand in a year, and about forty- eight 
thousand in his whole episcopate, f He 
became familiar with every part of 
Connecticut, and with residents in every 
part ; and he was welcomed wherever he 
went, not only by those of his own 
communion, but also by many of other 
religious bodies. Perhaps no one in the 
state was better known, his tall and 
dignified form, " every inch a Bishop," 
proving him to be a man of important 
position, while his unaffected courtesy and 
readiness of approach, the evident ease 
with which he made friends and the 
apparent ease with which he remembered 
them, attracted every one to him. He 
had great facility in adapting himself to 
circumstances, and at the same time a 
true sense of humor which enabled him 
to "get along" easily with discomforts 
and annoyances ; so that his long and 
laborious trips, in which he would some- 
times minister and preach in twenty 
parishes or more in the course of eight 
consecutive days, were a great pleasure 
to him. And so he came to know the 
state well, in its topography, its history, 
and its people. He enjoyed the beauties 
of its scenery, its hills and valleys, its 
river-courses and ravines and plains, even 
apart from their associations with men ; 
but he specially enjoyed such a view of 

*He became Bishop of the Diocese in 1865, on the death of Bishop Brownell. 

tin the course of his episcopate, he travelled at least three hundred thousand miles. 



natural beauty and of home-life as breaks 
upon one to the east and the north from 
the high point in the road just before one 
reaches Windsor from Hartford. The 
writer well remembers one afternoon of a 
perfect June day, when the Bishop made 
him stop on the brow of the hill that he 
might enjoy the prospect, and repeated a 
passage from Thomson's Seasons which 
described a like scene. And as he 
remembered individuals, he also re- 
membered the details of local and of 
general history. His father had told him 
of the war of the Revolution, and he had, 
by but one remove, the romantic story of 
the French and Indian war ; and in like 
manner, though of course not so directly, 
he knew many of the details of the history 
of this state, into the life of which he 
entered so thoroughly that it was hard to 
believe that he was not a Connecticut man 
from the cradle. 

His wide acquaintance with history, as 
well remote and general as modern and 
local, was pointed with anecdote, and thus 
often made living to those with whom he 
talked ; and in this, as in some other 
matters, there were those who (perhaps 
unconsciously) imitated him, without 
having the solid knowledge or sometimes 
the serious purpose that lay underneath, 
only to illustrate Horace's maxim, Decipit 
exemplar vitiis imitabile. In his early and 
middle life he was a man of active habits, 
taking his summer vacations ior moun- 
taineering in the Adirondacks or more 

often for fishing on Lake George; yet, 
much as Walton-like he enjoyed the snort, 
and deeply as he was affected by the 
natural grandeur and beauty which were 
about him, he found special delight in the 
thought of the pageants and the battles, 
the lives and the deaths of heroes, the 
struggles for mastery, of which the lake 
always reminded him. 

Although in his study he read and 
taught theology as a science, the " Mother 
and Mistress of all sciences,'" and that 
in a strict and scholastic way, his studying 
and his teaching were not only illustrated 
by history but also adorned by the poetic 
instinct. His sermons were logical, but 
they were also rhetorical ; they appealed 
to the reason, but they also moved the 
affections and the sympathies of his 
hearers ; they were simple, in the sense 
of being within the comprehension of 
children, but they were profound, as the 
simplicity of nature is complex and full of 

But it is quite apart from the purpose 
of this paper to enter into any discussion 
of Bishop Williams's work or to depict 
his character or estimate his influence. 
It should not, however, fail of notice in 
this magazine that, in his many memorial 
and historial discourses, he made valuable 
contributions to the written history of the 
church in which he held high office and 
of the state of which he was an honored 

Samuel Hart. 



Like one who in some vast cathedral's nave, 

With humble heart counts long and well his beads, 

Yet does not dare to near the holy shrine 

Of Mother Mary, though his poor heart bleeds ; 

So now, unseen, unnoticed and forsaken, 

I image to myself thy face, and crave 

Thy blessings pure, — so yearns my soul for thine,- 

But crave in vain, my place unsurped and taken. 

Yet as a symbol of the beautiful, 

And as a symbol of the good and true, 

Shall I remember thee, and often cull 

Sweet lily-thoughts bewet with love's own dew. 

Whole nights and days, dear, do I dream of thee, 

Yet dost thou ever spend one thought on me? 




Sept. 13 Son of Capt. Aaron Cook Nov. 22 Child of Capt. Zebulon Seymour, 

(Joseph), aged 17. aged 4. 

13 The wife of Joseph Humphries Dec. 4 Henry Bigelow, aged n. 

[Abigail, daughter of Zebulon 23 The Widow Eunice Olcottf widow 

and Keziah (Bull) Seymour, of Joseph Olcott, daughter of 

born Jan. 25, 1742], aged 47. John and Elizabeth (Hum- 

15 Child of Stephen Hutchinson, phreys) Collyer, born Nov. 15, 

aged 1 %. 1708], aged 80. 

21 Daughter of Elisha Dodd, aged Feb. 6 Child of Oliver Wolcott, Esq., 

1 3- aged 1. 

Oct. 26 The Wife of Hezekiah Marsh 12 Child of Jedediah Bebe (Infant.) 

[Elizabeth Cook, widow of 14 Timothy Shepard [Baptized Apr. 

Levi Jones], aged 66. 14, 1717, son of Joseph and 


Sept. 4 

Elizabeth (Flowers) Shepard], Aug-, 
aged 72. 
Feb. 16 The Town is charged the burial 
of J. Orr, aged 55. 
16 Daniel Talcott is charged the 
burial of John, [Probably his 
brother John, who lost his 
reason by a fall ; Son of Capt. 
John and Abigail (Theoball) Oct. 
Talcott born 1733], aged 56. 

18 Caleb Bull [son of Caleb and 

Elizabeth (Easton) [Bunce] 
Bull, born March 18, 1717-18, 
died in Pittsfield, February 
14th], aged 72. 

Mar. 1 Caleb Spencer, aged 80. 

4 The Wife of Benjamin Conklin, Nov. 3 
aged 36. 12 

26 Wife of Rev. Nathan Strong [his 

second wife, Anna McCurdy, 15 

of Lyme], aged 29. 

April 14 Deacon John Shepard [born 
April 28, 1710, son of Samuel 
and Bethiah ( Steele ) Shepard ] , 17 

aged 80. 28 

May 17 Infant Child of Mrs. Carter. Dec. 23 

19 Infant Child of Levi Kelsey. 28 
June 2 Infant Child of Sabra Williams, 

6 Child of Charles Phelps, aged 1. 

7 Sabra Hosmer [born 1727, wife of 

Joseph Hosmer; daughter of 1790 
Zebulon and Dorothy (Waters) Jam 24 
Mygatt], aged 62. Feb. 12 

June 15 Wife of Benjamin Bigelow [Mary 

Coll} T er], aged 44. 19 

22 Child of Samuel Talcott (Infant), 
aged 1. 
Juh' 6 Child of Jared Skinner, aged 1. m>. 26 

7 Wife of Mr. James Henry, aged Mar. 2 

39- 6 

7 Infant Child of James Goodwin. 8 

11 Zebulon Mygatt, Dec'd with 12 

small pox, [son of Zebulon 30 

and Dorothy (Waters) Mygatt], Apr. 20 

aged 68. 
18 Rosanna Bow, aged 24. 

22 Wife of Capt. John Cook, aged 53. 

23 Daughter of Caleb Turner, aged 23 


Wife of Zebulon Mygatt, Dec'd 
with small pox, aged 67. 

Daughter of John Center, aged 15. 

Infant Child of Jeremiah Barret. 

Child of Colo. Hezekiah Wyllys. 
aged 5 mo. 

Josiah Brunson, aged 63. 

Child of M. Woodward, aged 2. 

Child of John Spencer Jr. aged 2. 

Infant Child of Joseph Phillips. 

Child of William Hosmer, aged r . 

Infant Child of Alpheus Abbot. 

Infant Child of Joseph Phillips. 

George Loomis, (Infant.) 

The Wife of James Newell. 
[Rachel], aged 25. 

Infant Child of Nathaniel Patten. 

The Wife of Nathaniel Patten, 
aged 35. 

Ozias Goodwin [Baptized June 
15, 1729; Sou of Ozias and 
Martha (Williamson) Good- 
win], aged 60. 

Infant Child of Roswell Taylor. 

Son of Samuel Kilbourn, aged 16. 

Abigail Taylor, aged 88. 

The wife of Roswell Stanley 
[Dorothy, daughter of Timothy 
and Lydia (Phelps) Shepard,] 
aged 41. 

The Wife of Jonathan Phillips. 
Caleb Bull is charged the burial 

of a child supposed to be his 

child, aged 8. 
Gideon Bunce [Baptized Nov. 26, 

1727; Son of Joseph and Ann 

(Sandford) Bunce], aged 64. 
Infant Child of Stephen Skinner. 
Old Peter, aged 68. 
Infant child of Thomas Belden. 
Elizabeth Lattimer, aged 75. 
Infant child of Roderick Olcott. 
Andrew Babcock, aged 17. 
Capt. Hezekiah Marsh, [Born 

April 26. 1720; Son of Capt. 

John and Elizabeth Pitkin) 

Marsh.] aged 71. 
Infant Child of William Knox. 



WM. A. E. THOMAS, Editor. 

Querists are requested to write all names of persons and places so that they cannot 
be misunderstood, to write on only one side of the paper, and to enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope and ten cents in stamps for each query. Those who are subscribers 
will be given preference in the insertion of their queries and they will be inserted in the 
order in which they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent 
to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked, Genealogical Department. Give 
full name and post office address. 

It is optional with querist to have name and address or initials published. 

Answers to Queries of this year which we have been able to obtain are here pub- 


Query 13. (a) Mr. Smith Bloom- 
field of Metuchen, N. J. might be able to 
give assistance. My grand-mother told 
me "The Bloomfields are of Welsh origin 
and emigrated to London. Robert there 
received the honor of knighthood. He 
had a number of sons and two of them, 
John 1 and Tom 1 , came to America in 
1632, taking up tracks of land in Middle- 
sex Co., N. J. Our family is descended 
from John 1 . He had a son, grand-son 
and great-grand-son named Timothy 4 . 
This last had three wives. The first left 
no children ; the second had five — one 
dau. m. a Randolph, one a Beekman and 
one an Ayeis whose descendants still live 
in the county. The two sons went to 
Ohio and some of their descendants re- 
turned to N. Y. City. The third wife of 
of Timothy 4 left two children, Timothy 5 
and Rachel 5 who m. David Kent. 
Timothy 5 m. Sarah Ford and had nine 
children— John 6 , Ellis 6 , William 6 , Smith 6 , 

Charles 6 , Nathan 6 , Unis 6 (aged 16 when 
Lord Howe held Staten Island), Sarah 6 
and Timothy 6 . John 6 had six children — 
David 7 , Lott 7 , Smith 7 , Timothy 7 , Sarah 7 , 
and Rebecca 7 . David 7 m. Sarah LaForge 
and had Nathan 8 , Smith 8 , Miriam 8 , 
Sarah 8 and Elizabeth 8 . Nathan 8 m. 
Elizabeth Butler and had Garrett 9 , Emily 9 , 
Mary Elizabeth 9 , David 9 , Frank 9 , Frank- 
lin 9 and Nathan 9 . Garrett 9 (or Garry) 
m. Frances Kingsley and had Emma 
Evangeline 10 (m. Ernest Lauren Robin- 
son) and Howard Barrelle 10 ." 

E. L. R. 

13. (c) The Rt. Rev. Wm. Crane 
Gray, D. D., Orlando, Fla., is said to be a 
grand-son of Bishop Croes. 

15. The Meriden Church Records 

contain the following; Mrs. Far- 

rington wid., a member of this Church 
died Jan. 24, 181 8. James Drake Far- 
rington was received to membership on 
profession and bapt. Sept. 4, 1831 : d. 
Nov. 21, 1850, aet. 40. Orrin a child of 



Mr. and Mrs. Farrington was bapt. Sept. 
1786. Nov. 1S00. Mr. Farrington d. aet. 
55 : Helen Lucretia dau. of Tames Far- 
rington d. Oct. 16, 1S50 aet. 3 : Geo. son 
of the late James Farrington d. May 12. 
1S54 aet. 15. On the Society records I 
find Jeremiah Farrington of this Society 
joined the Baptist Society Nov. 1S05. 
Joseph Farrington of this Society joined 
the Episcopal Society. Nov. 4. 181 6. 
[Albert H. Wilcox. Meriden, Ct.] 

23. (/?) Wm. Southwell m. Feb. 24. 
1687 Sarah Stebbins : had eight children, 
the third being Sarah b. Nov. 19, 1690. 
Mr. Wm. L. Loomis of Suffieid. Ct., writes 
that she m. July 26. 1749 Joseph Harmon : 
he d. Feb. 15. 1762 and she m. Sept. 1765 
John Hate of Nuffield. 


2,6. Murray. — Joseph b. about 1699. 
Ten dollars will be paid for 1 . date of 
birth 2. place of birth, and 3. parents' 
names. On Fairfield, Ct., Probate 
Records Jan. 5. 17 15. he chose Thomas 
Bennett of Stratford. Ct., to be his 
guardian. On New Milford. Ct., Land 
Records Nov. 8, 1723 he is spoken of as 
'•resident in the town of Stratford."' On 
April 16, 1724 he m. Hannah Patterson 
of Stratford Ct., and moved to Newtown, 
Ct.. where the following children were 
born : Elizabeth Jan. 24, 1725. m. John 
Henry N earing: James, May 19, 1727 
m. Patience Hawley; John, July 2. 1729 
m. Martha Howard : Mary. Oct. 2. 1731 
m. Amos Northrup. About 1733 he 
moved to New Milford, Ct., where the 
following children were born : Elisha 
Mch. 19, 1734 : Hannah. July 27. 1736 : 
Ruby. Mch. 12. 1739 m. Ezra Dunning : 
Parthena, June 7. 1741 m. Lemuel 
Hotchkiss of New Haven ; Joseph, Feb. 
27, 1744 m. Isabell Burritt : Philemon 
Aug. 2, 1746: Eunice, July 16. 1749. 
I have visited and searched the records 

of New Milford, Newtown, Stratford, 
Milford, Bethlehem. Woodbury, Bran- 
ford, Litchfield, Kent. Wallingford, 
Meriden. Canaan. Salisbury, Sharon. 
New Haven, East Haven, Derby. Brook- 
field, Guilford and Lyme- Hamburg, all 
in Ct. : also wrote to Killingworth, Ct. 
Town Clerk. Archibald Murray. M. D., 
120 Joralemon St.. Brooklyn. N. Y. 

37. Holmes. — James born in Stanford 
(or Amenia) N. Y. d. near Smithfield, 
N. Y. mar. Amy Thompson and had 1. 
Caleb Thompson b. Mch. 8. 1798 
Amenia : d. Apr. 15, 1S74 Washington, 
N. Y., m. Mch. 13. 181 8 Stanford, to 
Elizabeth dau. of Caleb Morev. 2. Morris 
b. July 27. 1790 d. Feb. 2^, 1S65. m. 
Maria Dyer. 3. Philetus. 4. Son. 5. 
Maria b. Oct. 6, 181 2 Cayuga, N. Y. d. 
Jan. 12. 1S69. m. Jan. 1S36 James 
Shourds. 6. Phebe m. James Mayhew. 
7. Girl. S.Cynthia. Caleb T. and Eliza- 
beth Holmes had 1. Charlotte 2. Henry 
Stewart 3. John 4. Caleb Thompson 5. 
Robert Armstrong 6, William 7. Lewis. 
Who were parents of the above James 
Holmes? Did he have any brothers 
and sisters? Mrs. Phebe Mayhew is 
said to have had the Holmes family 
bible : at one time she lived either at 
Seneca Falls. N. Y.. or Savannah. N. Y. 
Letters addressed to each place have 
been returned. Desired her address or 
descendants. C. B. S. 

28. {a) Perry.— Michael m. Dec. 8, 
1742 Grace Sturges and had David bp. 
Oct. 4. 1747: lived in Ridgfield Ct. : 
had a sen Nehemiah Sr.. M. D.. of 
Ridgfield : had Nehemiah Jr. M. D.. of 
Ridgfield m. Emily Jennings, [from 
Sellick ? s Norwalk History.] Who was 
father of Michael? Whom did David 
marry? What were names of all his 
children? There was another David 
Perry in Ridgfield at the same time : he 
was born about 1740 and was son of 



Elisha and Anna Perry.' Whom did 
this David marry and what children did 
he have? 

(b) Penfield, Jeremiah m. Elizabeth 
Williams and had Charlotte, Charles, 
Henry, Owen and Asa. Who were 
parents of Jeremiah and Elizabeth. 
They are supposed to have lived in 
Portland, Conn., perhaps near Penfield 
Hill. W. P. P. 

39. Wanser. — Priscilla m. Jan. 28, 1754 
Abram. Vancoit : Thomas Wanser m. 
Dec. 8, 1763 wid. Hannah Purdy (South 
Salem, N. Y., Pres. Ch. Rec.) Who 
were parents of Thomas and Priscilla ? 
And what children did they have? 
Were they related to the Wanzer's of 
New Fairfield, Conn.? Is this the 
Thomas named on p. 120? W. C. P. 

40. (a) Mun. — Jedediah of Woodbury, 
Ct., m. about 1750 Ruth b. about 1729. 
Who were his parents and what children 
had he? 

(b) Briggs, Zebedee of Ridgfield, Ct., 
or Southeast, N. Y., m. abt. 1760 Mary 
or Maria b. about 1740. They had 
children, James, Joshua, Phebe, Eliza- 
beth, Ruth (m. a Wildman), Zebedee, 
John, Benjamin and Thankful. Who 
were parents of Zebedee? What be- 
came of these children? Who were 
parents of Mr. Wildman and what 
children had he ? 

(c) Cozier (or Couzier), Thomas 
deceased by Mch. 12, 1776 and Ben- 
jamin Cozier was appointed adminis- 
trator. He lived near Danbury, Conn. 
Did he m. about 1765 Hannah b. about 
1742 ; and what children did he have? 
There was a Thomas Cozier late of New 
Fairfield who d. about 1800 leaving 
wid. Tabitha sons Benjamin (dead by 
Jan. 7, 1828 : wife Sarah), Thomas, and 
Abel; daus. Ann (m. Mr. Hodgh), 
Sarah (m. a Sharp), Lydia (m. Feb. 6, 
1759 Aaron Knappjr.), Thankful (m. 

Elisha Morehouse) and Mercy wife of 

Henry Woster. Abel married 

and had 1. Thomas (m. Margaret 

Spencer and had David Scribner Cosier 

sometime of Danbury, Ct.) 2. John 

3. Margaret? m. Dr. Wm. Daly. I 

would like to have these Coziers 

straightened out. 

(d) Sherwood, Abel enlisted Apr. 12, 

1758 aet. 33: b. in Conn.; Carpenter 

—brown complexion — 5 ft. 8 — Duchess 

Co., N. Y. Company commanded by 

Joseph Crane Esq. Who were parents 

of Abel? He was not son of David 3 

Isaac 2 Thomas 1 Sherwood for that 

Abel 4 was b. Dec. 20, 1720. 

J. W. E. 

41. Barber. — John m. Sept. 16, 1756 

Carmel N. Y., Thankful Hamblin. 

What children did they have. Who 

were parents of John and Thankful. 

H. F. A. 




Feb. 26. The widow Abbott in 

the 75th yr. of her age. 

Mch. 19. The wife of Mr. Josiah 
Sessions aet. 29. 

May 18. The wife of Capt. Richard 
Goodell aet. 5 1 yrs. 

June 5. Miss Esther Goodell in the 
49th yr. of her age. 

June 1 1 . Capt. Peter Ingals aet. 5 6 yrs. 

June. 19. Widow Elizabeth Rickard 
aet. 80. 

July 31. A daughter of the Widow 

Sept. 2. John a child of Mr. John 
Maguire in the 3rd yr. of its age. 

Oct. An infant child of Mr. John 


Nov. n. A child of Mr. Amasa 

Dec. 30. The wife of Mr. James 




Jan. 1. Lewis, Son of Capt. Richard 
Goodell aet. 12. 

Jan. 15. The wife of Mr. George 

Jan. 17. An infant child of *) 
Eph. P. Woodward. 

Jan. 28. An infant child of f twms - 
Eph. P. Woodward j 

Feb. 16. Widow Mary Ingals in the 
76th yr. of her age. 

Apr. 8. Mr. Joseph Weeks. 

May 4. Mr. Lemuel Chandler aet 32. 
Child of Mr. Lemuel Chandler 
deceased aet 16 ms. 

May 25. An infant child of Amasa 

Nov. 6. Dr. Elisha Lord aet 76. 
" 25. The Widow Squier aet 50. 


March 9. John, Child of Mr. John 
Gould, aet. 7. yrs. 

June 7. Miss Azubah Spalding in the 
20th yr. of her age. 

July 7. Miss Mercy Dexter in the 51st 
yr. of her age. 

An infant child of Mr. John 

Nov. 18. Widow Silvia Goodell in the 
68th yr. of her age. 

Nov. 24. Child of Mr. John Gould 
aet. 9 yrs. 


Feb. 1 1 . Child of Mr. Clement Sharpe 
aet 10 weeks. 

Mch. 31. Eliza, child of Mr. Peter 
Cunningham Jr. aet. 2 yrs. 

Apr. 1. Dorothy Ingals child of Mr. 
Peter Cunningham Jr. aet. 4 mos. 

Apr. 8. Lem'l Ingals, child of Mr. 
Sam'l Dresser aet. 1 yr. 

Apr. 20. Widow Lois Sharpe aet 76. 

July 10. A child of Mr. Shumway aet. 
2 yrs. 

Aug. 4. A child of Mr. Shumway. aet. 
4 yrs. 

Sept. 26. A child of Capt. Griggs 
Goffe aet. 3 yrs. 

Nov. 18. Widow Sarah Ingals aet. 

59 y^. 

Feb. 17. Sally, wife of Mr. Darius 
Higginbotham aet. 27. 

Mch. 26. Child of Mr. Amasa Cope- 
land aet. 1 yr. 

June 8. The wife of Capt. Elijah 
Griggs aet. 32. 

May 16. Robert, child of Mr. John 
Williams aet. 8. 

July 2. Jared, child of Capt. Oliver 
Ingals aet. 8 — drowned. 

Dec. 2. Widow Tamerson Lord died 
at Killingly in the 74th yr. of her age. 

Jan. 12. Solomon, son of Mr. Aaron 
Wedge aet. 17. 

Jan. 17. Mr. Joseph Williams. 

Feb. 13. Capt. Hicks aet. 78. 

Mch. 17. Capt. Lem'l. child of Rox- 
bury aet. 71 — [may be Sam'l — not clear.] 

Apr. 22. Infant child of Mr. Seabury 

June 16. Mrs. Sarah, wife of Dr. 
Robert Sharpe in the 62nd yr. 

Aug. 31. Widow Hannah Goodell aet. 

Nov. 24. Child of Mr.Charles Goodell. 

Nov 29. Hannah Bushnell aet. 14 of 
Killingly died at Mr. Appleton Osgood. 

Dec. 4. Mercy Slade aet. 21 died at 
Killingly very suddenly. 

Dec. 7. Infant child of Mr. Jeremiah 
C. Church. 

Dec. 18. Infant child of Mr. Paoli 

Dec. 21. Lucy Ann, child of Mr. 
David Packer aet. 5 yrs. 

( To be continued.*) 



IF agriculture in Connecticut, at the end 
of this wonderful century, is not so 
far advanced as other industries, it is 
owing in part to the nature of the case. 
There is a limit to all natural processes, a 
limit beyond which advancement must 
halt in obedience to the decree, ' ; Thus 
far shalt thou come and no farther." 
While theoretically and experimentally the 
outposts of agriculture have been pushed 
forward close to this limit, practically there 
is yet much room for improvement. 

Agriculture is retarded in Connecticut 
by many obstacles. In the first place the 
fertility of the soil, except in a few favored 
localities, is wanting. Then the climatic 
conditions are unfavorable. The generous 
deposit of bowlders of all dimensions all 
over Connecticut, is another obstacle that 
has driven many farmers from the hill 
towns to the great prairies of the West. 
Manufactures and trade have drawn some 
of their best material from the country, 
and many once productive farms have 
been abandoned, or turned over to the 
Swede or the Polander. 

Notwithstanding all these drawbacks 
nowhere in the country is farming more 
thoroughly understood, or more scientif- 
ically conducted. To place impediments 
in the way of the Anglo-Saxon is to stir up 
the indomitable energy and will power of 

his being, that knows no such thing as 
failure. The Anglo-Saxon farmers of 
Connecticut have set for themselves the 
task of overcoming the obstacles of climate, 
infertile soil and cumbering bowlders, and 
they are succeeding grandly, encourag- 
ingly. They have learned that brains can 
as successfully be employed in solving the 
problems of agriculture, as in any other 
pursuit. To this end the Agricultural 
College has been established, turning out 
graduates skilled in the scientific applica- 
tion of fertilizers to the soil, practical 
drainage and irrigation, as well as improved 
methods of cultivation and propagation. 

The tendency of agriculture in this 
State is toward special rather than general 
farming. Specialists in dairying, stock- 
raising, fruit-growing, or poultry breeding 
are becoming more frequent, while general 
farming is being relegated to the methods 
of the past. The old way was to produce 
everything needed as much as possible on 
the farm : wool for the farmer's clothing, 
the linen for his underwear, the hides for 
his shoes, and every article of food for his 
table that could be produced in the tem- 
perate zone. But all this has been changed. 
The dairyman and stock-raiser depend 
upon their western brothers for grain and 
feed. They grow corn to be sure, but 
that goes into the silo. The spinning 
wheel now adorns the attic, and the 



farmer's daughter now spins with another 
sort of wheel. 

In farming to-day the horse has almost 
superseded the slow ox, as the modern 
steel plow has superseded the wooden 
mold-board affair of the past. The mower 
replaces a dozen men with their scythes in 
the field. The reaper and binder, the 
loader and unloader, the engine and horse- 
power, now do duty in progressive farms. 
In dairying, co-operative creameries, or 
private creameries purchasing the farmers' 
milk or cream, have replaced to a great 
extent the butter-making of the past, as 
the cheese factories have replaced the 
home manufacture of this product. All 
to the advantage of the Connecticut 

What now engages the attention of 
agriculturists perhaps more than anything 
else, is the subject of irrigation. Some- 
times nature is very profuse with her rain 
fall, and sometimes she is not. Very 
frequently lack of rain is the cause of 
scanty crops and a shortage in the farmer's 
profits. How best to supply this deficiency 
of water is the greatest agricultural ques- 
tion of the day. Cities are supplying 
themselves, but the farms, located as they 
are upon elevations distant from water 
supply, and lacking the necessary capital 
to establish extensive water works, have 
to suffer; and just how to remedy the 
defect is a problem indeed. 

When it can b'e done, the establishment 
of irrigating plants by joint-stock corpora- 
tions or the State, will undoubtedly be 
accomplished, as has been done in the 
arid regions of the West ■ but until then 
every possible means of irrigation will have 
to be privately employed, to make up for 
the deficiency and uncertainty of the 
natural supply. Drainage, too, should 
receive more attention than ft has hitherto 
received, and the reclamation of swamps 

will increase largely the area of valuable 
farm lands now productive of nothing but 
frogs and malaria. 

With the intelligence and scholarship 
now being brought to bear upon agriculture, 
coupled with the constant improvement in 
farm implements and methods, not the 
least among which is the silage system in 
dairying, and the spraying of orchards for 
the destruction of injurious insects and 
fungi, the prospect for successful agriculture 
in Connecticut in the coming century is 
an exceedingly bright one. The uncer- 
tainty of employment or success in com- 
mercial and manufacturing undertakings 
is drawing the attention of thinking men 
more and more to the soil, and this is a 
good sign. There is a feeling that trade 
and manufactures have been overdone, 
and that agriculture has been neglected, 
and there is now a prospect that there will 
be an evening up, a more equitable ad- 
justment of these great industries by 
more extensive and intensive methods of 


It is to be hoped that the Bicycle Lan- 
tern Law now before the State Legislature 
will not fail of passing. In several places 
throughout the State, wheelmen have 
held indignation meetings and passed 
" whereases " and " resolves " reciting the 
"unjust discrimination" in seeking to 
compel the bicycle to carry a lamp while 
carriages and other vehicles are suffered 
to pass unlighted. 

Whenever wheelmen exist in any 
numbers, they have raised a cry for cycle 
paths — special roadways for the exclusive 
use of cyclists and off which horses and 
carriages are warned. But has any one 
heard the carriage owners cry aloud against 
the "deep injustice" or the " moral 


We think not. 



For our part we are weary of the selfish 
arguments advanced by wheelmen when 
such matters come up. They will do 
nothing gracefully ; they always insist that 
the horseman be also compelled to do 
likewise ; but they have the effrontery to 
seek privileges of which horsemen do not 

dream, but to which the latter rarely offer 
an objection. 

We are for lights on all vehicles, but we 
know the result can be attained only by 
degrees, and are willing that the bicycle 
should be made the first degree. 


Thomas Hardy's poetry is again and 
always the parallel of Thomas Hardy's 
prose, though less of his lucidity, charm, 
strength and humour cling to it. In 
"Wessex Poems," when he feels so in- 
clined, Mr. Hardy " takes the bit" and 
runs away with style as madly as possible. 
Coined words and loose constructions 
clattering after him in the headlong freak. 
Thus he says at the close of his initial 
poem : — 

"Then high handiwork will I make my 

Truth and Light outshow ; but the ripe 

time pending, 
Intermissive aim at the thing sufhceth." 

Thus I But lo, me : 

Mistress, friend, place, aims to be bettered 

Bettered not has Fate or my hand's 

achieving : 
Sole the showance those of my onward 

earth-track — 

Never transcended : 
But this is Mr. Hardy in his least happy 
and inost-to-be-regretted mood ) he fre- 
quently strikes a truer and more straight- 
forward note, as in the little poem which 
he has called 

(At His Funeral) 
They bear him to his resting-place — 

In slow procession sweeping by ; 
I follow at a stranger's space ; 

His kindred they, his sweetheart I. 
Unchanged my gown of garish dye, 

Though sable-sad is their attire ; 
But they stand round with griefless eye, 

Whilst my regret consumes like fire : 
In such narrative poems as "The 
Burghers" and "My Cicely," Mr. Hardy 
is convincing and forceful ; never a writer 
for "the young person" he best defines 
his own attitude in the sonnet 


(Offended by a Book of the Writer's) 

" I have borne such," he says, " Let thy 

Of me and mine diminish day by day, 
And yield their space to shine of smugger 

things ; 
Truth will be truth alway." 

Surely it can be said of the "Wessex 
Poems" that they are varied and unhack- 
neyed — often manful and inspiriting, and 
to nature faithful always. Mr. Hardy's 
illustrations, while they are minute and 



"architectural, "are still not without quaint- 
ness and suggestion. " Wessex Poems " 
is a book to be left upon the study table 
until familiarity shall either breed con- 
tempt, or work conviction in the mind as 
to Thomas Hardy's right to rank among 
the world's great versifiers. 



ness ; and there is reverence where 

reverence is due." 

One can hardly speak highly enough of 
the excellent form in which this little 
brochure is presented to its public. 

The Old Families of Salisbury and 
Amesbury, Mass., is a work by 
David W. Hoyt, Providence, R. I. 
The work is issued in parts, three 
of which have now appeared, and is 




We reprint above, by permission of the 
New York "Triptych," the colophon 
designed for its use by a member of the 
association, Mr. Jay Chambers. It seems 
to us, especially quaint and good, and 
we recognized it with pleasure, in conclud- 
ing "Talitha Cumi," the Triptych's 
Easter output. 

This rendering of " The raising of the 
daughter of Jairus," seems at first, to 
quote the Triptych themselves, "bold 
even to sacrilege," but on a careful 
re-reading, " its power, truth and absolute 
realism, carry conviction of its masterful- 

contams 80 pp. and is complete in 
references to the original records. 
Part one takes up A to Buswell ; 
part two Buswell through Fletcher j 
part three Foot to Martin. It is a 
work which we commend to our 

Schell or Researches after the 
Descendants of John Christian Schell 
and John Schell, early settlers in 
Mohawk Valley, N. Y., is a work of 94 
pp. by Rev. Christian Denissen, Detroit, 
Mich. The work presents the result of 
careful research. 


Descendants of John Fairman of 
Enfield, Ct., 1 683-1 898, is a work of 
36 pp. by Orrin Peer Allen, Palmer, Mass., 
from whom it can be had for 75 cents per 
copy, post paid. 



OUR readers will notice in our adver- 
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but are the product of such reliable houses 
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famous Ingersoll Watch Co., of New York 
City. The pocket books are always useful 
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In response to our offer of a prize of 
ten dollars made in our January number 
of this year for the best article on Major 
General Israel Putnam by any pupil of a 
high or college-preparatory school in Con- 
necticut, we have received a large number 
of articles by pupils in those schools in 
different sections of the state. We are 
gratified to ,note the uniformly high 
standard of excellence of several of them 
which speaks well for the teaching in our 
schools. Although on account of this 
excellence it was difficult for the judges 
to choose the best, yet we are pleased to 
state that after careful readings the same 
decision was reached by each judge in- 
dependently of the others. We therefore 
feel that the decision is as fair and 
equitable as we could hope to reach, in 
awarding the prize to the article signed 
"Rose Standish." 

Upon opening the sealed envelope we 
found "Rose Standish" to be Miss F. 
Greye Bragg of 117 Catherine Street, 
Bridgeport, Conn., who is a pupil in the 
Bridgeport High School, to which place 
the picture of General Putnam offered in 
connection with the prize will be sent. 
Miss Bragg's article will be published in 
an early number of this magazine. 

The articles submitted in response to 
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offer we cannot publish any of them. 






Others may preach and lecture, 

But to me it is quite clear, 
That the ablest work in the temperance cause 

Is selling "Williams' Beer." 

The little children like it 

Because it makes them strong, 
And if they nothing stronger drink, 

They never will go wrong. 

The older people like it 

Because 'tis " the cup that cheers," 
And because it is the sort of drink 

That lengthens out their years. 

Yes ! years of health and happiness 

All people may attain, 
Who will from all the stronger drinks 

Persistently abstain. 

Then to your own health drink heartily, 

And let me say, right here, 
The only drink to do this with 

Is "Williams' Sparkling Beer " 


Is made from '-Williams' Extract" (a highly concentrated extract of roots and herbs). 
This great family temperance drink is now made at the homes of thousands, and is the 
safest and best beverage for spring and summer use. Williams' Extract is sold by all 
dealers, and is cheap and easily made ready for use. It excels all others in purity 
and strength. One bottle of Extract makes 5 gallons. Manufactured by 

The Williams & Carleton Co*, 


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" "'- 

m Asylum, 5^, 

hhi-imi^ Coqd. 



*^0 MrMM2llL'M24&9 Full size for family use, beauti- 
fully decorated & most artistic design. A rare chance. You can pet 
tnis handsome china tea set & one dozen silver plated tea spoons for 
, selling our Pills. We mean what we say & will give this beautiful tea 
set absolutely free if you comply with the extraordinary offer we send 
to every person taking advantage of this advertisement. To quickly 
introduce our Vegetable Pills, asure cure for constipation, indigestion & torpid liver, if you agree to sell only six 
boxes of Pills at Sft cts. a box write to-day and we send Pills by mail, when sold send us the money & we send you 
one dozen Silver plated tea spoons together with our offer of a 56 pece china tea set same day money is received. This 
is a liberal inducement to every lady in the land and all who received the spoons and tea set for selling our Pills are 

The Easy-Rolling and Graceful Wakefield. 

These are the carriages we " PUSH "—and are the only 
ones you should do likewise to. Wakefield's are both 
lighter and stronger than any other make— there's no 
such thing as racking them. You can sell a Wakefield 
after you're through with it— it'll all be there. 


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And Act 

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CITY AND COUNTRY districts equally admire 
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other publication in Southern New England. 

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/J% mm buys a handy little Portable Frees for cards, 
%W W labels, envelopes, etc. 818 press for circulars or 

%!/ %J a pmall newspaper. Typesetting easy, printed 
instructions sent. A lad of ten can do good 

printing. A great money saver, or money maker either. 

A great convenience too. Send a stamp for samples and 

catalogtic, presses, type, paper, etc , direct to the factory. 


62,'COLONY ST., 




Send us your photograph (cabinet preferred) , and 
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Write to us or call on us 
for AN IDEA on 

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We have made beautiful many 
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75 Pratt St. Rms. 22 and 23 Stearns' Bldg. Hartford, Ct. 

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S. C W. I eghorns, S. C. Blk Minorcas, Barred P. Rocks, 
W. P. Rocks, W. Wyandottes. L. Brahmas ; 119 pri7es 
STAMP. Eggs, prize hens, $2 per 15; choice breeders, $ 1 
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ffie (3wmltm$wtiJm / qf 

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in the state at 
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also a full line of 

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Prof* Sparks, R* CX 

(3d year in Hartford.) 
Room 45, Sage-Allen Building, 


Everyone Should Know* 

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a When in doubt, Come to us." 


Booksellers and 



By W. I. Twitchel 1 
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Everything in the book line constantly on hand. 
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Hartford in History, 

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They want a home 
Why not adopt th 
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will comfort the sick, 
cheer up the saddest 
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Hartford Graphophone Co* 


80 Trumbull Street, HARTFORD, CONN, 


Bristol, Conn., Nov. 12, 1898. 

Mr. E. C Linn, Sec'y and Treas., 

The Connecticut Building and Loan Association, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Dear Sir; I am just in receipt of the check of 
the Association for $1,091.00, in payment of the 
maturity value of ten shares (insured class) , held 
by my bite husband, which also includes the reserve 
accumulations of the shares. 

I wish to thank you for your promptness in the 
settlement of this claim. Yours truly, 

Clara J. Clayton. 

$10 a month for 120 months produces $2,' 00, 
which will be paid in cash upon maturity of shares, 
or at prior death the proceeds of the life insurance 
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value of shares. 

Assets, Over, - 

Guarantee Fund, (paid in Cash), 


The Connecticut Building and 

Loan Association, 

252 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn. 

wk \ 







_j^ ; 

A Beautiful Complexion, with a soft, velvety 
skin is a sure result of using 


Thousands of refined ladies praise it. We want 
you to try it, and as a Special Inducement we 
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cular free of all expense if we receive 
your address before April 1st, 1899. Address, 

The Hi Bi Ha le Co. Hartford 

, Ct. 

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To the Users of 

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are revelations of" i 
possibilities in i 
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Sent to any address on receipt of 12c. 
in Stamps. 


You want one of these. 

Combined Cigar Cutter & Whistle 

Sent to any address on receipt of 50c, 
in silver or stamps. 

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No Rubber. 
No Chemicals. 


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Every Pair 

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Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 

Vol. V. 

May, 1899. 

No. 5. 




r^*'^ I 








^» {^* ^* 

Israel Putnam. 
Iron Mining in Connecticut. 
What Hetty Saw.— Story. 
Taylor Library, Milford. 
Boy Life at Camp Idlewild. 
Etc., Etc. 

g^» g^* ^* 

^ See Contents on Second Page 




■ 1 ravelers... 


Paid=up Capital, = = $1,000,000. 


Covering Accidents of Travel, Sport or Business, at home and abroad. 

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Returned to Policy Holders since 1864, #36,996,956.27 

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Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History, 
Literature, Science, Art and Industries* 

MAY, \ 899. 

vol. v. CONTENTS. No. 5. 

Spr ing-time. ( Frontispiece. ) 

To The Whippoor-will. Poem. Herbert Randall, 255 

Israel Putnam. Illustrated. Fanny Greye Bragg, 256 

Taylor Library, Milford t Conn. Illustrated. M. Louise Greene, 266 

A Twilight Study. Poem. Claribel Egbert, 271 

"What Hetty Saw. Story. Mary Bartlett MacDonald, 272 

Iron Mining in Connecticut. III. Historical Sketch. Illus. W. H. C.\Pynchon, 277 

The Fleet in Santiago Bay. Poem. Margherita Arlina. Hamm, 285 

Boy Life at Camp Idlewild. Illustrated. 286 
List of Burials Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. Annotated by Mary K. Talcott, 290 

Picturesque Connecticut. Photographs of Scenery. 292 

Tributes to Israel Putnam. 294 

Departments.— Genealogical Department. 295 

Editorial Notes. 298 

Book Notes. 300 

Publishers' Notes. 301 

George C. At well, Editor. Edward B. Eaton, Business Manager. 

H. Phelps Arms, ") 

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Milo L. Norton, \ Associate Editors. 

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But how much shall he be taught? Sufficient to develop him in all his parts. "A 
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The cost of education is thought by some to be a hindrance to its attainment. The 
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The State College on Storrs Hill, in the town of Mansfield, proposes to equip young 
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The Spring term will begin April 3, and end on Commencement Day, June 14. The 
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This article is fast superseding the wooden spruce lath for plas- [ 
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61 Market Street, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Auctioneer, BESTOR 

Sales conducted throughout the state on Real 
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At the ... . 

f f 


Norfolk, Conn. 

This Season. 
E. C. STEVENS, Prop. 


Lir^e, well-furniehed, sanitary plumbing. 
Best location on the Sonnd. Also cottage 
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George B. Monger, East River, Conn. 

A* MADISON, Co XS ut ' s BEACH. 

Choice lots for sale, directly on the water, 
others a short distance back with shore 
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Furnished Cottages to Rent. J. M. HULL. 

The RD/W^fl F/VF At Woodmont-on- 
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A familv Hotel for sale. Has a first-class patronage 
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Woodmont on the Connecticut Shore. 

A Summer Cottage "CV^f ^t/? 
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A Moment with our Readers 

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The Connecticut Magazine 

Vol. V. 

May, 1899. 

No. v 



When the twilight settles down 

With its softening glow, 
Then your piping whistle-song, 

As of long ago, 
Breaks upon the silent air, 

Bird of mystery ! 
Bringing sacred memories, 

Sweet and full to me — 

Never have those sunset gates 

Faded from my view ; 
Often in the self-same skies 

I, a-wing with you, 
Leave these worldly cares behind. 

Soaring, as of old, 
From the murky thicket's edge 

Into glints of gold. 

Sweet with summer's meadow dews ; 

Sweet with woodland balms ; 
Sweet with soothing slumber-dreams, 

In my mother's arms \ 
Full of childhood's innocence ; 

Full of fearless youth : 
Full of nearness unto God 

And immortal truth. 

O, but those were happy days ! 

When your whistle-song 
Broke upon the silent air, 

And the worldly throng 
Slept and left the world to us ; 

And the starry night, 
From the western slopes, afar, 

Followed in your flight. 

Till your circling wings were lost, 

And the pine-tops, still, 
Listened, as your whistle-song. 

Far beyond the hill, 
Died away, and died away, 

Leaving unto me 
All these long-remembered dreams 

Bird of mystery ! 




THERE is a type of New England 
manhood upon which changes have 
been rung again and again without tiring 

(From the painting in the Governor's room, State Capitol.) 

reader or listener ; a type whose very ap- 
pellation was made, as early as 17 13. a 
synonym for excellence and one which 
finds its most fitting embodiment in the 

life and achievements of a man whose 
characteristic qualities and rise by his 
own efforts from obscurity into deserved 
eminence, demon- 
strate him to have 
been a Yankee of 
Yankees. Israel Put- 
nam, successful far- 
mer and able soldier, 
exhibited in the mo- 
tives which prompted 
his actions in every 
emergency, the in- 
herent traits of 
Yankeeism. Where 
else but in a Yankee 
could be found the 
intrepid daring which 
almost amounted to 
recklessness; the 
courage, moral and 
physical, often 
stronger than discre- 
tion ; the abhorrence 
of dissimulation, the 
frank, sensitive spirit, 
and the sound judg- 
ment which at all 
times distinguished 
the patriot general? 

January 7, 1718, 

he was born on his 

farm in Salem, now Danvers, 

there he imbibed a love for 


Mass. ; 

agriculture which followed him through 

life. The tenth of eleven children, he 

* Awarded the Prize offered in our January number for the best article on Major 
General Putnam. 




realized that whatever his share of their 
father's estate might be, it would neces- 
sarily be small, and so from early boyhood 
he learned the lesson of sturdy self-reliance. 
His education was given very little atten- 
tion, a smattering of the " three Rs " 
being at that time considered sufficient 
for anyone and had it not been for the 
silent influences of Nature, the best 
possibilities of his character must have 

to Boston, he thrashed a lad bigger and 
older than himself for sneering at the 
rustic style of his homespun garments, 
and the other tells of the summary way in 
which he forced the proud son of a rich 
neighbor to retract the lying calumnies he 
had uttered to a lover against his sweet- 
heart, a fatherless, innocent girl. He 
always made common cause with the 
helpless and oppressed. 


remained dormant ; constant association 
with her softened and refined, while it 
deepened his impulses. Boy as he was, 
Putnam excelled his village companions 
in athletic sports, of which he was very 
fond, thus preparing himself unconciously 
for the hardships which he endured in 
after years. 

The two earliest stories told of him 
show his honest pride and manliness. 
The one relates how. upon his first visit 

Putnam's resources were like those of 
the average Yankee, fathomless and 
unfailing ; the following story of ''Putnam 
and the Bull" aptly illustrates this. When 
a lad, his father sent him to drive home a 
young bull recently purchased. The bull 
objected and chased the boy out of the 
pasture. Putnam put on a pair of spurs 
and jumping out from behind a tree as the 
beast rushed by, managed to get upon his 
back. Plunsrins the rowels into this novel 



steed, he forced him to run until he stuck 
exhausted in the clay which was at one 
end of the field. Then the lad extricated 
the thoroughly subjugated animal which 
was driven home without further trouble. 
When twenty years of age Putnam 
married Hannah Pope of Salem and in 
1739 he and his brother-in-law together 
bought five hundred and fourteen acres in 
Mortlake Manor in Connecticut. Such 
was his industry that in two years he was 

sunny slopes of his farm could not have 
found their equal the country around. 

It was the sheep and goats that 
indirectly furnished the young farmer 
with his most widely known adventure. 
In the early spring of 1743, an old 
she-wolf and her whelps destroyed seventy 
of these valuable sheep and goats. The 
whelps were destroyed but the dam, a 
sagacious and vigilant animal, escaped 
from traps and dogs time and time again ; 


enabled to buy out his partner and thus 
became sole owner in what was called the 
" Putnam Farm." Although Massachu- 
setts born, the best days of his life were 
spent in his adopted state upon this farm 
between the villages of Pomfret and 
Brooklyn. The fruits which he raised 
there were considered the best in New 
England ; especially the winter apples, 
to which he paid the greatest attention. 
The sheep and goats he raised upon the 

on one occasion leaving the toes of a 
fore-foot in the trap. This last accident 
rendered her trail easily recognizable in 
the snow and so Putnam and those 
neighboring farmeis who had suffered 
from her depredations set their dogs on 
the scent one fine morning, determined 
to kill the cunning brute. She was 
trapped in a rocky cave near Putnam's 
home and refused to face her persecutors. 
The dogs retreated whining and covered 



with wounds ; burning straw and sulphur 
failed to dislodge her, and at last the 
farmers found themselves under the 
disagreeable necessity of sending one of 
their number into the cavern or abandon- 
ing the chase. Putnam offered to go and 
stripping off all superfluous garments, he 
crawled into the cave. After ascertaining 
by the light of a birch-bark torch the 
whereabouts of the wolf, whose fiery orbs 
glared upon him out of the darkness, he 
was drawn out so hurriedly that he was 
severely cut and bruised. Loading his 
musket carefully, he went in again and 
shot the wolf. After 
being drawn out he 
went in a third time 
and emerged drag- 
ging the creature out 
by the ears. 

When the northern 
approaches to New 
York were in danger 
of French invasion, 
Putnam's eagerly 
offered services were 
accepted, and with 
the rank of captain 
he followed Major- 
General Phineas 
Lynch. During the 
next two years he was 
a prominent member of a band of Rangers 
and the comrade on many occasions of the 
famous Rogers. At one time when re- 
turning to a hidden party of his men, a 
Frenchman met Rogers, whose gun un- 
fortunately missed fire. The soldier drew 
a knife, and but for Putnam's timely aid, 
the career of the Ranger might have been 
ended then and there. The captain killed 
the man with a blow from the butt-end of 
his musket and escaped with Rogers. 
Although the angry guards followed for 
no little distance, no lives were lost. 

In the spring of 1756 Rogers and Put- 
nam were transferred with their respective 

companies into the command of General 
Webb. One sultry night that summer 
Putnam and a soldier named 1 )urkee were 
scouting in the vicinity of Fort Ticonde- 
roga. The deceptive arrangement of the 
enemy's camp-fires betrayed the young 
men into the very midst of the encamp- 
ment. In the shower of bullets which fol- 
lowed their escape Durkee was wounded, 
and upon reaching a temporary place of 
safety, Putnam generously offered him his 
canteen of rum, but it had been tapped 
by a bullet and was empty. When Put- 
nam examined his blanket he found no 
less than fourteen bullet holes in it. 

PUTNAM'S plow. 
Now in possession of A. E. Brooks, Hartford.) 

The next year General Lyman suc- 
ceeded Webb and the Rangers were sta- 
tioned on an island off Fort Edward. 
One morning a company of Provincials 
escorted by fifty British regulars were cut- 
ting timber and fell into an ambuscade. 
After the greater part of their number was 
slain the rest fled in dismay. Lyman, 
fearing lest the safety of the garrison 
should be jeopardized, called in the out- 
posts and closed the gates. But Putnam 
was not the man to look calmly upon the 
slaughter of his friends. Calling his men 
about him, he rushed to the rescue, al- 
though Lyman peremptorily ordered him 



to return. Amid cheers of encourage- 
ment the little band dashed into the fight ; 
the tide was turned, and the baffled sav- 
ages retreated in disorder. The hero of 
the hour, Putnam was received with joy- 
ous demonstrations when he returned to 
the fort ; even Lyman privately com- 
mended the generous motives which had 
caused the young Ranger to disobey 

of barracks nearest the magazine in flames. 
Every effort was put forth to quench the 
flames, but in vain. Putnam and his men 
being apprised of the danger, crossed on 
the ice and gave their assistance. Al- 
though the danger of an explosion was 
imminent, and all expected momentarily 
to be blown into eternity, officers and men 
worked gallantly. From his position on 
the roof, Putnam poured bucket after 

(From an old print ) 

There are brave men who fear some 
one form of danger and shrink from it, 
but Putnam seems to have possessed a 
nature singularly free from fear ; always 
mindful of the force of example, he in- 
variably took the post of danger in every 
expedition. In the winter of 1756, when 
Colonel Haviland took command at Fort 
Edward, Putnam and his Rangers were 
still on Roger's Island. One mild Febru- 
ary morning a cry of fire alarmed the gar- 
rison, and turning out they found the row 

bucket of water upon the devouring 
flames. He only descended when the 
buildings fell but a few feet from the 
magazine. In spite of his severe wounds 
he ran again to the place of most danger, 
and amid flames and smoke, sparks and 
cinders, he dashed water upon the maga- 
zine until the fire was under control. His 
exposure and burns made him an invalid 
for a month. 

The young captain was usually rendered 
extremely impatient at any loss of good 



opportunities. The spring after his re- 
covery he was retreating from Molang 
when a party of Provincial scouts fired 
upon his company, mistaking them for 
the enemy, but their fire fortunately did 
little damage. Putnam afterward reproved 
their leader, saying, " Your men ought to 
be hanged for not killing more at so fair 
a chance." 

One narrow escape of Putnam's caused 
the Indians to regard him with supersti- 
tious awe and reverence. He was return- 

An experience which might well have 
formed the subject for one of Cooper's 
tales now befell him. Retreating with 
Rogers and five hundred men from Mo- 
lang and his French and Indians, he fell 
into an ambuscade on Clear River. He 
aimed at an Indian chief but his gun 
missing fire, the savage sprang upon him 
and bound him to a tree standing in the 
line of fire of both parties. During the 
engagement which followed, the major's 
garments were completely riddled with 


(The scene of Putnam's famous ride.) 

ing from a visit to Fort Miller, and as he 
was going to his boat he was surprised by 
a large body of Indians, some in the 
woods about him, and some in their ca- 
noes. The young man saw that the 
chances on land and water were equally 
bad, so springing into his boat, he al- 
lowed himself to be carried down among 
the rocks and dangerous currents where 
the savages dared not follow. His escape 
from them was indeed miraculous. The 
next year, 1757, his bravery was rewarded 
with the rank of major. 

bullets, and at one time a young Indian 
amused himself by throwing his tomahawk 
within an inch of the captive's head. The 
Rangers repulsed Molang, but the Indians 
carried off their prisoner when they re- 
treated. Upon reaching the depths of 
the forest, Putnam's captors separated 
from their French allies, and after some 
preliminary tortures they decided to burn 
the unfortunate officer at the stake. Ac- 
cordingly he was tied to a tree, fagots 
were piled about his feet and fired, but 
scarcely had the wood begun to crackle 



in the heat when a thunder shower came 
up, and by extinguishing the flames, saved 
Putnam for the nonce. The shower 
passed over and more fagots were added 
to the pile which was again fired. Just 
as the captive was giving up all hope, 
Molang, who had been informed of the 
proceedings by a converted Indian, rushed 
into the circle and cutting the thongs, 
freed him from the horrible death which 
had seemed inevitable. He was sent by 
the French officer to Montcalm at Ticon- 


deroga, and from there to Montreal. 
Here another prisoner, Colonel Peter 
Schuyler, interested himself in the ragged, 
wounded soldier, and by his influence 
procured an exchange for him. 

In 1759 his worth was again recognized 
and his rank became that of lieutenant- 
colonel. His last exploit in the French 
and Indian war was in 1760 near Fort 
Oswegatchie. The approach to the fort 
was guarded by two twelve-gun schooners, 
concerning which General Amherst had 
expressed the wish that some one would 
take "'' those infernal schooners." Putnam 
offered to do it. Amherst, at first incredu- 
lous, reflected on the native ingenuity of 

the Yankee officer and finally authorized 
the venture. That night Putnam's party 
of six picked men rowed with muffled 
oars to the schooner, drove wedges be- 
tween stern and rudder and cut the cable. 
The following morning the ship stranded 
on the beach, and when she struck her 
colors the other vessel surrendered also, 
and the fort fell easily into Amherst's 

At the close of the war Putnam went 
on the West Indies expedition with 
General Lyman, his old commander, and 
returned home laden with more honors, 
and in 1764 he commanded the Connec- 
ticut forces in Bradstreet's army, at which 
time he received the rank in full of 
colonel. He took a well-earned rest at 
the end of this year, and retiring to his 
farm interested himself in agriculture. 
Shortly after his return his wife died, leav- 
ing ten children, the youngest of whom 
was but a year old; the following May 
the bereaved husband joined the Brooklyn 
church. In 1 767 he brought to his family 
a new mother in the person of Deborah 
Gardiner, a widow, and the union proved 
a very happy one for the ten years of its 
duration. The next seven years were 
spent with his family on the farm. 

At the very outset of the trouble which 
caused the Revolution, he stood out boldly 
and conspicuously as an upholder of lib- 
erty. In August of 1774, when Gage had 
not quite shut up Boston, Colonel Put- 
nam rode over from the Neck with one 
hundred and thirty sheep sent as a gift 
from Brooklyn parish. During his visit 
in Boston he was the guest of Doctor 
Warren. Gage informed Putnam com- 
placently that five thousand veterans could 
march across the continent without hind- 
rance. The reply he received voiced the 
public sentiment admirably — "Ay, if they 
behaved properly, and paid as they went. 
But if they showed the least hostility, the 



American women would knock them over 
the head with their ladles ! " 

Soon after Colonel Ingersoll's resigna- 
tion of the office of " Stamp Distributor," 
Putnam, accompanied by two other gentle- 
men, visited Colonel Fitch, determined to 
prevent, by fair means or foul, the entrance 
into Connecticut of stamped paper. Fitch 
was dubious, and wanted to look at every 
side of the matter before acceding to the 
demands of his visitors. However, when 
he learned that a refusal would be fol- 
lowed by the levelling of his house to 
the ground he yielded at once, and no 
stamped paper entered Connecticut. 

The intelligence of the Concord fight 
roused the whole country in April of the 
following year. Putnam was employed 
in ploughing a field of Indian corn when 
the news reached him. He was swift 
to act. Leaving the cattle and plough 
in the furrow, not stopping to change 
his clothes, he mounted a fleet horse 
and was soon well on his way to Cam- 
bridge, which he reached at sunrise the 
next morning, and his gallant steed 
galloped into Concord later the same 
day. At the same time that Washing- 
ton was appointed commander-in-chief, 
Putnam was made brigadier-general 
and given command of the army-center 
at Cambiidge. 

At Bunker Hill, Putnam was ranking 
officer and conducted the retreat, 
though reluctantly. In point of fact, he 
was absolutely furious about it, for he was 
an officer little used to reverses in battle. 
Standing among his men he waved his 
sword and shouted, " Victory shall be 
ours ! Make a stand here, boys. We can 
stop them yet ! In God's name, fire and 
give them one shot more ! " Finding his 
exhortations useless, he lost control of 
himself, and for the first and last time in 
his life he swore roundly at the retreating 
colonists. Instead of leading he followed 

on their retreat, and was almost the last 
to leave the earth-works. Years afterward 
the old general went on his crutches into 
the Brooklyn church and told the deacons 
of his profanity. He closed his confes- 
sion with these words, " It was enough to 
make an angel swear to see those cowards 
refuse to secure a victory so easily won." 
The deacons could not find it in their 
hearts to do anything but forgive him. 
After this battle Howe offered Putnam 


a large sum of money and a commission 
as one of four major-generals. As might 
have been foreseen, Howe might have 
saved himself the trouble of making this 
offer which Putnam refused with indigna- 
tion, and four days afterward Washington 
sent him the same commission, only it 
was in the " rebel army." 

A humorous incident is told of Putnam's 
stay in Cambridge. His wife had joined 
him at the house of one Ralph Inman, a 
runaway Tory, and frequently drove out 



in the latter's coach. The town select- 
men did not approve of this, and one day 
stopped the coach and obliged Mrs. Put- 
nam to return home on foot. The general 
went into a fearful rage when his weeping 
wife told him her story and, it is said, 
went to the selectmen and was not satis- 
fied until he had frightened them badly 
with his stern reproaches. 


(Now in the Capitol at Hartford.) 

And now Putnam's more active military 
life comes to the fore. In 1776 General 
Washington sent him to New York, and 
in August to Brooklyn Heights. He was 
not responsible for the defeat of two days 
afterward. How could he be expected to 
repulse twenty thousand veterans with 
only five thousand raw recruits? At Har- 
lem Heights, Chatterton Hill, Fort Wash- 
ington and Princeton he took no incon- 
spicuous part. 

While in command at Peekskill a young 

Royalist lieutenant was captured in the 
camp. The hapless youth, as unfortunate 
as erring, was tried and condemned to 
death as a spy, in spite of the efforts of 
his friends and the pleas of his young 
wife. Sir Henry Clinton sent a message 
ordering the instant release of his Majesty's 
liege subject, Edmund Palmer. The re- 
ply is historical. 

Headquarters, August 7, 1777. 

Edmund Palmer, an officer in the 
enemy's service, was taken as a spy, lurk- 
ing within our lines. He has been tried 
as a spy, condemned as a spy, and shall 
be executed as a spy, and the flag is 
ordered to depart immediately. 

Israel Putnam. 

P. S. — He has accordingly been exe- 

Throughout the trying exigencies of 
war, Putnam, now almost sixty years old, 
retained his youthful spirit and humor. 
Colonel Moylan relates in a letter how, 
upon the capture of two brigs with plenty 
of ammunition, " Old Put," as he was 
nicknamed, mounted a large mortar with 
a bottle of rum in his hand, and as par- 
son, with the help of Mifflin, an aide of 
Washington, as godfather, christened it 
" Congress." Says Colonel Moylan, " Old 
Put's cry throughout the winter has been, 
' Powder ! powder ! ! Ye gods, give me 
powder ! ' and now at last he is satisfied." 

The same year, 1777, the intelligence 
of the decease of his beloved wife came 
to him at Fishkill. He took but a short 
absence, saw her buried in the Robinson 
family vault, and then, smothering his 
grief, returned to his place of duty. The 
suffering was intense throughout the army 
that year. While Washington was at Val- 
ley Forge, Putnam was enduring the same 
privations with his men at the Hudson 
Highlands ; he never made his age an ex- 
cuse for shirking duty. Before the winter 
was over he was obliged to give up his 
command to McDougal, merely because 



his treatment of the Tories had been 
gentler than his envious detractors thought 
proper. Washington wrote to him de- 
ploring this, and adding that he was 
obliged to do it because those who ob- 
jected to him were the powerful and influ- 
ential ones, the withdrawal of whose sup- 
port would be a great inconvenience. 
Putnam did not complain, but returned to 
Connecticut and endeavored to labor there 
for the cause he so loved. When the dis- 
satisfaction of the Connecticut troops 
threatened at one time to make trouble 
for Congress, Putnam rode to meet them 
as they marched toward Hartford, and by 
a judicious speech contrived to restore 
their good humor. 

That same winter he performed an ex- 
ploit which will live in song and story. 
While visiting an outpost at Horseneck 
(now West Greenwich), he saw in the 
mirror by which he was shaving, the red 
coats of the advancing British regulars. 
Dropping the razor he seized his sword, 
and half shaved roused his men. He 
mounted his horse and ordered a retreat, 
for his little company of one hundred and 
fifty men could do nothing but retreat 
from the fifteen hundred under Tryon. 
But the orderly retreat became a wild, un- 
governable rout, every man seeking his 
own safety. Putnam spurred toward Stam- 
ford, pursued by a large number of dra- 
goons. Upon discovering that they were 
gaining on him, the general, urged by des- 
peration, turned his horse and went at full 
gallop down a steep declivity near a rude 
flight of stone steps. Picture the bluff, 
florid, good-humored face of the daring 
old hero as he dashed down the hill amid 
the flying bullets ! His hat gone, his dark 
hair ruffled by the breeze, his keen, kindly 
light-blue eyes sparkling with humorous 
satisfaction and triumph as he waved one 
arm at the wondering regulars reining up 
their horses on the brow of the hill ! 
With steady nerves not in the least shaken 

by his astonishing ride, he called the Stam- 
ford militia, and following Tryon captured 
forty of his men. 

In the summer of 1779 Putnam was 
posted with his men two miles below West 
Point at Buttermilk Falls, and early that 
winter he made his headquarters at Mor- 
ristown, New Jersey. Returning there 
from a visit to his family, he had a stroke 
of paralysis at the house of Colonel Wads- 
worth at Hartford. His was a hopeful 
mind, and he refused to believe the dis 
ease dangerous. But as his illness neces- 
sitated the resignation of all public duties, 
he returned to the bosom of his family at 
Brooklyn, where he spent the remainder 
of his life among the affectionate friends 
and neighbors of his youth. He lived 
eleven years after this, and was able to 
walk, ride and enjoy society to some little 

Two years before his death his biogra- 
pher, Colonel Humphreys, finished his 
" Essay on the life of the Honorable 
Major-General Israel Putnam." It is said 
that this was the first biography attempted 
in xA.merica, and we are certainly indebted 
to Colonel Humphreys for selecting from 
the hundreds of lives about him our Con- 
necticut hero. 

On May 27, 1790, an acute inflamma- 
tory disease attacked the veteran and he 
considered it as fatal. In two short days 
he was gone to that country from which 
there is no return. His children were al- 
most inconsolable, for he was the kindest 
and most affectionate of fathers. At his 
funeral religious rites were mingled with 
military honors, and the address was de- 
livered by a personal friend whose warm- 
est praises, however, could do no more 
than justice to the departed hero. His is 
but a humble monument ; yet upon its 
marble surface are graven words which 
find an answering thrill in the heart of 
every patriot who scans that last tribute 
to the memory of Israel Putnam. 




Illustrated from photographs by E. B. Hyatt. 

N the winter sparrows 
chirp about the build- 
ing ; in the summer, 
summer sounds enter 
through all the windows. 
In the colder season 
one seeks the cheery brightness of the 
round tower with its cushioned seats and 
table, forming in itself a little reference 
room within the larger stack room. A 
leisurely reader will watch the goings on 
in Broad and River streets, the main 
thoroughfares of the village, and at whose 

junction the library stands. Occasionally 
the almost studious quiet is broken by the 
whirr of the trolley, suggesting noisy 
Bridgeport or collegiate New Haven. In 
the afternoon in the panelled oak hallway, 
before the delivery desk troops of children 
mingle with their elders, their piping 
voices calling for this or that of the six- 
teen hundred juvenile books provided by 
Colonel Taylor and his friends for their 
delectation. Beyond the hallway the 
reading room welcomes the visitor with 
its refreshing coolness or by the grateful 



warmth of its large fireplace, where the 
eye is caught and memory held by 

" To one whose image never may depart 
Deep graven on this grateful heart 

Till memory be dead 
To one whose love has longer dwelt 
More deeply fixed, more keenly felt 

My mother." 

■ About the walls of rough light olive 
plaster frescoed in festoons of deeper tint, 
hang a series of colored lithographs of 
Venice, including her famous squares and 
buildings. Chairs of antique oak, and 

been utilized as memorial windows. They 
flood the passage way between the wide 
double stacks of oak thus making, on the 
south, (or right side of the room as one 
enters it) three alcoves A, (a double one v , 
B, C, D, and on the north side four, one 
of which has had to be subdivided to 
accommodate certain books. The library 
now holds in round numbers nine 
thousand volumes. By replacing the 
present stacks with the narrow and 
lighter iron ones more commonly in use 
its capacity could be doubled. One 


broad, comfortable tables invite both 
juniors and seniors to an easy reading of 
any one of the nine dailies, eighteen 
weeklies or twenty-five other periodicals. 
Light is plentiful either through the 
windows edged with opalescent glass or 
from the iron candelabra above. In the 
stack 100m, or library proper, the same 
color scheme is observed. The efficiency 
of the windows at its eastern end is 
increased by those of the round tower and 
by the four high, narrow openings on 
either side wall. Several of these have 

other possible outlet for overflow might 
be found in the directors room in the 
second story with a floor space of 15 x 
20 feet. 

A little ancient history will show that in 
one respect at least Milford has passed 
from the days of Sleepy Hollow traditions : 
days which seem to have been a sort of 
interregnum stage such as comes to all 
growing things, — a period of rest and 
apparent inanition. For in the days long 
before public libraries were known, and 
when books were as rare a< theology was 



prized, Milford had her library, represent- 
ing theology, science, travel, biography 
and some small amount of fiction. So 
highly valued was this "Milford Library" 
of 1745, that fifty dollars was required as 
a bond for each subscriber's return of the 
precious volumes, and for a long time it 
was an open question whether any one 
outside of the First Society, had money 
quite good enough to meet this bond. 

Later the second society started a more 
popular collection of books which circu- 
lated from 176T to 1820. But by 1838 


only a tradition remained, and by 1858 it 1 
had so far passed away and the want of 
literature so long been keenly felt that at 
a meeting of citizens, held May 4th in the 
First Congregational Church, Charles H. 
Pond, chairman, David L. Baldwin, clerk, 
it was decided that : 

" Whereas, the moral and general 
welfare of a community may be promoted 
by a good public library, popular and 
scientific lectures and other appropriate 
means " — 

Voted : that in the furtherance of 
that object it is expedient to form a 
lyceum in Milford under the following 
conditions : 

1. "The Association shall be called 
the Milford Lyceum." 

2. "Officers and general directors to 
be president, vice-president, secretary, 
treasurer, librarian and ten directors. 

3. " Executive Committee may at any 
time, if they deem it expedient, establish 
a reading room or evening school. 
Members of the lyceum may hold meet- 
ings for the discussion of all subjects of 
general interest, except political subjects 
of a partisan character." 

4. One Dollar to be the fee for mem- 
bership, and One Dollar the price for 

ticket to each course of lec- 
tures. Only (hose members 
over eighteen years of age 
entitled to vote at business 

The Connecticut Legisla- 
ture granted a charter allow- 
ing the Lyceum to hold prop- 
erty to the amount of fifteen 
thousand dollars. The first 
meeting was held June 1st, 
1858. William G. Mitchell 
was secretary i860 to 1866, 
and treasurer i860 to 1867. 
William Davidson, Jr., secre- 
tary 1866-1S72. E. E. P. 
Clark, 1872-73. D.L.Clark, 
1873-76. George H. Smith, 
1 88 1 - 1 894. William S. Chase, the present 
librarian of the Taylor Library, was treas- 
urer for a year, and as librarian for seven- 
teen years, 187 7-1894 gave his services 
free. The career of the Lyceum was one 
checkered by misfortunes. The read- 
ing room, evening school and lecture 
courses were abandoned. Sometimes a 
benefit lecture would be given in one of 
the churches for the Lyceum Fund, as fees, 
fines, lectures and donations constituted 
its fluctuating capital. A room was hired 
in which to house the books, and w?s 
open Monday afternoon and Friday even- 
ing of each week as against the present 



library hours of 10 A. M. to 1 p. m., and 3 
to 5 p. M. daily, and certain evenings of 
each week. 

This arrangement continued until 1870. 
By 1859 eleven hundred books had been 
collected. The following year the Lyceum 
virtually suspended after An Address to 
Milford Citizens, of which the following 
is a citation : 

" In a town so deficient in moral and 
intellectual stimuli and suffering therefrom, 
one of the great means of supplying both 
should not be neglected ; a centre of pleas- 
ure and profit, open to, and inviting all, 
yet by an indifferent public has hardly 
been allowed to live, shunned seemingly, 
as if the light and knowledge it is capable 
of diffusing through our community de- 
served repression. 

" The Library (Milford Lyceum), num- 
bering 133 1 volumes, including history, 
biography, fiction, and ' second to none in 
the state,' has two wants, Patrons and the 
popular works of the day, one will pro- 
cure the other. The fee for membership, 
one dollar ($1.00) per year, less than two 
cents a week is so small in amount, so 
reasonable in terms as to bring it within 
the means of all." 

Fruitlessly, the directors appealed for 
members, for books, for funds. The thir- 
teen hundred odd books were put in stor- 
age for six years. Then one more effort 
was made to create a reading public. A 
room was rented for fifty dollars per year. 
The town granted seventy-five dollars per 
annum. New books were added until 
their number amounted to nineteen hun- 
dred on December 12th, 1887, when a 
fire destroyed all but a hundred volumes 
and the Lyceum was irretrievably doomed- 
Its life lingered for seven years, when it 
effaced itself by a gift of its four hundred 
volumes to the Taylor Library. 

Such was a career which led to Colonel 
Henry Augustus Taylor's giving at the in- 
vitation of the late Nathan G. Pond and 
other public-spirited citizens of Milford 

the pretty gothic structure, erected in 
1894, at a cost of $20,000, on a site fur- 
nished by the town. 1 he price paid for 
the lot was $2,400. In addition, the town 
pledged itself for £t,oco per year for fifty 
years. The building was designed by 
Joseph \V. Northrup of Bridgeport, and 
is of native stone trimmed with red sand- 


stone and finished with cream colored 
brick with red tiled roof. 

A thousand dollars a year is not a large 
sum for heat, light, janitor, librarian, pa- 
pers, periodicals, books, insurance and 
repairs. The man who for seventeen 
years was altruistic enough to give his 
services in the hope of some day seeing a 



real public library take shape, consented 
to combine janitorship with long hours of 
a librarian's work. Gifts of periodicals 
and books were sought, and Milfordites, 
bred or born, responded warmly. 

The Memorial Bridge threw its shadow 
libraryward, and the alcoves before re- 
ferred to were gradually filled. Alcove A, 
at Mr Pond's suggestion, became a colo- 


nial alcove with its six shelves bearing the 
names of: 

Shelf 1. East and south side, Rev. 
Samuel Andrew, (graduate of Harvard 
1675, third pastor of the First Church, 
second rector of Yale College, instructing 
at Milford the senior class 1 707-1 718, 
died January 24, 1738, buried in the 
present cemetery.) 

Shelf 2. East and south side, Nathan 
Gillette Pond, (placed there after his de- 

Shelf 3. South side, Governors Treat 
and Law : Burwell and Bryan (east.) 

Shelf 4. South side, L. B. Piatt; John 
Stone (east.) 

Shelf 5. South side, Thomas Tibballs, 
(who guided the colonists to Milford.) 

Shelf 5. East side, Thomas Bucking- 

Shelf 6. East and south side, same as 
shelf 1. 

On the west side shelves 1, 2, 3, 4 and 
5, Emily Grace Isbell and Nathan Ferew 

Shelf 6. Rev. Charles Chauncey. 

Alcove B was filled through the gener- 
osity of descendants of Miles Merwin 1st. 

Alcove C was taken by Mrs. Mary 
Smith, who placed above it the Tiffany 
window with the coat of arms of the Hep- 
burn family, from which she springs. It 
also happens that the window is directly 
over the cellar wall of the Hepburn house 
formerly occupying the site of the library. 

Alcove D was taken by the late Nathan 
A. Baldwin. A portrait memorial window 
has recently been placed above it. 

Opposite the colonial alcove the window 
with the Taylor coat of arms is one of the 
many gifts of the Taylor family, as are 
also the juvenile books beneath. Above 
the double alcove is the Myers coat of 
arms. Mrs. Taylor was a Myers. The 
Lawrence alcove has been designated by 
a brass tablet. 

Among the many gifts of Mr. Taylor 
should be mentioned the unique collec- 
tion of a hundred and seventy-six bibles 
in every dialect in which that book has 
been published to the present time. It is 
said to be one of the most complete col- 

That the young folks take an interest 
in giving to the library, as well as in re- 



ceiving from it. is witnessed to by the fine 
globe, the gift of the "Beehive" in 
memory of their teacher. Miss Lucile A. 
Fowler, 1896. 

May the library flourish through the 
constant pouring in of gifts, and as the 
town enlarges through increased appro- 



Still as falls the mother's tread 

When she tiptoes to the bed 

Where there lies a curly head 
Pillowed on a rosy palm, 
Steals the dusky gloaming on. — 
Down the lane in wav'ring line, 
Trail the heavy uddered kine. 

Hushed, the night wind wanders by. — 
Dark the hill against the sky, 
Saffron hued, and straight and high 

On its summit, looms the pine, 

Through whose boughs I catch the shine 

All a tangle, of the hair 

Of coy Venus ling'ring there. 



AT the edge of a pine grove, one of 
the fringes of crooked little Scantic 
River, a young girl sat dreaming in the 
sunshine. Her seat was an old board, 
wedged into the trunks of two tall trees ; 
it looked as if it had grown there, sun and 
rain had so mellowed it into harmony 
with nature. 

The sun was shining through the pine 
needles, high above her head. It turned 
the curly tips of her brown hair into 
little rings of finest gold thread. Flecks 
of sunshine lay upon the long, soft, grey- 
green grass at her feet, revealing fairy 
rings of late anemones and clusters of 
pansy-like sand violets, and from the 
undergrowth on the borders of the grove, 
gleamed pink and white azaleas. 

The girl sat, bending over her rustic 
seat, dreamily wondering about the 
histories whose mystic runes were cut 
into the old board, and into the tree 
trunks that held it. Initials and various 
emblems stood there, that to many 
generations of lovers had meant much 
heart-lore. Her hat had fallen on the 
grass, and the wind was blowing her soft, 
wavy hair about, making it a delicate 
frame for her face. It was a puzzling 
little face, with a firm look about the 
sensitive lips, contradicted by the wistful, 
almost shrinking expression that haunted 
them, and its short oval had not the 
curves that would seem to belong to it. 
This want of roundness was accentuated 
by a look of extreme youthfulness, not 

only in the face but in the whole slender 
little figure, and yet at every point, a 
strong individuality showed itself. 

An overgrown cart track passed by the 
old rustic seat, and lost itself in a pasture 
at the right, not far orT. On the left, it 
wound across a grassy space thickly 
sprinkled with young pines, and opened a 
vista through the wall of foliage beyond, 
to the fields. The young girl sat facing 
this opening. She was tracing with her 
finger, some old initials, framed by a 
wreath of leaves. Perhaps it was this 
that attracted her attention, though they 
had a quaint, antique look of their own. 

The sweet face above them had a very 
absorbed look, as the little finger points 
traced the outlines. At last, with a tired 
motion, the girl gave up her study of the 
carved letters and leaned her head against 
a tree trunk. Her eyes wandered over 
the sunny fields beyond the grove, and 
found the line of the blue hills that 
bounded the horizon, then her gaze lost 
itself in space. 

Suddenly a seeing look came into her 
eyes, and an eager, expression took the 
place of the vague and dreamy one. The 
girl sat up with a quick, expectant motion, 
her lips parted and her breath came fast, 
sending a rush of color that palpitated 
under her lair skin, and died away quickly, 
leaving her very pale. Her vision grew 
shorter and shorter; she seemed to see 
something coming towards her. At last 
she turned slowly, as if it were moving 




past her, then followed it with her eyes, 
until it disappeared in the opposite 

A bewildered look passed over her face ; 
she rose and stood, shading her eyes 
with a little hand, crimson in its almost 
transparent thinness, as the sun shone 
through it. 

" It's ^strange ! " she said, under her 
breath. " She must have seen me this 
time ; — she looked right at me. It made 
me feel cold ! " She shivered a little, as 
she turned to pick up her hat, then walked 
slowly to the edge of the grove, and looked 
out over the pasture. " I wonder what 
has become of her !" she thought. " Who 
can it be, masquerading about in an old- 
fashioned dress, like that?" 

Just then, came the sound of a horn 
over the fields. The girl turned and 
picked her way, on stepping stones, across 
a little brook ; then walked away in the 
direction from which the sound came. 

A few days after, the young girl was 
again on the old seat, under the tall pines. 
She was not alone, this time. A young 
man sat leaning against the opposite pine 
tree. He was saying, 

" Cheer up, Hetty ! The regiment isn't 
going into camp till next week, and after 
that, I can get off sometimes. You've got 
a regular pull with the colonel, you know." 

Hetty was the picture of woe. She 
was trying to keep the tears back, but 
they would come and run over. The 
young man took both her hands in one of 
his, and with the other, drew her little 
figure close, and kissed away her tears. 
Soon she was smiling brightly up into his 
face, from his shoulder, where her fluffy 
head was resting. 

Suddenly she sprang up and sat upright, 
looking through the opening, at the other 
side of the grove. She seemed to have 
forgotten her companion, she was so 
absorbed in watching something. He 

looked at her, greatly puzzled for a few 
seconds, then he asked, 

"What is it, Hetty? What are you 
looking at?" 

She started. " Look ! " she whispered- 
He turned and looked over his shoulder. 

" What is it ? " he said again. " Some- 
body coming? " 

" Don't you see them ? " she whispered. 

"Where? — I don't see anybody." 

She did not answer. Her eyes seemed 
to be following something that was passing 
by, along the car track, to the pasture. 
After a moment, she drew a long breath, 
and turned again to the young man. 

"What was it, Hetty?" he asked. 

She was trembling. "I — I don't know," 
she said in a low tone. " Sometimes I 
I think see things, — people. — I can't 
understand about it." 

He gathered her into his arms. "Don't 
bother your poor little head about it, 
dear," he said, patting her shoulder 
tenderly. " You're all tired out ; you've 
nearly cried your eyes out, I know. I 
suppose they're playing you tricks to 
punish you." 

She threw her arms about his neck, and 
hid her face on his shoulder. " Oh, 
George," she sobbed, "It's because I 
love you so !" 

" But you don't want me to stay at home 
like a coward, dearie?" 

" No, George," came faintly, from the 
region of his shoulder. 

" There's my brave girl ! " he said. 
" Now, let me tell you what I want you 
to make for me." 

" Yes, I know, I've been thinking about 
it," and she sat up, and began to talk with 
great animation, about all the little com- 
forts that she had been planning for his 

" Dear me ! How shall I look carrying 
about a Saratoga trunk, on my back? " he 



There were no more tears, that day. 
When Hetty felt them coming, she reso- 
lutely choked them down. 

Hetty Marston and George Stanley had 
an ordeal before them.iFHe had enlisted 
and had come to spend a few days with 
her before going to join the new regiment. 
It was to start for the South, within a few 

The next day, they went for a long 
horseback ride over the hills. On their 
way back, they were cantering over a 
smooth stretch of road, by the side of the 
river that glided along, on its placid 
way through the valley. George was 

" Well, Chicksie, haven't we had a good 

Hetty's eyes were growing wider and 
wider. She did not answer. She was 
gazing at something down the road. Soon, 
the horses began to rear and plunge. 
Hetty put her arms round her frightened 
mare's neck, and clung to her with all her 
might. In a few minutes, the horses were 
quiet again, and George reached over and 
lifted Hetty up. 

" Oh, George ! " she gasped. 

"Are you hurt, darling?" he asked. 

" No," she replied, faintly, then looked 
as if she wanted to say something more, 
but decided not to. 

"What made Jack and Jenny act like 
that, I'd like to know ! They wouldn't 
do it for nothing." 

Hetty opened her lips to speak, but 
closed them again and turned very pale. 
She said to herself, " He didn't see them 
at all ! I thought we had run right over 
them." She turned and looked back, but 
nothing was to be seen. The road 
stretched on, in its straight and vacant 
course, to a forest that they had left, a 
half-hour before. 

"I'm sure you are hurt or frightened 
more than you will confess," George per- 

sisted. " Let's get down and rest a little 

They had reach a strip of woods. A 
brook ran out of it and hid itself, almost 
immediately, under the road. They sat 
down by it after George had tied the 

"What could have made them act so, 
I wonder ! " be said again, as he threw 
himself down by Hetty. She tried to tell 
him what she had seen, but no words 
would come. She felt as if she were under 
a spell. An idea was gaining ground in 
her mind that there was something wrong 
with her head. She did not want George 
to think so too, so she began to laugh at 
herself for being so upset. 

" There ! " she said. " I feel better. 
I'm such a little coward ! Jenny did 
frighten me." 

" Of course she did ! I can't imagine 
what got into her. I've looked them both 
all over. There's nothing wrong, that I 
can see," he answered. 

When they reached the house, it was 
decided that Hetty was not strong enough 
for horseback riding. 

One sunny morning, a few days after, 
George said to Hetty, " Let's go over to 
the grove. Nothing's nicer than the old 
grove, after all ! " 

They wandered along the cart track, 
from the barnyard across the fields. As 
they entered the grove, Hetty said, 

" Oh, George, you mustn't forget to cut 
our initials on the old seat. I've picked 
out a place for them." 

" I'll do it now," he said. 

She showed him a vacant space, just 
beneath the wreath-framed ones. 

" Do you see, George," she asked, 
" that my initials are there already?" 


"There, inside the wreath." 

"Sure enough! 'H. R. M.', do you 
know who it was?" 



" I suppose it was my great-grand- 
mother, I'm named after her. I've often 
wondered about her," replied Hetty, in a 
dreamy tone. 

•George threw himself down on the 
ground, behind the low seat, and was soon 
absorbed in his work. Hetty sat at one 
end, leaning back and amusing herself by 
making tangles in his hair, with her dainty 

" Do you really think," she said, slowly, 
"that the rebels are getting stronger? — 
The papers — " 

" Oh, the papers say all sorts of things !" 
he said, impatiently. " If it's true, then 
there's all the more need of men; — and 
if it isn't, it won't take us long to do 
them up." 

Hetty felt that she could not pursue the 
subject. Her tears were getting the better 
of her resolution, so she tried to think of 
something safe to talk about. Silence was 

" It always gives me a queer feeling to 
see my initials there," she said. " It 
seems as if yours ought to be with them, 
instead of those." 

George was executing an elaborate 
piece of fancy work, and did not reply. 
It was a square frame for their initials, with 
hearts in the corners and crossed hands 
underneath. Hetty found it absorbingly 
interesting. When all was done, George 
stood up and stretched himself, then 
jumped over the seat and settled down 
beside her. They had a long talk. The 
future — the future, that is, beyond the war, 
looked very bright. There was to be a 
house with two people in it, "as happy 
as they make 'em," George informed 
Hetty, and she was not inclined to doubt 
it, only the time between made her feel 
that his bright pictures were discouragingly 
uncertain. Her little heart shrank quite 
up to nothing, every time she thought of 

it, when it did not swell so that she could 
hardly breathe. 

George was talking on very fast, and 
she was listening with a pathetic little 
smile. Suddenly, a frightened look came 
into her eyes. She sat up and became 
rigid. Her face was drawn and white. 

George watched her anxiously, feeling 
that something queer was going on. She 
turned quickly and looked at him, with a 
puzzled fear in her face ; then her gaze 
was again absorbed by something that 
seemed to be coming nearer and nearer. 
She whispered, "George ! They're coming 
right here ! " She seized his arm, and 
drew him up. As they rose, her eyes were 
drawn in, as if she were looking at some- 
one close to her. She tried to shrink 
back, but George put his arm round her 
and drew her on. " Oh ! " she screamed, 
and looked back, and then fainted. He 
carried her limp, little form to the brook, 
and laid her gently on the ground, and 
then dashed a little water over her face. 

She was still motionless. It seemed as 
if his heart stopped beating, he was 
listening so intently for her breath. At 
last, a little sigh came and then she opened 
her eyes. When she saw his face, bending 
over her, she threw her arms round his 
neck. " Oh ! I'm so glad !" she whispered. 

Beads of perspiration stood all over his 
face ; the reaction was so great. He held 
her strongly in his arms, as if he were 
afraid that she would slip away from him 
again into nothingness. Suddenly, she 

"Are they there? " she asked, in a low, 
frightened tone. 

" No, dear, no one is anywhere about," 
he said cheerfully. 

" But you didn't see them before," she 
said doubtfully. 

She tried to get up, and he helped her. 
He thought that it would reassure her to 
see for herself. He wanted to ask her 



what had frightened her so, but was afraid 
that it would bring it all back to her. She 
began on her own accord. 

" It was a little lady. I've seen her 
often, before. She always wears an old- 
fashioned dress, all flowered over, and 
tied with a broad sash, and she has a 
queer, big bonnet on. Sometimes there's 
a young man with her. The first time I 
saw him, I thought it was you. But he 
had on knee-breeches and a big hat, 
cocked up. When I saw them, just now, 
he was bending over her at first, and she 
was smiling up into his face. Then she 
began to cry, and he put his arm round 
her. They came straight towards us, and 
then I knew they would sit down. I 
pulled you up — they were so close to us, 
and didn't see us. Oh ! it was frightful ! 
I was so cold, and felt so strangely. I 
tried to go round her, but you drew me 
on — and then it happened." George felt 
a strange quiver run through him. Hetty 
shrank still more closely into his arms, and 
her voice sank lower. 

" George," she went on, "for an instant, 
I knew what she was feeling. He was 
going to the war, and she was afraid. She 
was saying, over and over, in her heart, 
'He will die ! He will die !' Oh, such a 
pain came into my heart. I thought I 
was dying, and then I knew nothing, till 
I opened my eyes, just now, and saw you." 
She trembled in his arms. 

George had a fresh, ruddy face, — he 
was only twenty, — but he looked very pale, 
at this moment. A gray shadow seemed 
to pass over everything and something 
clutched at his heart. He did not yield 
to the feeling, whatever it Was, but smiled 
tenderly at the little, white face pressed 
against his shoulder, and said, 

" It must have been a terrible fright, 
little girl ! You mustn't cry yourself sick 

over me any more, and get so worked 

Just then two large tears dropped upon 
his hand. " Don't worry, dear — dear 
love," he whispered, wiping her tears away 
with a mite of a handkerchief, that she wore 
in her belt. "Just forget all about it, as 
fast as you can — won't you dear?" 

" But you know I can't," said Hetty, 
dolefully, in a pitiful little voice. 

"Yes, I know," he answered. He sat 
thinking, a few minutes, then he said, half 
to himself, " I wonder if your great- 
grandmother had a lover who was in the 
Revolution !" — then in a more wide-awake 
tone, " But, never mind about our great- 
grandmothers, — let's have a good time 

"And try not to think of tomorrow," 
she sobbed. 

The next day, he went to his regiment. 
It had been ordered to the front, he found, 
and there was barely time for all that must 
be done. He could not get off for another 

Six weeks later, a telegram came. 
Hetty's mother told her, as gently as she 
could, that George had died a brave death, 
at Bull Run. Hetty sat with closed eyes. 
" It is what she said," she whispered, and 
then she went down into the valley of 
death. They thought that she would 
never come back to them, but youth was 
stronger than death, and she had to go on 

Years after, Hetty found a bundle of 
papers in a secret drawer, in an old secre- 
tary. In them, was told the story of a 
love and a loss like her own. They were 
written by her great-grandmother, whose 
young husband had left her to yield up 
his life, as her own lover had done, for his 
country and for freedom. 


III. Historical Sketch. 


THE two previous articles of this series and a number of important furnaces 
have contained some account of the sprang up as a result. A number of 
iron deposits of Connecticut, and of the smaller enterprises both in mining and 
methods of smelting practiced 
in the state. The aim of the 
present paper is to give a 
brief sketch of the history of 
the industry from colonial 
times to the present day. 

It is in the town of Salis- 
bury, which occupies the 
north-west corner of the state, 
that the industry was first de- 
veloped, and here it has always 


centered, although valuable deposits of 
ore were found much farther to the south, 


smelting iron were carried on 
in different parts of the state, 
but they were of importance 
almost solely from an histor- 
ical point of view. 

The first ore was discovered 
about 1732 "in lands appro- 
priated by the Colony to Yale 
College, and then occupied 
by one Bissell." This was at 
Ore Hill in Salisbury, about a mile from 
the New York state line, and this deposit 




of brown hematite became the site of the 
most famous mine in Connecticut. As a 
result of this discovery the first forge was 
built in 1 734 at Lime Rock, some five miles 
from the ore-bed, by " Philip Livingstone 
of Albany, N.Y., and others." About 1 748 
a forge was erected at Lakeville, "and in 
1762 John Haseltine, Samuel Forbes and 
Ethan Allen, the latter of Ticonderoga 
fame, purchased the property and built a 
blast-furnace, which, is supposed to have 
been the first blast-furnace built in the 
state." Its location is said to have been at 
the outlet of Wononscopomus Lake, about 
three miles nearer the ore-bed than the 
forge at Lime Rock. This furnace passed 
into the hands of Charles and George 
Caldwell of Hartford, who ran it until 
1768, when they sold it to Richard Smith 
of the same city. In 1770 the furnace 
was rebuilt and, apparently, previous to 
the war of the Revolution, cast shot and 
shell for His Majesty's troops. On the 
breaking out of the war, Smith, who was a 
loyalist, abandoned his possessions and 
went to England. The Colonial Govern- 

ment did not confiscate the property, but 
took possession of it and appointed Dr. 
Joshua Porter, agent. The Council of 
Safety expended ^1,450 in fitting up the 
furnace, and they put it into full operation 
with a corps of fifty-nine workmen, furn- 
ishing supplies for the Continental army. 
Cannon of various weights up to 32- 
pounders were cast here, and shot and 
shell in abundance. These guns were 
carefully tested under the eye of famous 
leaders of the day, such as Jay, Morris, 
Hamilton and Trumbull, and the shot 
fired at these times are still dug up occa- 
sionally. The guns which Commodore 
Truxton's ship, the " Constellation," car- 
ried, were cast at this furnace. The 
''Constitution," in common with many 
other battle-ships of the old navy, were 
equipped with cannon of Salisbury iron, 
and the guns of the battery at New York 
were also of the same metal. Probably 
many of them were cast at Lakeville. 

This historic furnace was standing in 
the early thirties, and was then reputed 
to be the oldest in the region. 




.1 1 1 x 









Though Lakeville was the site of the 
first blast-furnace in Connecticut, there 
was built but little later and in the town 
of Salisbury another furnace, perhaps even 
more famous — the furnace upon Mount 
Riga. Mount Riga is the southern end 
of a strong range starting in the north- 
western portion of the town of Salisbury 
and running in a generally northern direc- 
tion far into Massachusetts. The range 
attains its greatest height at 
Mount Everett in Massachusetts, 
with an elevation of 2,624 feet 
above the sea, and Mount Riga 
itself reaches a height of about 
2,000 feet. Steep, rugged and 
desolate, it seems strange that it 
should have been selected as the 
location of such an industry. 
Yet it was so chosen for reasons 
which will presently appear. 

In 1 78 1 a forge was erected 
on this range by Abner and Peter 
Woodin. In 1785 one Daniel 
Ball came into possession, and 
from him the forge took the 
name of Ball's Forge. It was 
not till 1806 that work was 
begun on an actual blast-furnace. 
The enterprise was undertaken 
by Seth King and John Kelsey, 
but they were unable to carry it 
through, and in 1810 it came 
into the hands of the firm of 
Holley & Ccfrlng. They com- 
pleted the furnace immediately 
and started it upon a long and 
career. The furnace was 

for the blowing-engines, and the timber 
furnished an almost inexhaustible supply 
of material for charcoal. With power 
and fuel at hand it was a matter of minor 
consequence that ore and flux had to be 
carted some four miles up hill. The 
finished products were hauled by oxen 
down hill again and across country to the 
Hudson, where they were shipped to the 
markets by water. 


(The chief iron region of the State.) 

situated on 
Wochocastigook Creek at an elevation of 
some 1,700 feet above the sea. All about 
were acres upon acres of timberland, and 
the creek and this timberland were the 
advantages which more than justified the 
selection of this strange site. The waters 
of the creek, confined in Forge Pond by 
a dam, furnished abundant motive power 

About this furnace and the attendant 
forges scattered along the stream the com- 
mercial and industrial life of Salisbury 
centered for many years. Among the 
articles manufactured here many anchors 
were forged for the government and were 
duly tested on the grounds by navy of- 
ficials, the masterpiece of Mount Riga 
being the anchor of the "Constitution." 
One authority states that the furnace was 



built as early as 1800, and was rebuilt in 


Finally the introduction of steam trans- 
portation and the exhausted condition of 
the woodlands upon Mount Riga caused 
the decline of the industry, till in 1847 
the famous old furnace was abandoned 
and the seat of the industry descended 
again to the lowlands. At the present 
day nothing is left but the gray stack and 
the weather-beaten heaps of slag. A few 
houses still stand in the vicinity, and far- 
ther down the stream irregular lines of 
stones mark the sites of the old forges. 


The stack, which is pierced for only a 
single twyer, is a small one, not more than 
twenty feet high, an insignificant thing 
when compared with the great Pennsyl- 
vania furnaces of to-day, but through its 
crumbling arch which looks across the 
mountains to the rising sun, has flowed 
the iron which has helped to make the 
history of the nation. Mount Riga fur- 
nace has done its work. Peace to its 

It is not to be supposed that these were 
the only points in the town of Salisbury 
where iron-smelting was carried on. Other 
deposits of brown hematite were opened, 

notably Chatfield's and Davis' beds in the 
town of Salisbury, a bed at Indian Pond 
in Sharon, and one in Kent. In connec- 
tion with these deposits, as well as with 
that at Ore Hill, furnaces sprang up. In 
his geological report of 1837 Shepard 
mentions the furnace of the Salisbury Iron 
Company at Mount Riga, Chapin furnace 
at Chapinville, the furnace of Canfield, 
Sterling & Co., on the Housatonic, that of 
Holly & Co., at Lime Rock, the two fur- 
naces of the Cornwall Iron Company and 
the Cornwall Bridge Iron Company, in 
the western part of Cornwall, the furnace 
of Messrs. Brins- 
made, Wolcott & 
Smith, in Sharon, 
one or more fur- 
naces at Canaan, 
and several furna- 
ces in the vicinity 
of Kent. These last 
may be rightly con- 
sidered to be Kent 
furnaces proper, the 
furnace at Bull's 
Bridge and the fur- 
nace at Macedonia. 
Of the furnaces 
mentioned in this 
list, Chapin furnace 
stands about half a mile north of Chapin- 
ville station in the town of Salisbury. It 
was probably built by one Chapin about 
one hundred years ago, and had as subse- 
quent early owners the Landon Iron Com- 
pany. The furnace was rebuilt about 
1870, and was in blast more or less regu- 
larly until November, 1897, when the 
blowing engine broke down. At that 
time it was run by J. J. Morehouse, who 
also carried on business at the furnaces 
at Copake and Chatham in New York. 
Chapin furnace, which in former years 
smelted ore from Ore Hill, had of late 
years obtained its ore at Amenia, N. Y. 



The break in the machinery was serious, 
and it was considered unwise to incur 
the expense of repairs. Most of the oven 
pipes were removed to the Copake fur- 
nace, and the works, though in good re- 
pair, are at present closed. 

Probably furnaces were in operation at 
Canaan prior to 1776, and it is in this 
town, at East Canaan, that the industry 

and some ten years later built a furnace 
for re-melting pig iron. From this enter- 
prise sprang a firm which, with various 
slight changes of name, has existed ever 
since and now, as the Barnum, Richardson 
Company, controls the entire business of 
mining and smelting iron in western Con- 
necticut. In 1858 they purchased the 
Beckley furnace at East Canaan, and four 


centers at the present day. Samuel Forbes, 
who was associated with Ethan Allen at the 
Lakeville furnace, had a forge, slitting mill 
and anchor works at this place, and it is 
said that here was forged a portion of the 
great chain which was stretched across the 
Hudson during the war of the Revolution. 
In 1 8 10 Milo Barnum of Dover, Duch- 
ess County, N. Y., settled in Lime Rock, 

years later they purchased the neighboring 
Forbes furnace of the Forbes Iron Com- 
pany. In 1872 the company constructed 
another furnace known as the " New " 
furnace, the three furnaces being there- 
after designated as No. 1, No. 2 and No. 
3 respectively. Of these, "Forbes fur- 
nace " No. 2, has not been running for 
sixteen years. About 1895 "Beckley fur- 



nace " No. i, was seriously injured by fire, 
and since that time has been undergo- 
ing extensive repairs and improvements. 
Within a few months it has gone into 
blast, and this and the " New " furnace 
No. 3, which is now also in blast, are con- 
sidered to be as modern as any charcoal 
furnaces in the country. 

In 1883 there were eight furnaces in 
operation, all controlled by the Barnum, 

the company bought all the rights of the 
mine at Ore Hill and reorganized the 
business. The wisdom of this step is 
already apparent, for since that time Beck- 
ley furnace has gone into blast and it is 
expected that soon smelting will be re- 
sumed at the Lime Rock furnace. The 
remaining furnace of the five, that at 
Sharon Valley, shut down temporarily, 
perhaps a couple of years ago. 


Richardson Company, namely, " three at 
East Canaan, one at Lime Rock, one at 
Millerton, in New York State, one at Sha- 
ron Valley, one at Cornwall Bridge, and 
one at Huntsville." During the next fif- 
teen years there was a distinct decline in 
the industry until in the summer of 1898, 
of the five furnaces owned at that time by 
the company, there was but one furnace 
in blast, No. 3, of East Canaan. In 1898 

It should be remembered that these 
furnaces (with the exception of the last 
one, which smelted a great deal of Sharon 
ore), smelted for the most part ores from 
the Ore Hill and associated beds. Going 
southward, however, into the town of 
Kent, we find another smaller group of 
furnaces centered about the Kent ore-bed. 
Perhaps the best known of these furnaces 
is " Kent furnace," standing on the east 



ank of the Housatonic, 
about a mile above the main 
village. The first stack on 
this site was built by the 
Kent Furnace Company 
about one hundred years 
ago, this company being 
succeeded in 1868 by the 
Kent Iron Company. 
Besides Kent ore, this fur- 
nace smelted also ores from 
Ore Hill and Richmond. 
The furnace went out of 
blast early in 1892, and the 
oven pipes were sold to the 
establishment at Copake. In 
the summer of 1898 the 
buildings, which were all in 
good repair, were in use as 
tobacco sheds. The second 
furnace, which stands at 
Bull's Bridge about four 
miles southwest of the vil- 
lage of Kent, was built about 
1826. It has been aban- 
doned for thirty years and is 
now in ruins. The third fur- 
nace, at Macedonia, about 
two miles northwest of Kent, 
was abandoned long ago. All 
these establishments smelted 
both Kent and New York 
State ores. 

It is impossible to give a detailed ac- 
count of all the furnaces of the Housa- 
tonic region, but there is one plant that 
should not go unmentioned, that is the 
plant at Roxbury for smelting the so-called 
"steel ore" of Mine Hill. Mention has 
been made in a previous paper of the lo- 
cation and nature of this deposit of sider- 
ite, and of the great hopes which were 
based upon it. The mine was opened 
about 1750 by Hurlbut & Hawley, but, 
strange to say, it was in the endeavor to 
obtain silver. A second attempt was 


made later by the Bronson Brothers. It 
would seem that the German goldsmith 
who superintended the work deceived 
them for a long time by a pretence of dis- 
covering the precious metal. But it is 
also said that he produced steel for his 
tools from the spathic ore of the mine. 
Later an attempt, unsuccessful through 
lack of skill, was made by a Mr. Bacon 
to produce steel from the ore direct. 
Finally, at a later date, D. J. Styles suc- 
ceeded in making good steel from the 



The works which are now standing were 
not begun until 1865, and at the very out- 
set the company imported from Germany 
six of Krupp's skilled workmen to take 
charge of the smelting. This furnace, 
which was of the cold-blast type, pro- 
duced successfully about ten tons of ex- 
cellent pig-iron daily, but the Germans 
failed to accomplish that for which the 
works were primarily built, the conversion 
of this iron into steel. A refining or 
"puddling" furnace was therefore built, 
the pig was converted into wrought-iron, 
and this having been sent to the com- 
pany's works at Bridgeport, was subse- 
quently converted into good steel. The 
German workmen for their failure to pro- 
duce steel from the pig-iron direct, were 
discharged. The next superintendent, 
against the wishes of all concerned, con- 
verted the furnace into a hot-blast furnace 
with disastrous results. The amount of 
iron produced fell to two or three tons a 
day, and this fact, combined with the 
great drop in the price of iron, induced 
the company to shut down the furnaces. 
The steel works have been abandoned for 
about twenty years, and are fast falling 
into decay. 

In the first article of this series suffi- 
cient mention was made of the lesser 
efforts in the way of iron mining and 
smelting which were made in different 
parts of the state, such as the handling of 
bog-ore at Stafford and Hebron, and of 
magnetic sand at Killingworth and Volun- 
town. These enterprises, though very in- 
teresting historically, were of small com- 
mercial importance when compared with 
those of the western part of the state, and 
even from the historical standpoint they 
occupy a minor position. The works at 
Stafford were the only ones of importance, 
where was made a large amount of hollow 
ware which was sent all over the state. 
These furnaces long ago went out of blast. 

Though it is quite possible to obtain a 
fairly complete list of the blast-furnaces 
which have been built in the state, it is 
quite a different matter to obtain the data 
of the forges and refineries. The former 
were the more primitive devices which, 
at great loss of ore and fuel, obtained 
wroughi-iron directly from the ore. Since 
they came earlier and were more numer- 
ous than the furnaces, the data concern- 
ing them are more difficult to obtain. I 
have mentioned a number of them, but 
beside these there seems to have been a 
great many scattered through all the 
region of western Connecticut. Before 
1800 the town of New Milford alone had 
seven forges, and at one time Litchfield 
County contained as many as fifty. By 
refineries are meant establishments for 
making wrought-iron from the pig-iron of 
the furnaces. Shepard, in his report, 
states that most of the iron from the fur- 
naces of the town of Salisbury was sent to 
Winsted and Canaan to be refined into 
bar-iron for musket and rifle barrels, and 
for innumerable commercial purposes. 
There were refineries at Mount Riga, and 
unquestionably at other places. Certain 
it is that from the Salisbury region for 
years the government arsenals at Spring- 
field and Harper's Ferry were supplied 
with metal suitable for gun barrels, in fact, 
this has been one of the chief uses for the 
iron of western Connecticut. 
"The old order changeth, yielding place 
to new." 

The great Pennsylvania plants turn out 
in a day more iron than the best Connec- 
ticut furnace ever put out in a month. 
Yet the cold and crumbling stacks along 
the Housatonic have done their work and 
have earned their rest. They saw the 
youth of the nation ; they forged for its 
hand the implements of war and peace, 
and its glorious history is theirs. And 
perhaps it is fitting that with the passing 



of the wooden frigate should pass the 
ancient industry that gave her her anchor 
and her guns. Honor alike to the moul- 
dering hull of the " Constitution " and to 
the crumbling stack of Mount Riga fur- 
nace, comrades of war who entered into 
their rest. 

Author's Acknowledgment. 

In the preparation of these papers I am 
indebted for valuable information to Shep- 
ard's " Report on the Geological Survey 

of Connecticut;" Bishop's "History of 
American Industries; " " Salisbury Iron," 
reprinted from the Railway Gazette of New 
York, 1883; "Salisbury," by Ellen Strong 
Bartlett, Connecticut Quarterly, Vol. IV., 
No. 4. Also to the kindness of Judge Don- 
ald J. Warner, of Salisbury; Mr. James E. 
Barker, of Chapinville ; Mr. J. T. Fuller, 
founder at East Canaan ; Mr. George R. 
Bull, of Kent Furnace ; Mr. Elisha Potter, 
of Bull's Bridge ; Col. A. L. Hodge, of Rox- 
bury Station ; the Barnuni, Richardson 
Company, of Lime Rock, and many others. 



Into the bay they came 
With faces all aflame, 
The victors hot from Avar; 
Behind them ships and slain 
Lay buried in the main 
Or shapeless on the shore. 

They saw through open ports 
The battlemented forts 
Where late the foeman fought; 
But now the guns were mute 
And dead men frowned salute 
From ruins war had wrought. 


Beyond them row on row 
They saw the tented foe 
Prostrated by defeat — 
The distant captured town, 
The populace cast down 
Or flying in retreat. 


All, all was theirs they saw; 
The iron hand was law; 
The sword was lord and king. 
Let martial music rise 
To stifle sobs and sighs ! 
Exult and proudly sing ! 

But from the victor's fleet 
No drum nor cymbal beat 
No cheer arose on high ; 
And yet that silence told 
A story of fine gold 
Which cannot ever die. 


Instead of war's displays 
The victors used all ways 
Of doing others good ; 
They, generous as brave 
Clothes to the naked gave 
And to the hungry, food. 


They helped and healed their foes, 
They gave the land repose, 
They fought disease and ill; 
They made their captives feel 
That back of fire and steel 
Kindness and love ruled still. 


O, land with sons like these 
In camp or on the seas 
In peace or war's stern strife, 
Thy star shall never set, 
Nor will the world forget 
The srrandeur of thv life. 


4 ' We leave the town with its hundred noises 
Its clatter and whirr of wheel and steam, 

For woodland quiet and silvery voices 
With a forest camp by a silver stream." 

REV. JOHN M. DICK for the past 
fifteen years has been intensely in- 
terested in all that claims the interest of 
young people, and during this period he 

ciation of the average summer resort. 
He realized that to make such a place at- 
tractive to this class of boys it would be 
necessary to provide not only healthful 
recreation, but to secure the services of 
popular college men of robust christian 
character to lead the boys in all phases of 
their outdoor life. 

has travelled extensively in this country 
and abroad, making a special study of 
boy life. 

Eight years ago while a professional 
student in Yale University he became 
greatly impressed with the need of pro- 
viding a place where the sons of the well- 
to-do class of people, between 10 and 18 
years of age, could spend their summer 
vacation months free from the evil asso- 

Mr. Dick had camped in his boyhood 
in the west, and had also cruised much 
on the Hudson River, and he determined 
to organize a summer camp to meet the 
need that he felt existed. This camp he 
located on Manhannock Island, in Lake 
Winnepesaukee, N. H., and named it 
" Camp Idlewild." 

The camp had a small beginning, the 
first year there being but a few boys in 



camp with Mr. Dick ; the second year 
there was almost double the number, and 
each succeeding year the number has in- 
creased, until last summer it was impos- 
sible to provide for all who desired to 

Connecticut is specially interested in 
Camp Idlewild because its originator and 
owner is located in Hartford and is so 
well known throughout the state, and also 
because of the fact that of the thirteen 
states represented during the past eight 

fish, row, swim, and do all other reasonable 
things that to a boy's mind constitutes 
" camping out," and are taught by such 
associations to recognize Nature's Crea- 
tor and Ruler. To this there is added 
the companionship of other boys of good 
tendencies under the christian supervision 
of men of broad culture and liberal edu- 
cation. Camp Idlewild is not a camp for 
unruly boys No boy is accepted who is 
not a gentleman, and immoral conduct of 
any kind is not tolerated. A number of 

years, Connecticut has stood at the head 
in point of numbers. In the accompany- 
ing picture of last summer's group of 
boys Connecticut is more largely repre- 
sented than any other state. 

The object of the camp is to afford a 
pleasant and profitable place for the boys 
to spend their summer vacation, and at 
the same time to teach practically that it 
is not necessary to forget the Sabbath and 
religious habits, nor break out of whole- 
some restraint. Here they live in tents, 

gentlemen of means recognizing the value 
of this sort of life for boys- have shown 
their interest by providing money for new 
buildings and for proper facilities for ath- 
letics, so that now the boys have an elabo- 
rately equipped encampment. The aim 
has been to charge the boys who attend 
sufficient to pay all running expenses, 
making possible all the comforts of camp 
life. Boys may attend for one month, 
two, or three months, as they may elect. 
For one month a boy pays sixty dollars, 


for two months one 
hundred and ten 
dollars, and one 
hundred and fifty 
dollars for the full 
season of three 
months. The Camp 
Council is com- 
posed of seven col- 
lege bred men, 
whose duty it is to 
supervise every de- 
partment of camp 
life. There is a 

resident physician who supervises all 
sanitary arrangements, and is responsible 
for the health of the boys. 

Every boy enjoys boating and bathing, 
and yet many boys grow to manhood 
without learning to properly handle them- 
selves while on and in the water. 

To meet this need boats of every de- 
scription are provided, and experts teach 
the boys how to handle a boat in case of 
emergency, how to row single, double, 
and in ten-oared barge, also to paddle and 
scull. The boys are taught to swim, dive, 
and give aid to those needing help. The 
aim is to have the boys gain perfect con- 
trol of themselves while on the water, 
and that this may be possible they are 

taugnt to become thoroughly familiar with 
rowing and swimming. 

Closely allied with the aquatic life is the 
athletic, and it is difficult to determine 
which has the stronger hold upon the 
average boy. Most boys demand outdoor 
games, in order that they may in such 
games work off superfluous animal life. 
At camp the boys enjoy base ball, tennis, 
tether ball, basket ball, polo and quoits. 
Contests are held among themselves, and 
also with other teams about the lake. 
Running, jumping and all the forms of 
field athletics are participated in under 
the supervision of a trained expert. The 
result of all this life is to give the boys not 
only great pleasure, but to also properly 
and systematically 
develop the body. 
Lake Winnepe- 
saukee being almost 
thirty miles long, 
and from four to 
twelve miles in 
width, and having 
in it some 278 
islands, gives op- 
portunity for many 
excursions, and the 
boys enjoy spend- 
ing a night on one 
of the many islands, 



where they build a camp fire and live in 
regular Indian fashion. The lake is almost 
surrounded by mountains, and the boys 
make trips to the summits of these moun- 
tains, camping all night, and signalling 
with colored lights to the boys remaining 
in camp. The group picture shows the 
boys ready to start on such a trip. 

The short evenings are spent in the re- 
ception hall playing games, sinking, or 

listening to illustrated talks of travel. 
Sometimes the boys themselves give a 
minstrel entertainment, and friends about 
the lake are invited to attend. 

On rainy evenings a fire is built in the 
large open fire place and the boys gather 
about it and tell stories, propound conun- 
drums, and generally enjoy themselves. 

One of the later features of Camp Idle- 
wild is what is known as the Tutoring 
Department. This 
department was the 
result of requests 
from parents in 
order that their 
boys might be able 
to do a little study- 
ing each day. There 
were boys who, be- 
cause of sickness or 
other reasons, were 
behind a little in 
their studies, and 
still others who 
were preparing for 


college examinations, and who desired to 
tutor during the summer, thus to combine 
pleasure and profit. 

To meet this demand, Mr. Dick each 
year provides university graduates to tutor, 
and for the past three seasons much has 
been accomplished in this line. 

It is impossible to fully present in our 
limited space all the attractive features of 

this unique " Island Summer Home" for 
boys, but after perusing the book descrip- 
tive of the camp life, and while interview- 
ing Mr. Dick concerning this work which 
is so close to his heart, we found ourselves 
saying in the words of another, "Ah ! 
happy years ! once more who would not 
be a boy?" 











24 Edward Dodd [Baptized Aug. 27, 
1749; Son of Edward and Re- 
becca (Barnard) Dodd], aged 

Daniel Goodwin [Baptized July 
28, 1745; Son of Daniel and 
Abigail Olcott ( Bigelow) Good- 
win], aged 44. 

Mrs. Butler, aged 76. 

The wife of Capt. Samuel Wads- 
worth [Meliscent, ] aged 67. 

The wife of Joseph Bigelow [Mr. 
Joseph Bigelow of Hartford, 
and Mary Wells of Wethers- 
field, married Mch. 12, 1745. 
Wethersfield Church Record], 
aged 71. 

Barnibas Hinsdale [Born Feb. 
2 3> !737- 8 ; son of Daniel and 
Katharine (Curtiss) Hinsdale], 
aged 52. 
2 Daniel Smith, aged 28. 
6 Leodamia Goodwin [Born Jan. 
28, 1728-9; widow of Samuel 
Goodwin, and daughter of 
Moses and Mary Merrill], aged 
9 The wife of Jonathan Steele 
[Anna, daughter of Zebulon 
and Keziah (Bull) Seymour, 
born Sept. 19, 1752], aged 38. 
18 Elizabeth Cadwell, aged 64. 


20 Martha Bid well [Baptized Nov. 
2, 1712; daughter of Jonathan 
and Martha (Butler) Bidwell], 
aged 77. 
31 Rebecca Dodd [supposed wife of 
Edward, and daughter of Sam- 
uel Barnard], aged 67. 
June 8 Daughter of John Laurence, Esq. 
[Marian], aged 25. 

17 Child of Hezekiah Merrill, aged 1 
July 9 Ashbel Steele [Born 1732; son of 

Jonathan and Dorothy (My- 
gatt) Steele], aged 58. 

18 John Benton, Jr., aged 38. 

24 Daughter's Child of Capt. Thos. 

Hopkins, aged — . 
Sept. 13 James Nichols [Baptized July 10, 

1757; son of Capt. William and 

Mary (Farnsworth) Nichols], 

aged 33. 
Child of Samuel Webster, aged 2. 
Nathaniel Jones' (Infant Child.) 
Child of Samuel Beckwith, aged 

Sarah Tucker, aged 42. 

Michael Burkett, aged 29. 
Ruth Cadwell, aged 59. 
John Endicott's Infant Child 
Infant Child of Aaron Bradley 
The wife of William Hooker, 
aged 67. 



































Hezekiah Seymour, 
Nathan Brooks, aged 

Mar. 9 The mother of John Benton 
[widow of Ebenezer Benton], 
aged 96. 

Mary Burk, aged 61. 

Child of Joseph Woodbridge. 

John Olcott [Baptized Dec. 13, 
1741; son of Joseph and Eunice 
(Collyer) Olcott], aged 50. 

Child of William Ware, aged 1. 

Mr Clark, burial charged to 

Child of Freeman Seymour [ Hor- 
ace], aged 5. 

Infant Child of Neil McLean. 

Son of Benjamin Bigelow, aged 


Son of Richard Skinner, aged 20. 

Daughter of John Jeffrey (Abba), 
aged 15. 

Child of William Andross, Jr., 
aged 1. 

Child of 
aged 1. 

Child of 
6 mo. 

Mrs. Mary Day, aged 84. 

Infant Child of Joseph Boying- 

Child of William Olcott, 2d, 
aged 4. 
31 Child of Russell Hills, aged 1. 
Sept. 5 The wife of John Skinner [Hep- 
sibah, daughter of Captain 
Thomas and Hepsibah (Mer- 
rill) Seymour; born May 27, 
1738, and widow of Dr. Na- 
thaniel Ledyard], aged 34. 

7 Infant Child of Theodore Olcott. 

8 The wife of Thomas Ensign, Jr., 

aged 20. 
18 Child of Theodore Olcott, aged 
18 mo. 

18 Infant Child of Jeremiah Barret. 

19 The wife of Asa Hopkins, aged 29. 
Oct. 7 David Bliss [Born Sept. 24, 1758, 

in Springfield; son of David 
and Miriam (Sexton) Bliss], 
aged 33. 

14 Mary Gilbert, aged 74. 
Nov. 7 Child of Joshua Leffingwell, 8 mo. 

23 Mrs. Mary Goodwin [Widow of 
Ozias Goodwin. Daughter of 
Daniel and Mary (Hopkins) 
Steele], aged 63. 

Dec. 9 John Bunce [ Baptized June 22, 
1718, son of John and Abigail 
(Sand ford) Bunce], aged 74. 
27 The wife of Daniel Cotton [ Eliza- 
beth], aged 49. 


Jan. 1 Amos Hinsdale [Son of Barnabas 
and Martha (Smith) Hinsdale, 
born Aug. 24, 17 10], aged 81. 

11 Son of Ralph Pomeroy, Esq. 

[Ralph Pomeroy, Jr. ], aged 20. 
15 Moses Burr [Baptized Jan. 30, 

1714-15, son of Thomas Burr], 

aged 77. 
18 Infant Child of Elisha Vibbert. 

26 Mr. Wyman [Solomon], buried 

at expense of town; aged 57. 
Feb. 19 Child of Benjamin Dyer, aged 
6 mo. 

21 Infant Child of Samuel Filley. 
23 Samuel Burr [Born Jan. 14, 1745, 

son of Thomas and Sarah 
(King) Burr.] This in Wethers- 
field, aged 47. 
29 Infant Child of Jonathan Chap- 
Mar. 6 The mother of Roswell Taylor, 
[w T idow Jemima Taylor], aged 

12 Infant Child of Phineas Shepard. 

22 Child of George Spencer, aged 1. 
Apr. 23 Theodorus Clark, son [Chaun- 

cey], aged 5. 
25 Mary Olcott [w T idow of Capt. 

Samuel Olcott, Baptized Sept. 

12, 1 731; daughter of Capt. 

James and Abigail (Stanley) 

Church, and also widow of 

John Caldwell], aged 61. 
Child of Daniel Cotton, aged 1. 
Son of Robert Sloane, aged 18. 
Elisur Warren, aged 43. 
Daniel Merrill, aged 43. 
Infant Child of John Trumbull, 

Son of Pelatiah Turner, aged 15. 
Child of Thomas Clapp [Nabby], 

aged 2. 
Aug. 5 Daughter Riell Hessell [Sophia 

Howell], aged 19. 
11 Infant Child of Thomas Sloane. 

27 Mrs. Duborn from St. Domingo, 

aged 38. 
















(The following tributes were, among many others from prominent persons throughout 
the country, sent to Mr. William H. Taylor of Putnam, Conn., in 1896. Mr. Taylor has 
given us permission to publish them, and in view of the article on General Putnam in 
this number it is deemed especially fitting to do so at this time.) 

Ftom Charles A. Dana. 

He was first, last and always a true 
American, and his life, deeds and charac- 
ter will be held in admiration and in honor 
as long as this nation stands. 

From John Wanamaker.. 

Israel Putnam, worker, watcher and 
winner ! Farmer, ranger, general, and 
rough rider of the Revolution. A saver 
and burner of powder. A leader and 
feeder of men. 

May the city named in honor of the 
fortifier of Philadelphia be the abode of 
patriots as unswerving as he. And may 
they have couarge to slay the wolf of 
Municipal Misrule, should it seek to enter 
the fold. A people willing to forsake the 
selfish furrow of peace for the battlefield 
of principle and right. 

And that the mantle of his charmed 
life may fall on the city that honors his 
name, is the prayer of its well-wisher. 


He left his peaceful, pastoral life 
For brutal war and gory strife. 
Exchanged the hearthside for the camp — 
The easy chair for weary tramp. 

But those who chose the safer lot 
Lie in the burying ground forgot. 
While Putnam's honored name appears 
To brighten with the passing years. 

Ei,i,A Wheei,ER Wilcox. 
From Charles Dudley Warner. 

I do not know how great a general 
Israel Putnam was, but he had the heroic 
quality, the power to inspire the imagina- 
tion, the rare gift of touching the popular 
heart. It is not easy to overestimate the 
value of such a man in the world. 

From Bishop Williams. 

No true patriot and loyal citizen of the 
United States can ever undervalue the 
life, deeds and character of Pumam, the 
•' bravest of the brave." He gave himself 
to the service of the country in the later 
Colonial wars, as well as in the war of the 

Revolution, with an entiieness of self- 
sacrifice which deserves to be, and I am 
sure is, held in lasting remembrance. 

From Fi-ances E. Willard. 

If the descendants of Grand Old Put. 
would try conclusions with the dram shop 
as fearlessly as he did with the wolf, we 
should have a country that would be a 
"heaven to go to heaven in." 

From Francis E. Clark. 

To every American boy the name of 
Israel Putnam is one to conjure by. No 
hero of our early history so stirs the 
blood of the courageous and adventurous 
"Young America." 

From Colonel William E. F. Landers. 

General Putnam's military service, to 
my mind, is evidence that he was an ex- 
traor: inary man, endowed by his Maker 
with the following prominent characteris- 
tics ; an indomitable will power, prudence, 
firmness, patriotism, promptness, enthu- 
siasm and bravery. Probably a more fear- 
less man never lived. What a record he 
has made to hand down to future genera- 
tions. Side by side with that of the im- 
mortal Washington, will the name of Israel 
Putnam be emblazoned in the bright gal- 
axy of military chieftains, and as the years 
roll by and the children of the present 
and future generations are taught rever- 
ence and loyalty to our country's flag, so 
will the name of Israel Putnam be en- 
shrined in the hearts of all those who love 
their country, 

Fitting and appropriate is the epitaph 
on his tombstone : 

''• Who ever attentive to the lives and hap- 
piness of his men, 
Dared to lead where any dared to follow." 

Down then to time's remotest story, 

May his life and deeds endure ; 
May our country's growth in glory 

Rest on truth's foundation sure. 
Be our laws by all respected, 

Honored all our chiefs elected, 
And as ever by Heaven protected, 

Flourish peaceful more and more. 



WM. A. E. THOMAS, Editor. 

Querists are requested to write all names of persons and places so that they cannot 
be misunderstood, to write on only one side of the paper, and to enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope and ten cents in stamps for each query. Those who are subscribers 
will be given preference in the insertion of their queries and they will be inserted in the 
order in which they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent 
to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked, Genealogical Department. Give 
full name and post office address. 

It is optional with querist to have name and address or initials published. 

Answers to Queries of this year which we have been able to obtain are here pub- 


Query 13. (a) The issue of Phebe 
Bloomfield who m. a Beekman are on p. 
83 New York Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Record for 1899. 

25. (b) Mr. Carll A. Lewis, Guil- 
ford, Conn., editor of Lewisiana, writes 
Joseph 3 Lewis, b. May 13, 1677, bwan- 
sea, Mass., d. May 27, 1742, Haddam, 
Conn., son of Thomas 2 , son of Edmund 1 
Lewis of Lynn, Mass., vide vol. 6, p. 56, 
Lewisiana. Elizabeth Burge, dau. of John 

and Sarah ( ) Burge ; both are 

buried at Bristol, R. I. 

25. (e) Mr. John E. Bull, Centre- 
brook, Conn., who is working on the 
Clark's of Saybrook, Conn., and vicinity, 
writes Abel Clark m. Sept. 20, 1769, Mary 
Rutty and had 1 Mary b. Oct. 30, 1770, 
2 Miriam bp. Dec. 30, 1772, m. Dec. 16, 
1794, Nathan Howell. Abel d. Mch. 11, 
1805, aet. 80-6; Mrs. Mary d. Feb. 5, 
1809, aet. 85-6. From Killingworth 


Town Records ; see also old Bible in 
possession of Mrs. Joseph C. Post of 
Ivoryton, Conn. 

Mrs. H. E. Fowler, of Guilford, Conn., 
gives us the answer to query No. 27 
(Connecticut Magazine) March, 1899, 
as follows : 

27. (a) Fenner Foote 6 , Sr., (Jona- 
than 5 , Josiah 4 , Nathaniel 3 , Nathaniel 2 , 
Nathaniel 1 ) of Lee, was son of Jonathan 5 
Foote b. 1 7 15, and Sarah Fenner, of Say- 
brook, Conn. Jonathan Foote 5 son of 
Josiah*, son of Nathaniel 3 , son of Na- 
thaniel 2 , son of Nathaniel 1 , first settler at 
Wethersfield, Conn. 

Roxana Foote 7 (mother of Henry Ward 
Beecher) was in this line ; Eli 6 , Daniel 5 , 
Nathaniel 4 -, Nathaniel 3 , Nathaniel 2 , Na- 
thaniel 1 , so that Eli Foote 6 , and Fenner 
Foote, Sr. 6 were second cousins — their 
grandfathers, Nathaniel and Josiah being 

(6) No Fenner Foote on published 
record of Connecticut men in Revolution. 




( Continued from p. igo, Connecticut Magazine 
for March, i8gg.) 

Page 370. John Allin of Fairfield m. 
July 12, 1799 Eunice Corbin of Danbury. 

Theophilus Benedict 3rd son of Daniel 

the 1 st of Danbury b. 1711, m. 

1737 Mary, b. 1714 dau. of 

John Starr of Danbury, and had 

1. Theophilus, b. 1738. 

2. Lois, b. July — , 1740. 

3. Mary, b. June 20, 1744. 

4. Rachel, b. Aug. 4, 1746. 
Theophilus, the elder, d. Dec. 4, 1786. 
Mary, the elder, d. May 15, 1796. 
Nathan Wildman m. Dec. 13, 1792 

Sarah dau. of William Stone of Danbury, 
and had 

1. Nathan, b. Aug. 5, 1794. 
I Nathan Wildman, the elder d. July 12, 

Thomas Baxter, m. Feb. 4, 1798 the 
said Sarah wid. of said Nathan dec'd. 
[Wildman] and had 

1. Thomas, b. May 1, 1799. 

Page 371. Gilead Ambler b. Apr. 15, 
1773 son of John of Danbury, m. Jan. 1, 
1795 Anne dau. of Jonathan Hoyt of 
Norwalk, and had 

1. Ezra Hoyt, b. Oct. 29, 1796. 

2. Hiram, b. Dec. 4, 1798. 

Joshua Hoyt son of Thomas dec'd b. 
Apr. 1740, m. Aug. 22, 1764 Rachel b. 
Aug. 15, 1746 the 3rd dau. of Theophilus 
Benedict of Danbury, and had 

1. ■ Rachel, b. Dec. — , 1764, d. Jan. 

— 1766. 

2. Eli, b. , 1766, d. Apr. 8, 


3. Theophilus, b. Oct. 16, 1769. 

4. Abel, b. Mch. 1, 1778. 

5. Rachel, b. May 17, 1 781. 

6. Olive, b. July 30, 1785. 
Joshua Hoyt, dec'd Dec. 22, 1794. 
Theophilus Hoyt, son of Joshua and 

Rachel, m. July 25, 1789 Hannah, 5th 

dau. of Capt. Joseph Starr of Danbury, 
and had 

1. Eli, b. May 30, 1791. 

2. Lois, b. Apr. 12, 1794. 

3. Annie, b. Dec. 23, 1802. 

Abel Hoyt, m. May 15, 1799 Amme 
dau. of Benj. Bailey, and had 

1. Dau. b. Mch. 8, 1800, d. same day. 

2. Joshua, b. Jan. 15, 1801. 

His wife d. in child-bed Dec. 23, 1802. 

Page 372. Benjamin Wood, 3rd son 
of Capt. John of Danbury, b. June 23, 
1752, m. Apr. 16, 1771 Mary, b. Nov. 18, 
1752, dau. of Nathaniel Gregory, and had 

1. Lucy, b. Apr. 30, 1772, d. Oct. 29, 


2. Mary, b. Aug. 14, 1775. 

3. Lucy, b. Dec. 23, 1777. 

4. Benjamin, b. Jan. 4, 1779. 

5. Moses, b. Oct. 18, 1782. 

6. Zadock, b. Feb. 22, 1786. 

Mary, wife of Benjamin Wood, d. Jan. 
10, 1 791, the sd. Benjamin Wood m. 
June 13, 1 79 1 Tamer, dau. of Doct. Ben- 
jamin Warner of New Milford ; she aet. 
in her 39th yr. and had 

1. Benjamin Gibbs, b. May 20, 1792. 

2. Reuben, b. Feb. 26, 1794. 
Wife Tamer d. Sept. 7, 1797. 

Sd. Benjamin Wood m. Jan. 7, 1798 
Hannah, widow of Moses Veal. 

Moses Wood, son of Benjamin and 
Mary of Waterbury, m. Nov. 19, 1803, 
Hannah Gunn of Waterbury. 

Page 373. Nathaniel Benedict, jr., b. 
Jan. 1, 1768, m. Aug. 24, 1787, — and had 

1. Ethel, b. Nov. 15, 1787. 

2. Abel, b. Nov. 3, 1789. 

3. Delilah, b. Nov. 23, 1791. 

4. Benjamin, b. Mch. 7, 1794. 

5. Nathaniel, b. May 8, 1796. 

Olive Benedict, dau. to Nathaniel, jr., 
dec'd born , 1765. 

James Knapp, son of James of Dan- 
bury, m. Dec. 18, 1796, Abigail dau. of 
Richard Shute of Danbury. 

( To be continued,') 




42. l^ildman. — Richard of Brookfield, 
Conn., left real estate to the amount of 

^"105, 3s. iod. The distribution of 
his estate, dated Oct. 5, 1799 Brook- 
field ; widow Martha ; sons Jonathan, 
Thomas and Jacob ; daus. Urana, Mar- 
tha and Mary — distributors were Heze- 
kiah Stevens jr., and Ashbel Ruggles, 
Who were parents of this Richard? 
When and where was he born ? What 
became of his children? F. B. 

43. (a) Goddard. — Wm. of Newport, 
R. I., m. Abigail Packer of Ct. and 
lived in Newport. I believe they had 9 
children, Thomas their eldest d. 1807 
or 8. The Goddards are supposed to 
be from Wales. Who were ancestors 
of Wm. and Abigail? Dates of their 
birth, marriage and death desired. 
From what part of Wales did they 

(b) Anderson, Thomas, Captain (or 
Surgeon), graduated from the Ander- 
sonian College, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
He settled in America ; had 3 sons. I 
believe one settled in East Hartford, 
one in Lyme, and one went south. 
Captain Anderson d. in 1771 aet. 51 ; 
is buried in Lyme; m. 1st. Mary Ely; 
2nd, Margaret Reed. What year did 
he graduate from Andersonian College ? 
Who were his ancestors ? What part of 
Scotland was he from? What year did 
he come to America ? What were his 
sons' names? Was Elisha Anderson of 
East Hartford b. Nov. 3, 1790 (m. Per- 
ley Ann Alvord) a grandson of Capt. 

(e) Boone, Abigail of North Kingston, 
R. I., d. in Preston, Ct. 181 6 aet. 51. 
Lived in Preston or Voluntown ; mar- 
ried 1st Thomas son of Wm. and Abi- 
gail (Packer) Goddard of Newport, R. 
I. ; m. 2nd Jesse Brown. Thomas and 
Abigail had 6 children. When living 

in Newport " Squire " Thomas Goddard 
kept a sort of country store ; he also 
had something to do with public affairs, 
and when his only son was born all the 
bells in Newport were rung for joy. 
In the beginning of this century he re- 
moved to Griswold, Conn., where he 
was ordained to preach. After serving 
a few years his health failed and he 
passed away in 1807 or 8. Where was 
Thomas Goddard born and date? 
Where was his wife Abigail Boone born? 
I have been told she was born in Can- 
terbury, Ct., and was called the " Can- 
terbury Belle." Where were they mar- 
ried and date ? What date and in what 
church was Thomas Goddard ordained ? 
What position did he hold in public af- 
fairs in Newport, R. I.? Where was he 
buried? Ancestry desired of Abigail 
Boone — it is said she was Welsh. Was 
her father a relative of Daniel Boone of 
Kentucky fame? L. B. B. 

44. Helme. — Anselm of Brookhaven, L. 
I., N. Y., had a son Capt. Anselm jr., 
b. July 8, 1750 Setauket, L. I., m. 
Phebe White and had a son Brewster b. 
Apr. 19, 1782 m. Nov. 12, 1807 Ex- 
perience Strong (see Strong Genea- 
logy.) What cousins, uncles and aunts 
did Capt. Anselm Helme, Jr.. have ? 
Also brothers and sisters. S. A. 

45. (b) Reed. — Abigail b. about 1680 
dau. of John of Norwalk, Ct., is said to 
have m. a Mr. Crozier. Should it not 
be Cozier or Cosier? Who were his 
parents and what children did he have? 

C. S. R. 

46. {a) Munson. — Anna b. Oct. 1760 
at New Haven? m. Stephen Smith b. 
Dec. 1755 Litchfield, Ct., d. Sept. n, 
1835 Rupert, Vt. Wanted her ancestry. 
(b) Weeks, Rhoda of Litchfield, Ct., 
m. about 1750 Martin Smith of Litch- 
field. Wanted her parentage, and dates 
of her birth and marriage. G. R. S. 



There is at present before the General 
Assembly a bill making provision for the 
criminal classes which, while one of the 
most radical of reform measures, it is also 
one of the most progressive, and if passed 
will give Connecticut the foremost place 
among the states seeking a solution of 
this problem. 

All reasonable people will admit that 
the interests of society demand the refor- 
mation of the criminal, and that there is 
certainly very little progress accomplished 
toward that end under the present system. 

We speak of it as a radical measure, 
but though in part an untried one, it can- 
not be construed as a jumped-at solution, 
for it has had careful consideration by 
leading authorities in penology. 

Mr. William B. Cary, Chairman of the 
State Prison Committee of the present 
Legislature, says in regard to the present 
system : 

" To open the prison door for the dis- 
charge of a prisoner simply because a 
certain fixed day on the calendar has ar- 
rived, and for no other reason, is mani- 
festly about as illogical a way of doing 
the business as could well be conceived," 
and Mr. John C. Taylor, Secretary of the 
State Prison Association, who has studied 
the question for a number of years, fully 
indorses this position and likens it to the 
plan of committing insane people to the 
asylum, not until they are cured, but for 
a definite time only." 

The first two sections of the proposed 
bill which was drawn by Judge Simeon E. 
Baldwin are as follows : 

Section I. When a convict may be sen- 
tenced to the State Prison, otherwise than 
for life, or than in connection with a sen- 
tence to execution for a capital crime, the 
court imposing the sentence shall not fix a 
definite term of imprisonment, but shall 
sentence said convict to the State Prison. 

Sec II. Any convict so sentenced to 
the State Prison may, after having been in 
confinement within said prison for a period 
of not less than one year, be allowed to go 
at large on parole, in the discretion of the 
Board of Directors and said Prison and of 
the Warden thereof, if in the judgment of 
said Board and Warden said convict shall 
manifest a sincere desire and exhibit a set- 
tled purpose to live industriously, peace- 
ably and honestly. While so at large 
said convict shall remain in the legal cus- 
tody and under the control of said Board 
of Directors and Warden, and shall be sub- 
ject at any time to be taken back within 
the limits of said prison 

The remaining sections of the bill pro- 
vide for the details of the rules and regu- 
lations of the parole and its violations. 
It is well known that Mr. Charles Dudley 
Warner has given much attention to this 
question, and to give a comprehensive 
idea of the situation we cannot do better 
than to quote from an article he has 
written on " The Indeterminate Sentence — 
What Shall be Done with the Criminal 
Class ? " He writes as follows : 

The problem of dealing with the Crimi- 
nal Class seems insolvable, and it undoubt- 
edly is with present methods. It has never 
been attempted on a fully scientific basis, 
with due regard to the protection of society 
and to the interests of the criminal. 

It is purely an economic and educational 
problem, and must rest upon the same 
principles that govern in any successful 
industry, or in education, and that we 
recognize in the conduct of life. That lit- 



tie progress has been made is due to pub- 
lic indifference to a vital question and to 
the action of sentimentalists, who, in their 
philanthropic zeal, fancy that a radical re- 
form can come without radical discipline. 
We are largely wasting our energies in 
petty contrivances instead of striking at 
the root of the evil. 

What do we mean by the "Criminal 
Class ? " It is necessary to define this with 
some precision, in order to discuss intelli- 
gently the means of destroying this class. 
A criminal is one who violates a statute 
law, or, as we say, commits a crime. The 
human law takes cognizance of crime and 
not of sin. But all men who commit crime 
are not necessarily in the criminal class. 
Speaking technically, we put in that class 
those whose sole occupation is crime, who 
live by it as a profession and who have no 
other permanent industry. They prey 
upon society. They are by their acts at 
war upon it and are outlaws. 

The State is to a certain extent responsi- 
ble for this class, for it has trained most of 
them, from youth up, through successive 
detentions in lock-ups, city prisons, county 
jails, and in State prisons and penitentiaries 
on relatively short sentences, under influ- 
ences which tend to educate them as crim- 
inals and confirm them in a bad life. That 
is to say, if man once violates the law and 
is caught, he is put into a machine from 
which it is very difficult for him to escape 
without further deterioration. It is not 
simply that the State puts a brand on him 
in the eyes of the community, but it takes 
away his self-respect without giving him 
a.n opportunity to recover it. Once recog- 
nized as in the criminal class, he has no 
further concern about the State than that 
of evading its penalties so far as is consis- 
tent with pursuing his occupation of crime. 

Why should we tolerate any longer a 
professional criminal class ? It is not large. 
It is contemptibly small compared with our 
seventy millions of people. If I am not 
mistaken, a late estimate gave us less than 
fifty thousand persons in our State prisons 
and penitentiaries. If we add to them 
those at large who have served one or two 
terms, and are generally known to the po- 
lice, we shall not have probably more than 
eighty thousand of the criminal class. But 
call it a hundred thousand. It is a body 
that seventy million of people ought to 
take care of with little difficulty. And we 
certainly ought to stop its increase. But 
we do not. The class grows every day. 
Those who watch the criminal reports are 
alarmed by the fact that an increasing num- 
ber of those arrested for felonies are dis- 
charged convicts. This is an unmistakable 
evidence of the growth of the outlaw 

But this is not all. Our taxes are greatly 
increased on account of this class. We re- 
quire more police to watch them who are 
at large and preying on society. We ex- 
pend more yearly for apprehending and 
trying those caught, for the machinery of 
criminal justice, and for the recurring farce 
of imprisoning on short sentences and dis- 
charging those felons to go on with their 
work of swindling and robbing. It would 
be good economy for the public, considered 
as a tax payer, to pay for the perpetual 
keep of these felons in secure confinement. 

And still this is not the worst. We are 
all living in abject terror of these licensed 
robbers. We fear robbery night and day; 
we live behind bolts and bars (which 
should be reserved for the criminal) and 
we are in hourly peril of life and property 
in our homes and. on the highways. But 
the evil does not stop here. By our con- 
duct we are encouraging the growth of the 
criminal class, and we are inviting disre- 
gard of law, and diffusing a spirit of de- 
moralization throughout the country. 

I have spoken of the criminal class as 
very limited ; that is, the class that lives 
by the industry of crime alone. But it is 
not isolated, and it has widespread rela- 
tions. There is a large portion of our 
population not technically criminals, which 
is interested in maintaining this criminal 
class. Every felon is a part of a vast net- 
work of criminality. He has his depend- 
ents, his allies, his society of vice, all the 
various machinery of temptation and in- 

' ' It happens, therefore, that there is great 
sympathy with the career of the law- 
breakers, many people are hanging on 
them for support, and. among them the so- 
called criminal lawyers. Any legislation 
likely to interfere seriously with the occu- 
pation of the criminal class or with its in- 
crease is certain to meet with the oppo- 
sition of a large body of voters. With this 
active opposition of those interested, and 
the astonishing indifference of the general 
public, it is easy to see why so little is done 
to relieve us of this intolerable burden. 
The fact is, we go on increasing our ex- 
penses for police, for criminal procedure, 
for jails and prisons, and we go on increas- 
ing the criminal class and those affiliated 
with it. 

" And what do we gain by our present 
method ? We do not gain the protection of 
society, and we do not gain the reformation 
of the criminal. These two statements do 
not admit of contradiction. Even those 
who cling to the antiquated notion that the 
business of society is to punish the offender 
must confess that in this game society is 
getting the worst of it. Society suffers all 
the time, and the professional criminal 
goes on with his occupation, interrupted 
only by periods of seclusion, during which 



he is comfortably housed and fed. The 
punishment he most fears is being com- 
pelled to relinquish his criminal career. 
The object of punishment for violation of 
statute law is not vengeance, it is not to 
inflict injury for injury. Only a few per- 
sons now hold to that. They say now that 
if it does little good to the offender it is 
deterrent as to others. Now, is your pres- 
ent system deterrent? The statute law, 
no doubt, prevents many persons from 
committing crime, but our method of ad- 
ministering it certainly does not lessen the 
criminal class, and it does not adequately 
protect society. Is it not time we tried, 
radically, a scientific, a disciplinary, a 
really humanitarian method ? 

"The proposed method is the Indeter- 
minate Sentence. This strikes directly at 
the criminal class. It puts that' class be- 
yond the power of continuing its depreda- 
tions upon society. It is truly deterrent, 
because it is a notification to any one in- 
tending to enter upon that method of liv- 
ing that his career ends with his first 

* # * * * 

Fear is expressed that men will dece've 
their keepers and the board which is to 
pass upon them, and obtain parole when 
they do not deserve it. As a matter of fact, 
men under this discipline cannot success- 
fully play the hypocrite to the experts who 
watch them. It is only in the ordinary 
prison where the parole is in use with no 

adequate discipline, and without the in- 
definite sentence, that deception can be 
practiced. But suppose a man does play 
the hypocrite so as to deceive the officers, 
who know him as well as any employer 
knows his workmen or any teacher knows 
his scholars, and deceives the independent 
board so as to get a parole. If he violates 
that parole, he can be remanded to the Re- 
formatory, and it will be exceedingly diffi- 
cult for him to get another parole. And, 
if he should again violate his parole, he 
would be considered incorrigible and be 
placed in a life prison. 

" We have tried all other means of pro- 
tecting society, of lessening the criminal 
class, of reforming the criminal. The pro- 
posed Indeterminate Sentence, with refor- 
matory discipline, is the only one that 
promises to relieve society of the insolent 
domination and the terrorism of the crimi- 
nal class; is the only one that can deter 
men from making a career of crime ; is the 
only one that offers a fair prospect for the 
reformation of the criminal offender. 

"Why not try it? Why not put the 
whole system of criminal jurisprudence 
and procedure for the suppression of crime 
upon a sensible and scientific basis? " 

Why not indeed? Connecticut has 
been the leader in many things which are 
a source of pride to her inhabitants. Let 
her have the foremost place in the line of 
progressive reform. 


Mrs. Susan Whitney Dimock of South 
Coventry has again shown her interest in 
the early history of the region in which 
she lives by publishing the Births, Bap- 
tisms, Marriages and Deaths in 
Mansfield, Conn., 1703- 1850, an octavo 
volume of 475 pages. 

The style of the book, similar to her 
previous publication of the Coventry 
records, is all that can be desired with its 
good paper, clear type, and strong cloth 
binding. The Baker & Taylor Co., 5 and 
7 East Sixteenth St., New York. Smith & 
McDonough, Hartford, Conn. 

ram, gilt top $2.00. The work contains 
much genealogical matter, and full line 
histories of the Walker, Sawyer, Gile and 
Gilkey families in America. Smith & 
McDonough, Hartford, Conn. 

Lewisiana or the Lewis Letter is a 
monthly publication now in its ninth year, 
and treating of all of the name of Lewis. 
It can be had for $1.00 per year from 
Carll A. Lewis, Guilford, Ct. Each 
volume contains about 200 pages. Smith 
& McDonough, Hartford, Conn. 

The Story of My Ancestors in America, 
by Rev. Edwin Sawyer Walker, A. M., 
Springfield, 111., is a work of 72 pp. paper 
cover, uncut edges $1.50 : polished buck- 

Wessex Poems. (Reviewed in last 
number of this magazine.) Harper & 
Brothers, N. Y.— Smith & McDonough, 
Hartford, Conn. 



OUR readers will notice in our adver- 
tising pages the announcement of 
premium offers to persons sending in five 
paid subscriptions to The Connecticut 
Magazine for one year. We have pre- 
sented a variety of premiums that the am- 
bitious solicitor may not be limited to one 
channel as a reward for his efforts. The 
premiums presented are not of a worthless 
nature, but are the product of such re- 
liable houses as the William Rogers Mfg. 
Co., the Arms Pocket Book Co., of Hart- 
ford, and the famous Ingersoll Watch Co., 
of New York City. The pocket books are 
always useful articles, and are put together 
with great care. The Harriet Beecher 
Stowe Souvenir Spoon is a work of art, 
and makes a beautiful historical souvenir. 
The Ingersoll Watches are a marvel, and 
keep good time. The manufacturers give 
the following guarantees to the trade : 
" We agree that if, without abuse, this 
watch fails to keep good time, we will, 
upon its return to us within one year 
from date of receipt, repair or replace it 
with a new one." 

Any one who wants a good reliable 
present should make an effort to send us 
five new subscribers. Send in each sub- 
scription as soon as taken and state that 
you are working for a premium and we 
will give you due credit for each. 
see offer — pages 6 and 7. 


The Editorial Department of The Con- 
necticut Magazine is endeavoring, and 
has for the past four years, to give its 
readers the best material obtainable, and 
to present it in the most interesting 

The business department is endeavoring 
to make the advertising pages as attrac- 
tive as possible. Many of our readers 
perhaps do not realize that a magazine 

that illustrates freely is an expensive article 
to produce. A magazine must carry ad- 
vertising. Our business department is 
looking to building up a generous patron- 
age in this line. The Connecticut Maga- 
zine is in a position to give as good a 
quality of advertising as any national 
magazine offers, and at moderate rates. 

But the advertiser to be a patron of our 
columns needs encouragement. 

Our policy is to encourage those who 
encourage us. 

To our readers we ask, read the plan 
outlined on pages 6 and 7 of the adver- 
tising pages of this issue, and see if you 
cannot concur with our efforts along this 
line ; also notice the little line at the bot- 
tom of each ' page — " Please mention 
The Connecticut Magazine when you 
write to advertisers." If any ad. reminds 
you, or induces you to buy of any of our 
advertisers, please state to that merchant 
that you saw his ad. in The Connecticut 
Magazine. He likes to have you do so, 
for then he knows that his ad. with us is 
seen and is productive. Patronize him if 
you can. The merchant by his ad. is 
helping us to give you good reading mat- 
ter and generous illustrations. Follow 
our advice on this point and you help the 
merchant, you help us, you benefit your- 


We take pleasure in presenting to 
our readers in this issue an article 
on Israel Putnam written by Miss Fanny 
Greye Bragg of Bridgeport, Conn. Miss 
Bragg is a pupil in the Bridgeport High 
School, and was the successful competitor 
for the prize offered by The Connecticut 
Magazine for the best article on Israel 
Putnam written by any pupil of a high or 
college-preparatory school in Connecticut. 


Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when writing to advertisers. 

Corns and Bicycles. 

When the spring comes the farmer thinks of his coming crops and his 
fields waving with corn. But his ten-acre cornfield can't touch that little 
" cornfield " on your toe. In fact nothing can touch it without getting you 
just a bit touchy and excited. Now we don't object to cornfields — in the right 
place. If we only "felt our corns" as the mare " feels her oats" we wouldn't 
kick. The spring sun warms your blood and makes you just a bit frisky; 
you feel like a boy again and want to chase your shadow around a ten- acre 
lot. You don't, though — not if you've got a lot of corns to remind you 
what a lot of trouble little things cause. Corns are about as much benefit 
to man as a last year's almanac. 

Bicycles and corns don't agree at all. Everybody wants a bicycle about 
as much as he doesn't want corns. Sometimes he has both, but he isn't any 
happier for it. In the summer bicycles are a delight — corns are a nuisance. 
On a dark night when you strike a bit of rough road you realize it's about 
harvest time for that spring crop of corns. Every time you press on the 
pedals the corns smart and the wheel seems heavy as lead. You want a 
bicycle lamp to make it lighter. Then you loose your hold on the pedals. 
They come around and hit you a crack on the tenderest corn you've got. 
Of course you feel cranky. 

It's just the same even if you don't wheel. You walk when it's wet and 
have to wear rubbers. They rub your toes the wrong way and produce 
corns. Somebody steps on that corn on your little toe. You can't help get- 
ting worked up over it, it's such a severe strain on your Christianity. If he 
comes down very hard, you dance and feel like standing on your head. Being 
an honest man, you walk along, smiling — when anyone is looking. 

It's a wise man that knows how to cut his own corns, especially those 
soft ones caused by wearing rubbers during the wet winters. 

Although it's easy to bear the aches of another man's corns, still it's 
easier — for the other man — not to have any corns at all. Everyone knows 
that Spring is the time to cure them, before summer heat has hardened them 
past all endurance. 


you should use 


Sold by dealers, or sent by mail on receipt of 15 cents. 
Manufactured by ... . 

The Williams & Carleton Co*, 


Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 

The Best of the 
Talking & ^ & 
Machine Family 

is either the 




They want a home. 
Why not adopt them. 
They are the most „ 
talented musicians, ^ 
will comfort the sick, 
cheer up the saddest 
homes or make a 
happy home more 



Hartford Graphophone Co* 

80 Trumbull Street, HARTFORD, CONN, 



Bristol, Conn., Nov. 12, 1898. 

Mr. E. C. Linn, Sec'y and Treas., 

The Connecticut Building and Loan Association, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Dear Sir; I am just in receipt of the check of 
the Association for $1,091.00, in payment of the 
maturity value of ten shares (insured class) , held 
by my late husband, which also includes the reserve 
accumulations of the shares. 

I wish to thank you for your promptness in the 
settlement of this claim. Yours truly, 

Clara J. Clayton. 

$10 a month for 120 months produces $2,000, 
which will be paid in cash upon maturity of shares, 
or at prior death the proceeds of the life insurance 
will be paid to heirs together with cash withdrawal 
value of shares. 

Assets, Over, .... $850,000.00 

Guarantee Fund, (paid in Cash), 100,000.00 

The Connecticut Building and 

Loan Association, 

252 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn. 

A Beautiful Complexion, with a soft, velvety 
skin is a sure result of using 


Thousands of refined ladies praise it. We want 
you to try it, and as a Special Inducement we 
will mail you a small Bottle and descriptive cir- 
cular free of all expense if we receive 
ycur address before June 1st, 1899. Address, 

The Hi B. Hale Co. Hartford, <&. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 

Twin Comet 
Lawn Sprinkler 

Covers Greater Area than Any Other Sprinkler Made 


17 inches 


6 pounds 

Will sprinkle 
an area four 
times greater 
than any 
other sprink- 
ler made. 



Sent C. O. D. 
by express, 
prepaid, t o 
any address, 
with privilege 
of five days' 

THE globe, or body, of the sprinkler is made in two parts, and by means of the swiftly revolving arms, and interme- 
diate gears, the upper half is made to revolve slowly, carrying the hose nozzle, from which a full stream of water is 
thrown far out beyond the sprinkle of the arms, thereby covering a much larger space than any other sta= 
tionary sprinkler. With an oidinaiy pressure of water, 20 pounds or upwards, it will thoroughly sprinkle an 
area 80 feet in diameter. The nozzle and the tips on end of arms are adjustable and can be set so as to sprinkle any desired 
space, or the nozzle can be set perpendicular to send the water upwards in a straight stream like a fountain. 

A perforated disc, or rosette, is packed in each box and can be attached in place of the nozzle tip, discharging instead of 
a solid straight stream a very fine mist at the centre of the sprinkle of the revolving arms. 

With the exception of the legs all parts are of solid brass, heavily nickeled, making it the most durable, attractive and 
efficient sprinkler ever placed on the market. 



Agents Wanted Everywhere Made for J. B, Fellows & Co., 90 Canal St., Boston.. Mass. 

Please mention the Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 




Middletown, Conn., U. S. A, 
New York Office, 62 White Street 

Also Manufacturer of 

Canopies, Mosquito Nettings, Crinoline Dress Lining, Window 
Screen Cloth, School Bags, etc., etc. 





— .M^. 

Palmer's Patented AKAWANA 

"With Trapeze Suspension. 

The above Figure shows an Arawana 
slung from a Trapeze adjusted to its maxi- 
mum extension as regards its suspension 
from the ceiling. 

The Trapeze Sn-pension, as may be seen at a glance, 
is especially adapted to Veranda use, is adjustable to 
different size* of Hammocks within its scope (from 6 ft. 
3 in. to 11 ft.) and to trivinir different desrr<-es of dip and 
heights or suspension. Every conceivable swinging 
motion is obtained witbout effort. 

limegj fsuu Utopj^ 

Palmer's Patented UTOPIA 

"With Hammock Support. 

The above Figure shows Hammock 
swung on Adjustable Support, the occu- 
pant in a comfortable reclining position as 
used on a Lawn. 

This support is adapted to Lawn, Veranda and indoor 
use and like the Trapeze Suspension, is adjustable to 
d'ffvrent sizes of Hammocks within its scope (from 6 ft. 
3 in. to 11 ft.) and to giving different degrees of dip and 
height from floor. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


at all 
on the 






Passenger Accommodations First Class. 

- *- Z=$ Hartford and New York i ransportation Co. ^^--»- 

Steamers "Middletown" and "Hartfokd"— Leave Hartford from foot State St. at 5 p. m.— Leave New York from Pier 
24, East River, at 5 p. m.— Daily except Sundays. 

Shipments received on pier in New York until 6 p. m. and forwarded to all points mentioned on Connecticut river, and 
points North, East and West from Hartford. We also have through traffic arrangements will lines out of New York or 
points South and West, and shipments can be forwarded on through rates, and Bills of Lading obtained from offices of the 
Company. For Excursion Rates see daily papers. 


In Recognition of genelits Received from 


V ik 1 1 



Sp£c/al Ofrs* - 7ba// w/?o wr/fe as /n en f Zon- 
ing //?/s paper, tve senaf a doo/rconta/n/ng por- 
fra/fs anc/ endorsements o/£mp£/?ops, £atpp£ss s 
P/?///CESiCAft£?/A/ALSy A/iCNB/SHOPs t an of ofnercf/sf/n~ 
ga/sneof personages. 

Ma/?/aa// a Co., 52 W£sr/5 r f$r. Msiy/ow. 

FOR SAL£ATAU DPOGG/STS £1/£ftYW#£/?£. AVO/0Sl/B$r/ri/r£$. B£IA/A/f£0£/M/TAT/0/VS. 

PA/f/s-l/Bou/eyartfticrussmdnr?, i DAfDOrt-83 Mortimer Sr. Afontiea/-87$rJame$St. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 


Everyone Should Know* 

THE Oculist's best endeavors may come to 
naught by careless methods of frame or 
lens fitting employed by opticians. We 
take especial pains in filling oculists' prescrip- 
tions. All our mechanical and optical knowl- 
edge goes to meet the needs of the individual 
and the requirements of the oculist. Eyes 
requiring the latter's care demand the best 
thought and ingenuity of the optician. 

HARVEY & LEWIS, Opticians, 

856 Main Street, 
a When in doubt, Come to us. 1 ' 





941 Main St., 



Poughkeepsie Bridge Route. 


For 1899, 

Is now ready for distribution, 

It contains over one hundred attractive half- 
tone illustrations, and is without doubt the 
handsomest hook of the kind ever issued by 
any railroad. It contains an increased list of 
Hotels and Boarding Houses, gives rates for 
board and all information sought after by those 
intending to summer in the country. Don't 
neglect getting a copy. Sent free for postage, 
six cents, to 

W. J- MARTIN, Gen/1 Passenger Agent, 
Hartford, Conn. 

^f^mgJnlJi&tumsv'C&tling (farDs 

Theodor F.Gelbart. 





Largest line of Frame 
Samples in the State. 

Water Colors, Engrav- 
ings, Oil Paintings, Etch- 
ings, etc. 

Artists' Materials. 

L. A. Wiley & Son, 

Dealers, Wholesale and 
Retail.— 251 Pearl Street, t 
Hartford, Conn. Mail * 
Orders Promptly Filled. 

Read This Ad 
And Act 

If you have any article to advertise, a 
notice in the columns of the Connecticut 
Magazine will give you good results. 


as attractive and profitable. 

OUlt QUALITY is as good as any national maga- 
zine offers. 

SM A LL E XPENDITURE buys good space with us. 

OVER FOUR YEARS has built up a splendid~cir- 
culat'on for the Connecticut Magazine. 

Connecticut Magazine a widespread reputation. 

YOU C\N RE\CH the Southern New England 
trade through our columns. 

CITY AND COUNTRY districts equally admire 
and subscribe to the Connecticut Magazine. 

other publication in Southern New England. 

12,000 copies per issue is the circulation of the 
Connecticut Magazine. 

...TRY IT... 

Published at Hartford, Conn. 

10 Cents a Copy, 

Subscription— $1.00 a year 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 










', c @c 


Semi-Weekly Courant 

$I.OO a year. Send for Sample Copy. 
Address THE COURANT. Hartford, Ct. 


Special Research Work. 

Correspondence Solicited. 
25 Mather St., HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Easy-Rolling and Graceful Wakefield. 

These are the carriages we " PUSH "—and are the only 
ones you should do likewise to. Wakefield's are both 
lighter and stronger than any other make — there's no 
such thing as racking them. You can sell a Wakefield 
after youTe through with it— it'll all be there. 


Leading Housefurnishers. 61 Asylum Street. 








can be engaged for Concerts, Religious and Social 
Entertainments, Funerals and work for Fraternal 
For terms, dates, etc., address William Richard Grif- 
fith, Bus. Man., 66 State St. Hartford, Conn. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 

"The Leading Fire Insurance Company of America." 

STATEMENT of the condition of the 

A etna... 

Insurance Company, 

On the 31st d:<y of December, 1898. 

Cash Capital, 

Reserve, Re-Insurance (Fire), 
Reserve, Re-Insurance (Inland), 
Reserve, Unpaid Losses (Fire), 
Reserve, Unpaid Losses (Inland) 
Other Claims, 
Net Surplus, 

Total Assets, 

Surplus as to Policy Holders, 










Losses Paid in moo 1 Q*V 7/1Q QO 
Eighty Years : vpOO, 1 <3 I , / H^.O^ 

W>I. B. CLARK, President. 

W. H. KING, Secretary. E. O. WEEKS, Vice-President. 

A. C. ADAMS, HENRY E. REES, Assistant Secretaries. 


413 Vine Street, Cincinnati, O. \ General Agents. 


Omaha, Neb. \ W. P. HARFORD, Ass't General Agent. 


San Francisco, Cal. \ 



General Agents. 
CHICAGO, Ills., 145 La Salle Street. 
J NEW YoRK. 52 William Street. 
DEPARTMENT. BOSTON. 95 Kilbv Street. 

L PHILADELPHIA, 229 Walnut Street. 

Agents in all the principal Cities, Towns and Villages of the 
United States and Canada. 

Dickinson, Beardsley & Beardsley, Local Agents 

664 Main Street and 65 Pearl Street. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 






Sent to any address on receipt of 12c. 
in Stamps. 


You want one of these. 

Combined Cigar Cutter & Whistle 

Sent to any address on receipt of 50c, 
in silver or stamps. 

C. E. BILLINGS, Hartford, Ct. 

I can be ~ c c 
his private 
secretary now 

premier * 

is so easily learned 5 

and does sucn clean, perfect Work. 

fi)t <§mitlj $fa miEr^ptroriter€o. 


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June, 1899. 

No. 6. 

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Connecticut Magazine 


Devoted to Connecticut in its various phases of History, 
Literature, Science, Art and Industries. 

JUNE, \ 899. 

vol. v. CONTENTS. No. 6. 

An Election Parade of a Negro Governor. Drawn by H, Phelps Arms. (Frontispiece.) 

The Town of Chatham. Part I. East Hampton. Illustrated, 

/ F. Loomis, 303 

Good Night. Poem. Elizabeth Alden Curtis, 319 

Negro Slavery in Connecticut. Frederick C. Norton, 320 

The Greek. Poem. Charles Rufus Morey, 328 

Richard D. Hubbard. From " Reminiscences." John Hooker, 329 

List of Burials Center Church Burying Ground, Hartford. Annotated by Mary K. Talcott, 336 

Backward Glances at Hartford. Illustrated. Julius G. Rathbun, 339 

An Old New England Cemetery. John Dezvell Swain, 345 

Departments. — Genealogical Department. 346 

Editorial Notes. 348 

George C. Atwbll, Editor. Edwakd B. Eaton, Business Manager. 

H. Phelps Arms, ~1 

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Milo L. Norton, \ Associate Editors. 

W. H. C. Pynchon, I 

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Published at 66 State St , Hartford, Conn, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. 

Copyright, 1899, by The Connecticut Magazine Co. (All rights reserved.) 
Entered at the Post Office at Hartford, Conn, as mail matter of the second-class. 


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Storrs Agricultural College* 

" 111 fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates, and men decay. 
Princes and lords may flourish or may fade, — 
A breath can make them, as a breath has made; 
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, 
When once destroyed, can never be supplied." 

It has been truly said that "Education is a debt that the present owes to the future/' 
but all are not agreed as to just how that debt shall be paid. Those, however, who have 
given the subject the most careful thought, and have studied intelligently the history of the 
past, concur in the opinion that the education to be projected into the future, the education 
that shall preserve and entail free institutions, should be directed by minds the best equipped 
in mental and moral science, literature and art, mathematical knowledge and mechanical 
skill, and physical law in the realm of nature. In this the Federal Government takes the 
initiative, and asks the States to build and equip colleges which shall give to the "Industrial 
Classes " not only practical education but also the skill to use it, and with her request gives 
the State of Connecticut annually by the " Land Grant " act of '62, over $6,000, and by the 
Morrill act of '90, $25,000 after this year; but conditionally, each fund for specific uses and 
nothing else. 

Storrs Agricultural College, at Storrs, Connecticut, in the town of Mansfield, is the 
college established by the State to meet conditions, on which the Federal funds may be 
received and used. All students of the State over fifteen years of age of both sexes are 
entitled to the privileges of this college, so far as its equipment will meet the demands 
made upon it. Commencement will occur this year on June 14, and the Summer term will 
begin on the 26th of June. 

Candidates for admission to the College may take the examinations at the college, 
and at Hartford, Saturday, June 17, following Commencement. 

Fall examinations will be held on Friday, September 1, Selectmen's Room, City Hall, 
Danbury, Council Chamber, City Hall, Norwich, and at the State Experiment Station, New 
Haven. Saturday, September 2, Room 50, Capitol Building, Hartford, First District School 
Building, East Winsted, and at the College, Storrs. 

The examinations will begin at 9 o'clock a. m. 

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> M 



Mrs. ana Miss 



J Finishing and college prepara 
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John C. Rrinsniade, Principal. 

Washington, Conn. 

Conn . 


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General education may be carried forward in classes of Free 
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home Avhere every advantage is found. Two scholarships, 
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OZIAS DODGE, Director. 

<ss^- Soprano, Centre Church Choir. ■ ■• 

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Catalogue of High Class 
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WM. B CLARK, President. 

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The Thomas Minor Diary 

1653 TO 1683. 
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A Moment with our Readers. 

HE PUBLISHERS of The Connecticut Magazine are not endeavoring to interest their 
readers in a catch-penny scheme, but would ask that you examine the plan outlined 
herewith and try to concur with our efforts as far as possible. Notice that the page 
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To any one returning ten June slips, properly signed, to The Connecticut Magazine office 
on or before July ist, we will present a handsome thirty-two page book, entitled " Picturesque 
Connecticut," showing handsome half-tone views in different parts of the state, just published 
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The collection is composed of the choicest of those views that have appeared in The 
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Norfolk. Conn. 

Offers first-class accommodations. Re- 
modeled and enlarged this season wiih all 
modern conveniences, including gas, steam 
heat, open fires and private baths. First- 
class stable with open and box stalls in 
connection with the house. 

Norfolk is the highest town in the State 
reached by railroad. Altitude 1300 feet. 
Golf links, tennis courts, bowline; alley, etc. 

Three hours and twenty minutes from 
New York City. 

For terms and information, address 

E. C. STEVENS, Norfolk, Conn 


L'irge, well-fun dt-hed, sanitary plumbing. 
Best location on the Sound. Also cottage 
for sale. 

George B. Munger, East River, Conn. 

At MADISON, Coi 7nest ut ' s BEACH. 

Choice lots for sale, directly on the water, 
others a short distance back with shore 
privilege, good boating, fishing and bathing 

Furnished Cottages to Rent. J. M. HULL. 

Woodmont on the Connecticut Shore. 
A Summer Cottage "CV^ C-l^ 
Furnished and Barn J- UI ^CtlC* 

Owner building a larger house, and one fine lot for sale 
at Woodmont. Healtbiest Summer Resort in Conn. 


Bridgeport, Conn. 

The BONSILENE, % «**»■*«■ 

the=Sound, Conn, 

A family Hotel for sale. Has a first-class patronage 
and beautiful location. More rooms are needed; if 
added, will assure a NET income of $2,000 or $3,000 
during July and August. A partial payment of only 
$500. from acceptable party will secure immediate 
possession. Address the owner, 

OLIN H. CLARK, Box 488, Hartford, Conn. 

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No. 1 


June, 1 899 

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Handsome and Useful Ingersoll Watches. 

Nickel or gilt, stem wound and stem 
set, and WARRANTED for one year. 
If the watch is not what we guarantee 
it to be we will replace it by another. 
Your choice of either pocket watch or 
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moment's notice 

Your Choice— Famous Arms 

Fine Morocco Ladies Pocket 
Book with card pocket. Specie 
pocket, three extra pockets with 
button locks ; card pocket with 

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See "Negro Slavery in Connecticut.'''' 

The Connecticut Magazine 

Vol. V. 

Junk, 1899. 

No. 6. 




Part I. — East Hampton. 
HE town of Chatham is the northeast separated from the latter in the short 

town of Middlesex County. To the 
north is Glastonbury in Hartford County, 

boundary between them by the Connecti- 
cut River. 


on the east Marlborough in the same, and 
Colchester in New London County; on 
the south East Haddam and Haddam ; on 
the west Portland and Middletown, being 


Chatham was originally a part of Middle- 
town, and at the time of its incorporation, 
by the General Assembly, in 1767, it in- 
cluded in its bounds all of what had been 




previously known under the names of the 
parishes of East Middletown, most of the 
parish of Middle Haddam, all of East 
Hampton parish, 
and a part of the ■ t. 

parish of Westches- '- _„*?*j,\i 
ter. The parish of 
East Middletown 
was set off from 
Chatham as a sepa- 
rate town in 1842, 
comprising the 
present town of 
Portland. By refer- 
ring to the topo- 
graphical atlas, 
issued by the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, it will 
be noticed that the surface of this town is 
very uneven, and in its northern part the 
hills assume the proportions of small 
mountains, with an altitude of nearly 800 
feet above the sea level, Meshomasic 
Mountain, and Great Hill, Clark's Hill, 
Bald Hill, Chestnut Hill, and Baker's Hill 
being the most prominent. Of the 
lesser may be mentioned Miller's, 
Bishop's and Barton Hills. Nestling 
between, and occupying partially the 
latter three, lies the busy, thrifty bell- 
town, known all over the world as East 
Hampton, where are now made about 
every pattern of bells which Yankee in- 


genuity has been able to devise a pattern 
for, besides an endless variety of toys. In 
the south-west part of the town, abutting 
on the Connecticut River, is the equally 
interesting and picturesque village of 
Middle Haddam, which was formerly a 
prominent point for building every kind 
of wooden sailing craft, ships, steamboats, 
brigs, schooners, sloops and barges, and 
all of smaller size. 

The soil of the town is not generally 
very productive, but outside of the respec- 
tive industries of the above-named centers 
of trade, the business is agriculture. 

The name of East Hampton is said to 
have been selected for it by some of its 
first settlers who 
had previously lived 
in Eastham, Mass. 
The first settlers 
were attracted 
there by the fine 
mill site, or Water 
privilege, at the out- 
let of Lake Pocoto- 
paug, where a forge 
had been erected 
in 1743. Of the 
beautiful Lake Po- 
cotopaug I shall 
say but little. It equals in itself, and 
its surroundings, any of the fine lakes 
of Litchfield County, as Waramaug in 




Washington, and Twin Lakes in Salisbury, 
or Highland Lake at Winsted ; and I put 
in the modest claim for it, that it is not 

settlers hereabout, and handed down from 
generation to generation, to the effect that 
a beautiful Indian maiden sacrificed her- 


surpassed by any lake in New England for 
clearness of its waters and the beauty of 
its scenery. It is about nine miles in cir- 
cumference, averaging about ten feet in 
depth, has two most charming islands, 
and is fed by springs entirely. Rain 
storms have very little effect in changing 
its depth. There is evidence that the 
lake and its islands were favorite places 
of resort for the native Indians, probably 
of the Mattabessett tribe. It has always 
been a favorite resort for fishing. There 
is a legend connected with the lake which 
passed from the aborigines to the white 

self here by direction of the Great 
Spirit, on the promise to her that no per- 
son should ever be drowned in its waters. 





Two hotels here, one the Pocotopaug 
House, kept for years by the late William 
Glover Buell, now kept by his daughter- 
in-law, Mrs. Caroline B. Buell, the other, 
the Lakeview House, provide entertain- 
ment for the many summer visitors to the 
Lake. The well appointed Lake View 
House is finely situated near the shore of 


the Lake. This hotel for thirteen seasons 
has been one of the factors in drawing 
summer visitors to East Hampton. It 
was formerly conducted by Capt. D. D. 
Brown and is now under the management 
of Frank M. Weller. Easily accessible, 
close enough to the activities of life for 
convenience, and yet far enough away to 
afford absolute rest 
and quiet, the Lake 
View House presents 
many attractions. It 
is a mile from the 
station on a road 
leading north from 
the village and is 
nestled close beside 
the water at the foot 
of the hills which 
form its western bar- 
rier. Eighty feet of 
lawn connects the 
broad veranda of 
the house with the 
water's edge where 





a cozy pavilion furnishes a breezy loung- 
ing place and a convenient landing for 
boats. The water supply is of remarkable 
purity, a wind engine supplying each floor 
with pure water from the lake. Within 
200 feet of the house is a smooth, shelving 
beach which offers an ideal place for still 
water bathing. The lake furnishes endless 
entertainment. Safe row boats are fur- 
nished in abundance for the free use of 
guests of the house. Fishing is a favorite 
pastime, the lake being well stocked with 
black bass, pickerel and perch. 

At the time of the erection of the forge, 
iron was very much needed by the inhabi- 
tants of the surrounding country, and very 
soon was needed in ship building at 
Middle Haddam, which was carried on so 
extensively as to cause the town to be 
named Chatham, after the town in England 
which was noted for the same industry. 
How much business was done at this forge 
it would be impossible to tell accurately, 
but for those days, in the fifty years of its 
existence, it must have been very great. 
The property was owned by a number of 

persons and companies, and for a time 
was held by Abijah Hall, and passed to 
his son Abijah, Jr., who operated it until 
the war of 1812, when it was given up. 
Ore was brought to this forge from West 
Point on the Hudson River, and from this 
iron was made for use in ship building. 

The best iron was made from the pig 
iron bought in New York, and from Salis- 
bury, Conn., for general purposes, and for 
this the Salisbury iron was preferred. In 
1825 a new forge was built on the site of 
the old one, and in connection with it a 
scythe factory, and at these business was 
done for several years. Near the site of 
these, since erected, was a shop in 1850 
in which Buell & Veazey made bells. 
Next below, established in 1832, is the 
Bevin Brothers Mfg. Co., who have one of 
the largest plants on the stream. Next to 
them is the Summit Thread Co., which 
had previously been occupied by Butler 
N. Strong. Their site was once the 
Eureka Silk Co. which flourished for a 
while. This site was formerly occupied 
by Buell & Sears' saw mill on the east 



■ ii * 





side and on the west side they had 
a batting and carding mill. The 
business of the Summit Thread Co. 
was established April i, 1880. Its pres- 
ent officers are, Delcevare King, President, 
T. King, Treasurer, Ernest G. Cone, 
Assistant Treasurer and Manager. These 
gentlemen also constitute the board of 

manufactures all sizes and kinds of door 
gongs, house bells, sleigh bells, and bicy- 
cle bells of all varieties. The goods are 
sold in every state in the Union, and 
many are exported to England and Ger- 
many. The above named gentlemen and 
Henry S. Starr comprise the Starr Net and 
Twine Co., which was organized in 1886, 

by the latter. 


? I 


The company 
all kinds of 
fish nettings 
suitable f o r 
lake and river 
seineing. The 
entire output 
of this com- 

.>vi'B ', t < 

§ I 

directors. The products of the company 
are machine silk and spool cotton, the 
latter being the leading feature of the 
business, having an extended sale in the 
various lines of manufacturers requiring 
the use of thread. The next plant is that 
of Starr Brothers, bell makers, and also 
connected with it the facture of nets by 
machinery. This plant had been previously 
occupied by Veazey & White, the firm 
consisting of the late Hiram Veazey and 
A. B. White now of West Hartford. The 
previous occupants and builders were 
J.S. Hall & Co. The business was estab- 
lished in 1840, The Starr Bros. Bell Co. 
succeeding to the Veazey & White Co. in 
1882. Four of the Starr Brothers are in- 
terested in this business, Geo. M., J. M., 
W. F., and V. B. Starr. The Company 


pany finds a ready market each year. 
The next plant is that of the Gong Bell 
Co. and the East Hampton Bell Co. 
who use the same power. The next plant 
is D.W. Watrous & Co. Here previously, 
Noah S. Markham, a native of this town, 
made cast steel hoes, with a steel shank. 




They received a silver medal for these 
concave hoes at the fair of the American 
Institute. The writer well remembers 
when these came into use. They were so 
high in price that farmers did not have 
more than one, and himself, like many 
another boy of those days, had to keep on 
using the old fashioned ones, with an eye 
and the handle wedged on, while the hired 
man, or the father, used the " concave." 

The next plant, one of the best ap- 
pointed on the stream, is the N. N. Hill 
Brass Company which makes bells and toys 
by the millions, and for the millions. This 
was the former site of Niles, Parmalee & 
Co's shop. The N. N. Hill Brass Co. was 

formed in January, 
1889, by N. N. Hill. 
The average number 
of hands employed is 
125. The bells made 
by them cannot be 
excelled for general 
excellence of work- 
manship and clear- 
ness and resonance 
of tone, the greatest 
care being exercised 
in all departments of 
their manufacture. 
A water power about 
1.600 feet below the 
factory generates the 
electricity by which 
it is operated and 
lighted. On the site of this power house 
previously, Barton & Clark had a bell shop. 
Of this firm, now living, is Mr. Orlando 
Clark, of Cote St. Paul, Montreal, who 
engaged in the same business there. Mr. 
Bartcn was grandson of William Barton, 
of whom we will speak later Below this 
is Skinner's Mills, where that family found- 
ed a little settlement and carried on busi- 
ness in preparing lumber for the ship yards 
of Middle Haddam. All the above-named 
factories are within less than two miles of 
the only outlet of Lake Pocotopaug, which 
is mentioned in Connecticut Land Records, 
Vol. I, p. 456, as Niuppaquashneag Brook. 
This word, says M. L. Roberts, the his- 





<*> *** 


torian of this section, is a corruption of 
Wunni-appoquasinne-awke. and means 
" a good flag place " or " place to get 
flag," to make mats etc. The name of 
the lake, which like the above name of its 
outlet is also of Indian origin, and says the 
late J. Hammond Trumbull of Hartford, 
the recognized authority in the United 
States for Indian names and traditions, 
means " a divided pond." The pond has 
the appearance from the heights of Baker's 
Hill of being two ponds, united by a short 
strait. Modern usage calls the name of 
its outlet Pine Brook, upon which below 
the above-named sites are, or have been, 
quite a number of factories. Among these 
were a satinet factory operated by Justin 
Sexton and Sons, Pine Brook factory, 
Abel's Saw Mill, West's Saw Mill and H. 
B. Brown & Co. Further down the stream, 
but outside of the bounds of Chatham, 
near the mouth of Pine Brook was once 
an Oakum factory, and House Brothers 
now have a paper mill. These constitute 
all the industries which are carried on 
from power derived from the waters of 
Lake Pocotopaug, as it flows from this 
great, pure, natural reservoir. 

For many years nearly all the sleigh 
bells in use in the United States and the 
Dominion of Canada were made in East 
Hampton and Middle Haddam. They 
also made house bells, hand bells, tea bells, 
cow bells and sheep bells for the whole 
country, and to-day are making their fair 
share of the bicycle bells which are used 
in such enormous quantities all over the 
civilized world. The manufacturing en- 
terprise of this place and its general pros- 
perity are traceable to no one man more 
than to William Barton, a very much re- 
spected citizen who was born in Winton- 
bury, a society in Windsor, now the town 
of Bloomfield, Nov. 26, 1 762. He worked 
with his father whose name was William 
Barton, Sr. He was an armorer at Spring- 
field during the Revolutionary War. At 
the close of the war he returned to Win- 
tonbury and made pistols and other fire 
arms, until 1790, when he went to New 
York and engaged in the making of andi- 
rons and other brass goods. He came to 
East Hampton in 1808 and commenced 
the making of hand bells and sleigh bells. 
Others learned the trade with him, and 
afterwards engaged in the same business. 

' .■£■■.■•■,.■■■■.?■:■:■■' 

- -a. 

■<*?»< t Wl 





The first bell that he made, and so the 
first bell that was made in East Hampton, 
was deposited with other relics in a box 
under the corner stone of the present 
Congregational Church in East Hampton, 
when it was laid in 1852. The largest 
bell ever made in this place was cast in 
the foundry now owned by Starr Brothers, 
which was at that time owned by Veazey 
& White. This bell is now in the belfry of 

the Asylum Hill Congregational Church 
in Hartford. It is one of the strongest 
in tone of the bells in Hartford. 

Mr. Barton was a very liberal minded 
man, and was happiest when benefiting 
others. From this small beginning of his, 
when he made bells by hand, has arisen 
the various foundries and shops which 
make the thrifty busy place of to-day. 
After living some twenty years at Cicero, 
N. Y. Mr. Barton returned to spend the 
remainder of his days with his children 
and friends in East Hampton, where he 


^ %;.;„ 


died July 15, j 849, universally respected 
and lamented. 

East Hampton was settled more rapidly 
than any other part of Middletown, east of 
the Connecticut River. There was a large 
increase of inhabitants soon after the erec- 
tion of the forge at the outlet of the lake 
about 1743. The names of the inhabitants 
and amount of their lists, as stated in the 
Colony Record for that year, were as fol- 
lows : Azariah Andrews, £30, Jonathan 
Bailey, 48.16, David Bailey, 27, William 
Bevin, 20, John Bevin, Jr., 34.06, John 
Bosworth. 18, Jabez Clark, 39, Ebenezar 

3 12 



N. HII v T y 

Clark, 42.13, John Clark, 143.10, fosiah 
Cook, 32.06, Samuel Eggleston,3o,Stephen 
Griffith, 47, VV. Harding, 27, Daniel Hills. 
31, George Hubbard, 33, James Johnson, 
86,WilIiam Johnson, 9, Seth Knowles,, 
JohnMarkum, 21, William Norcut& Son,6i, 
Joseph Parker, 100.16, Hezekiah Russ, 30, 
Isaac Smith, 26, John Stevens, 26, Samuel 
Wadsworth, 40, Issac Williams, 18, Daniel 
Young, 2 2 — Total, 
^£1,100.06. On the 
petition of the 
above - named for 
society privileges, 
the same was grant- 
ed and the parish 
of East Hampton 
was incorporated at 
the May session of 
the General Assem- 
bly, 1746. The 
church was organ- 
ized, that is the 
Presbyterian, or 
what is now the 

body,Nov. 30,1743. 
On this date Rev. 
John Norton, a na- 
tive of Berlin, a 
graduate of Yale 
College, 1737, was 
set over the same 
and installed as pas- 
tor. He had been 
settled before this, 
over a church in 
Falltown, Mass. 
The latter place is 
now called Bernard- 

In 1745, when the 
old French and In- 
dian War was on, 
and disturbing the 
people, he resigned 
his pastorate and went as chaplain, being 
stationed at Fort Massachusetts, at 
Adams, Mass., and was there when it was 
attacked Aug. 20, 1746, by nearly one 
thousand French and Indians under 
General De Vaudruil. Col. Hawks, Com- 
mandant of the Fort, had only twenty- 
two effective men, and all told, men, 
women and children, thirty-three persons. 




After twenty- eight 
hours' resistance 
and having used all 
their ammunition, 
they were obliged 
to capitulate. One 
special article of 
the agreement was 
that none of the 
prisoners should be 
delivered into the 
hands of the In- 
dians. The next 
day the French 
general violated his 
word on this point 
on the plea that he 
was afraid of mutiny 
in his command, as 
the Indians were 
irritated because 

they were cut off from the spoils and 
profits of the conquest. The garrison 
lost but one man in the action and killed 
outright forty-five of the enemy. Mr. 
Norton wrote an account of his captivity 



which was about the time of the massacre 
at Deerfield, Mass. He says in this record 
" When the prisoners were marched as far 
as Crown Point, on the way to Quebec, 
a party of Indians who went off from 
Adams with a view 
of attacking Deer- 
field, returned with 
six scalps of white 
men and one cap- 
tive." Sickness 
broke out among 
V N the prisoners. Mr. 

Norton was often 
sick. Fifteen be- 
longing to the com- 
pany of prisoners 
died, and on the 
27th of Aug., 1747, 
the rest were ex- 
changed, and under 
a flag of truce set 
sail from Quebec 
and arrived in Bos- 
ton, Sept. 1 6th. In 



V, ^, 



1755, when the second French war was 
going on, he was pastor in East Hampton. 
He went as chaplain again to act in the 
expedition against Crown Point, and the 
members of the Hartford South Associa- 
tion, to which this church belonged, 
agreed to supply his pulpit from October 

residence of 

in that year, to February, 1756. He died 
of small pox, March 24, 1778, aged 62 

Other ministers of this church have 
been Revs. Lemuel Parsons, Joel West, 
Timothy Stone, Samuel J. Curtis, Rufus 
Smith, William Russel, Luman H. Pease, 
Henry A. Russel, 
George W.Andrews, 
Joel S. Ives, Edward 
P. Root, C. W. Col- 
lier, and the present 
incumbent, Rev. 
William Slade. In 
November, 1898, 
this church cele- 
brated the Sesqui- 
Centennial anniver- 
sary of its organiza- 

The Methodist 
church organiza- 
tion, says Roberts, 
the historian, dated 
back to 181 7 when 
Rev. Joel W. Mc- 
Kee, one of the 




*£j0?s?*$ ipl 


preachers on the New London circuit, 
commenced preaching in private houses 
and continued to do so until 1818. They 
built a house of worship in 1830 on 
Miller's Hill, which is now demolished. 
Again they built a house which was dedi- 
cated April 10, 1851. This was down in 
the village. At the present time this 
church is in a prosperous condition, having 

a fine house of worship and a large atten- 

The Catholic church, St. Patrick's, in 
this town has had two places of worship. 
The first edifice was built about 1870, on 
the Hebron and Middle Haddam turn- 
pike, nearly midway between East Hamp- 
ton and Middle Haddam, to accomodate 
its communicants who reside in the two 




villages. The parish priest and curate of 
St. Mary's Church, Portland, attend to 
the various duties required in this church, 
which is a mission in connection with St. 
Mary's Church. A fine new church edifice 
was completed and dedicated in 1898. It 
was built on one of the finest spots in the 
village. The fine proportions of its out- 
side, and inside, attest at once the good 
judgment of Rev. T. R. Sweeney as a 

having become quite numerous in this 
place have for some time held services in 
private houses. The service is conducted 
by Rev. L. P. Ahlquist of Portland, one 
of the foremost of the Swedish Lutheran 
ministers in the United States. The Lu- 
theran communicants of East Hampton 
have recently purchased the edifice which 
was once used by the Union Congrega- 
tional Church, at the corner of Main and 
High Streets, 
renovated it, and 
dedicated it as 
the place of their 
worship, Sunday, 
May 14,1899, with 
impressive servi- 
ces. These recent 
comers from the 
northern part of 
Europe are like 
the last preceding 
mentioned, giving 


builder, in addition to his faithfulness as 
a celebrant, in the services at its altar, and 
the various duties which he is called to 
perform, in his ministrations to this people. 
We learn that in the near future this church 
will have a priest regularly stationed, and 
its relation discontinued as a mission of 
the Portland Church. Candor compels 
me to say that this people are setting the 
brethren of the other churches of the 
place a good example in the neatness 
with which the church, both outside and 
inside, is kept ; and the proverbial rever- 
ence for the altar of God's house ever 
shown by the devotees of this faith are 
worthy of emulation by everybody. 

The Lutherans of Swedish descent 

the native-born citizens good examples in 
the neat appearance of their church and 
its surroundings. 

The last church which we mention as 
having an existence in East Hampton was 
one familiarly known to the people as the 
" Comeouters." It was made up of some 
very good brethren and sisters who with- 
drew from the Methodist body in 1848. 
They conducted their worship quite after 
the manner of the " Disciples' Church, "or 
United Brethren. Its membership wa^ 



small and by the removals by death, it 
soon became extinct. They depended on 
each other usually for carrying on the 
Sunday or other service, only occasionally 
having some itinerant brother to minister 
to them. The last one of these was 
Brother Peter Felty, a German who hailed 
from New Jersey, a very ardent temper- 
ance advocate. An old resident of the 
place informs me that in his last appear- 
ance in the role of exhorter that he com- 
menced his address as follows : "Brethren 
and sisters I am a 
Deemocrat, but if 
I was going to 
" wote " I think 
I should "wote " 
the Whig ticket." 

1 le evidently did . 

not want any poli- ^^^^^gp-* 
tics in his temper- j..a. am MM'**m ' #J * s >*L> 
ance or religion, j- b | = = ^3| 

East Hampton, which, with an almost 
" broken back " is doing duty as a smith- 
shop, while a new one, not far from its 
former site, finely situated, quite complete 
in its appointments, serves the present 
generation of scholars. In the old one 
the writer strove with a good measure of 
success nearly forty years ago, to lead out, 
and lead up, to better qualifications for 
the duties of life, many who are now the 
business men of East Hampton, and it is 
with a slight twinge of the nerves that on 

and by this, would expurgate both from 
its baneful effects. 

Of the schools in this town want of space 
prevents me from mentioning at length. 
It is believed that they are in good hands 
and that the rising generation are being 
well trained to become worthy successors 
of the present business force of the town, 
as the latter are of their immediate pred- 
ecessors. Pictures of the school buildings 
accompanying will remind many readers 
of the halcyon days of youth. One espe- 
cially of the old Center School house in 


the occasional greeting of one of these 
old pupils who tells of his grandchildren 
going to school, I find that teacher and 
pupils of yore are growing old. 

The construction of the Hebron and 
Middle Haddam, and the Colchester 
and Chatham turnpikes about 1808-10, 
were of advantage to Chatham in that era 
of its progress. A mail route over the 
latter road was established from Middle- 
town to New London, having way offices 
at Middle Haddam, East Hampton, and 
Westchester P. O., which, by the way, 
was established in 181 7, within the bounds 
of Chatham, at Comstock's Bridge. Hon. 
Franklin G. Comstock, being the first 
postmaster for that office, and on remov- 





ing to the village of East Hampton in 
1818 he was postmaster as well as Judge 
of Probate for many years, and Associate 
Judge of the Superior Court until his re- 
moval to Hartford at a later date. His 
digest of the Probate Laws is as complete 
as any which has been published. 

The postman rode this route once a 
week each way, carrying, so I am informed 
by an old resident, a good sized pair of 
" saddle bags " to hold small packages for 
those who had errands to send by him at 
the towns at either end of his route, or at 
"way stations." This seems quite primi- 
tive, compared with the railroad, freight, 
mail, express, telegraph and telephone 
facilities of to-day. But this answered the 
purpose in that stage of the noiseless prc- 
gress which this country has made during 
the passing century. 

At the May session of the General 
Assembly, 1791, a resolution was passed 
authorizing the towns of Chatham and Col- 
chester to erect a bridge, which these 
towns jointly maintain, over Salmon River, 
which runs for a very short distance 
through the southeastern part of Chatham, 

and is known as Comstock's Bridge, which 
is mentioned in the Resolution as being 
7 rods and 7 links southwest of the divid- 
ing line between the towns. By this it 
appears that the bridge is entirely in 
Chatham town. A Mr. Miller settled in 
the south part of the society of East 
Hampton very early. The hill where he 
lived, over which the turnpike from Col- 
chester was built, has always been called 
Miller's Hill. It is now the place of resi- 
dence of many citizens and was greatly 
beautified in appearance by the fine rows 
of trees which are on either side of its 
main street These trees, rock maple, are 
a living monument to the late Dr. Francis 
D. Edgerton, who was widely known in 
this and surrounding towns as a most 
skillful physician, also to his son, Dr. F. 
D. Edgerton of Middletown, and to all 
others who planted them. No man short 
of the late Dr. Ashbel Woodward of Frank- 
lin was oftener called in counsel, and no 
physician ever practiced in this section 
who was more beloved for his skill, faith- 
fulness and integrity. He died in 1870, 
aged 73. He married Miss Marietta 
Daniels, who is still living at their home. 



■■■l-h ;$■■■■&'■ 

. ■ 







Two other physicians of former times who 
were widely known were Dr. John Rich- 
mond, who lived near the Congregational 
Church. He died while attending a 
patient in the parish of Westchester in 
1 8 2 1 . The other, Dr. Robert Usher, lived 
in the east part of the town within the 
parish of Westchester at an earlier date. 
He was a surgeon in Wadsworth's regi- 
ment at Cambridge, Mass., and after a 
long, useful life died in 1820, aged 77 

It will be noticed by the changes which 
time, and death, and other mutations 
make, that the population of places are 
subject to, that few of the old names of 
families who founded Chatham are now 
represented in the list of inhabitants. 
There are some in almost every town, for 
it is not yet three centuries since this part 
of America was visited and settled upon 
by Europeans. 

First among men are the builders of 
towns, of states, of nations and empires. 
In addition to those already mentioned, 
whose names should perpetually be re- 
membered as founders of Chatham are 
some, who though coming later, have 

added to its material prosperity. In the 
East Hampton Society are the names of 
Sears, Abel, Buell, Veazey, Watrous, Abbe, 
Ackley, Cone, and the later Bevins of the 
immediate past ; William, Isaac, Chauncey, 
Abner and Major Philo Bevin. Augustus 
H. Conklin and Joel W. Smith, I). W. 
Watrous, Elijah Barton, H. G. Clark, who 
have been for years foremost men in pub- 
lic affairs, and always working for the 
welfare of the village, are still living. 
Thomas Sellew and his descendants, John 
Markhamand his descendantsJohnPurple, 
and of the latter times Mr. N. N. Hill, 
and the Starr Brothers and the present 
members of the Bevin Mfg. Co. In the 
latter establishment are men who have 
been in their steady employment as skilled 
workmen for more than forty years. These 
daily toilers who carry on the work are an 
important factor in the prosperity of the 
place, standing in the same relation as the 
rank and file, in the make-up of an army. 
It is a pleasant fact to record that the re- 
lations of owners and workers in this town 
have been exceptionally pleasant, and the 
place is free from the disturbances which 
are common to some New England towns. 



O love, the sea runs out beyond the bar, 
The sea runs out across the lonely sand 

He takes his beauty and his strength afar, 
Unto a greener land — another land. 

O love, the sea runs out ; the darkness hoar 

Comes down with all the stars upon her track : 

Sleep sweet, fear nothing, — to the silver shore 

The dawn will creep, and the bright waves flee bat k 



CONTRARY to the usual notion the 
first slaves in Connecticut were not 
chiefly negroes, but Indians taken in battle 
and afterwards distributed among the set- 
tlers. The first Pequot War, for instance, 
furnished a large number, even a superfluity 
of servants of this character. There is, 
however, reason to believe that the two 
institutions of Indian and Negro slavery 
co-existed for a period : for in the famous 
"Articles of Confederation " of 1643 pro- 
vision was made for the distribution among 
the inhabitants of " persons, as well as 
lands and goods, taken in the spoils of 
war." Whether, on the other hand, the 
deed given by William Holmes of Wind- 
sor, in 1638, to Matthew Allyn of Hartford, 
wherein he speaks of all "the lands,houses, 
servants, goods, etc.," meant Negro or 
Indian slaves, or servants pure and simple, 
we cannot say : but it is certain that Afri- 
cans were introduced into the Colonies as 
early as 1620, and the fact that slavery 
existed in New Haven Colony in 1644 
shows that the custom was rooted in the 
very earliest history of the state. It must 
be said in extenuation that the early sett- 
lers were but following the practice obtain- 
ing in England, their mother country, 
from the time of Elizabeth, with the dif- 
ference that the slaves in England were 
not black, but white; again, that if we 
were among the first to introduce African 
slavery, we were among the first to abolish 
that institution. 

Benjamin Trumbull, the eminent histo- 
rian, maintained that the first black slave 
owned in Connecticut was Louis Berbice, 

killed at the Dutch Fort in Hartford by 
Gysbert Opdyke in 1639. It is certain 
that ownership of negroes was common 
among the leading statemen of our early 
history. Theophilus Eaton, the first gov- 
ernor of New Haven Colony ; JohnTalcott 
of Hartford ; Edward Hopkins, second 
governor of Connecticut Colony, and 
founder of the famous Hopkins Grammar 
Schools, were all owners of slaves. John 
Pantry of Hartford owned them, and the 
inventories of the estates of Col. George 
Fenwick in 1660, and of John Latimer in 
1662, show those eminent gentlemen to be 
in a like category. Not only so, but many 
even of the leading clergymen were slave 
owners, and many deacons, the highest 
both in church and in state. The saintly 
John Davenport, pastor at New Haven, 
the accomplished and versatile Joseph 
Elliott of Guilford, the Rev. Timothy 
Woodbridge of Hartford, Rev. JaredElliott 
of Killingworth, Rev. Nathaniel Chauncey 
of Durham, and the Rev. William Worth- 
ington of Saybrook all owned slaves and 
disposed of them in their wills as of any 
other property. 

What the status of slave ownership was, 
and how strongly the custom was upheld 
by the officers of state, a case which came 
up for trial before the County Court in 
Hartford, in 1 703, well illustrates. A slave, 
Abda by name, the property of Capt. 
Thomas Richards of Hartford, escaped 
and was sheltered by Capt. Joseph Wads- 
worth of the same town. This gentleman 
opposed a constable's executing a writ of 
arrest on Abda, and Abda brought a 




counter suit against Capt. Richards, claim- 
ing damages, twenty pounds sterling ; the 
verdict of the court rested with Abda, for 
it awarded him damages of twelve pounds 
and virtually established his freedom. 
That the fact that the slave was a mulatto, 
the son of an Englishman, had probably 
weighed with the court, no doubt in- 
fluenced the General Court to whom the 
case was appealed in October, 1704. 
Here the former decision was reversed 
and the fugitive was ordered to be re- 
turned to his master. The opinion of the 
governor, Gurdon Saltonstall, himself a 
minister of the gospel, is very interesting, 
as showing the executive's belief in the 
practice. He said, " According to the 
laws and constant practice of this Colony, 
and all other plantations, (as well as the 
civil law) such persons as are born of 
negro bondwomen are themselves in like 
condition, that is born in servitude. Yet 
it saith expressly, that no man shall put 
away or make free his negro or mulatto 
slave, etc., which undeniably shows and 
declares an approbation of such servitude, 
and that mulattos may be held as slaves 
within this government." Yet it does not 
appear that individuals owned so large 
numbers of slaves in early times as in later 
years, for the largest owner in the colony 
was Godfrey Malbone, a wealthy gentle- 
man, a graduate of Oxford, and a resident 
of Brooklyn. Dr. Fowler asserts that he 
had between fifty and sixty slaves on his 
extensive estate, which was modeled on 
the English fashion, and that descendants 
of them were living as late as 1874. 

We have seen that clergymen owned 
slaves and that Rev. Gurdon Saltonstall, 
as Governor, could find such ownership, 
even in the case of mulattos, legal and 
commendable. George Whitfield, an able 
English divine, and close friend of the 
elder Jonathan Edwards, went so far as to 
recommend the use of slaves ; and it 

stands on record that the learned Ezra 
Stiles, president of Yale college, (1 once 
sent a barrel of rum by a slave ship to the 
coast of Africa to be exchanged for a 
negro, and one was procured and brought 
home to him to Newport." This ne- 
farious business of importing slaves, (which 
the learned and pious Stiles thus con- 
sciously or unconsciously abetted) was 
very lucrative, for a slave in the early part 
of the last century brought from sixty 
shillings to twenty-five pounds, and later 
from seventy-five to one hundred and 
twenty-five pounds, sterling ; but the 
trade was usually clandestine. 

In the opinion of one authority, slave 
traders were usually ashamed of their vo- 
cation and in some instances denied 
being engaged in it, but not a few mari- 
ners amassed large fortunes in the traffic. 
The slaves most prized were those import- 
ed from Guinea; for they were, accor- 
ding to the best reports, the most intelli- 
gent and altogether the most desirable. 
These, more than others, formed their 
habits according to the standard of 
morality of the masters ; attended church 
regularly, and led altogether exemplary 
lives. How far the master's influence 
extended is shown by the fact that the 
slaves of the clergy of Connecticut were 
distinguished for their Puritan piety and 
their high appreciation of civil and re- 
ligious liberty." 

This condition of things possibly arose 
from the imitativenessof the blacks as well 
as from the patriarchial nature of the in- 
stitution. So much was the slave a part of 
the family that in every meeting house 
there was an "African corner" where the 
slave must sit while attending divine ser- 
vice. In one town, to be sure, the seats 
were hidden from the rest of the congre- 
gation by a tall board partition. It was 
even the custom in Puritan families to 
catechise the slaves Sunday noon regarding 



the sermon preached in the morning, a 
simple method by which many an ignorant, 
black learned the fundamental truths of 
Christianity. Such authority as this would 
indicate, and the freedom accorded by the 
statues to the masters gave them, golden 
opportunities to be rigid if they so desired. 
That these privileges were not abused is 
attested by the extraordinary affection 
which often existed between owner and 

If the slaves were imitative in these 
more serious lines much more were they 
in their amusements. We read, for in- 
stance, in early colonial history of balls 
given by the blacks of a town, events of 
much pomp and splendor ; military train- 
ing days of a rather uncertain character 
and on a greatly reduced scale were regu- 
larly held ; the slaves even went so far as 
to hold an annual election for governor. 

This event, Dr. Steiner says, was 
"unique to Connecticut." At any rate it 
has been given considerable prominence 
in local histories, and although the whole 
proceeding was hardly more than a huge 
farce, it was of some importance at the 
time. It seems that there were negro 
governors in several towns and that each 
was really at the head of the slaves in that 
immediate vicinity. Dr. Fowler makes 
mention of a negro governor in the little 
town of Durham and Miss Caulkins gives 
a graphic description of an election in 
Norwich. There was evidently a governor 
in the capitol of the state, one in Derby 
and one in Norwich, but although it is 
highly possible that they existed else- 
where I have found no mention of 
them. Whether there was one governor 
who exercised authority over all other 
"governors" throughout the state or not, 
it is impossible to say. Some writers 
seem to think that this was the case, but 
after a thorough investigation of the sub- 
ject I am unable to find it to be a certainty. 

But the annual election of these gover- 
nors usually took place the Saturday after 
Election Day ; according to Steiner it 
took place as late as 1820, but other 
writers give a later date. The candidate 
was elected largely by proxy; he was 
usually one of much note — of imposing 
presence, strength, firmness and volubility ; 
who was quick to decide, ready to com- 
mand and able to flog. This last W3S 
probably a very important qualification. 
He was the adjustor of serious disputes 
among the negroes, imposed fines and 
penalties for "gross and immoral con- 
duct " and acted as a sort of supreme 
arbiter among his people. He displayed 
every evidence of regal authority \ some 
of them even claimed descent from the 
kings of Africa. Miss Caulkins tells us 
that in the cemetery at Norwich was a 
gravestone with the following inscription 
thereon : " In memory of Boston Trouwt 
Row, Governor of the African tribe in this 
town, who died 1772, aged 66." She 
adds, "After the death of this person, 
Sam Huntington (slave to the governor 
of that name ) was annually elected to this 
dignity for a much greater number of 
years than his honorable namesake and 
master was to the gubernatorial chair of 
this state." 

After the negro governor was declared 
elected and inducted into office, if such 
it might be called, the whole black popu- 
lation formed an " election parade," in 
which the borrowed horses, saddles and 
trappings of their masters figured promi- 
nently. The Black King, as he was 
graciously dubbed, was escorted through 
the streets of the town while the din of 
fiddles, fifes, drums and brass horns filled 
the air with an unearthly noise which the 
blacks themselves modestly described as 
a "martial sound." "It was amusing to 
see the sham dignity, after his election, 
riding through the town on one of his 



master's horses, adorned with plated gear. 
An aide rode on either side and the gov- 
ernor, puffing and swelling with pride, sat 
bolt upright, moving with a slow majestic 
pace, as if the universe was looking on. 
When he mounted or dismounted an aide 
flew to his assistance, holding his bridle, 
putting his feet into the stirrups and bow- 
ing to the ground before him. The great 
Mogul in a triumphal procession never 
assumed an air of more perfect self im- 
portance than did the negro governor at 
such a time." After the parade the slaves 
repaired to a room where a great feast 
was spread, of which they all partook, and 
it was not unusual for the day's perfor- 
mance to end in a drunken riot. 

On the whole, the ordinary slave with- 
out an overseer was a lazy, improvident 
individual. He was often an excellent 
cook ; often he played the less important 
role of amusement maker to his master. 
One owned by the Rev. Jonathan Todd, 
minister in East Guilford, (now Madison) 
was so expert a fiddler that on many 
occasions the parson invited the young 
people of the village to his house " to hear 
Tom play on his fiddle." But in general 
the slave was his master's ward, and it is 
not difficult to realize that slaves in Con- 
necticut, held during the eighteenth 
century, were far better off than after 
emancipation. Professor Fowler tells us 
that they were kindly treated in most cases, 
that every slave holder was bound by 
custom to furnish negroes with clothing, 
food, and to care for them when by reason 
of old age they were unable to care for 
themselves. The early records of New 
Haven Colony, for instance, makes men- 
tion of John Cram and Lucre tia his wife, 
slaves to Governor Theophilus Eaton. 
They became old and refractory so that 
their master set apart for their use two 
acres of ground on which he caused to be 
erected a comfortable house. There the 

old pair lived and died happy and con- 

The negro nature being what it was, it 
was impossible that the slave's privileges 
should be far reaching. Sometimes a 
slave might, upon the death of his master, 
choose with which son he wished to live, 
but of public privileges, at least in the 
early part of the eighteenth century, he 
had none. 

In 1 71 7 the freemen of New London, 
in a town meeting largely attended, voted 
to " utterly oppose and protest against 
Robert Jacklin, a negro, buying any land 
in the town, or being an inhabitant." They 
sent a strongly worded petition to the 
General Assembly urging that body to pass 
a law that, " no person of that colot 
(black) may ever have any possessions 
within the government." Their applica- 
tion met with speedy approval, for the 
month following the Assembly passed a 
bill, " prohibiting negroes purchasing land 
without liberty from the town," and, adds 
Trumbull, " from living in families of their 
own without such liberty." Later in the 
century the status of the slave had slightly 
changed ; there was an agitation for 
emancipation, and the slave himself had 
earned a further title to respect by his 
service in the Revolutionary war. 

The first official record concerning his 
employment in the Continental Army was 
in 1777 when the General Assembly 
appointed a committee " to take into con- 
sideration the state and condition of the 
negro and mulatto slave in this State, and 
what may be done for their emancipation." 

The Hon. Matthew Griswold was the 
chairman of a committee which reported 
in effect as follows : If slaves could obtain 
by "bounty or hire" a sum to be paid 
their masters, which would equal in value 
the sum they were judged to be worth by 
the selectmen of the town, they should be 
allowed to enlist in the Connecticut Line 



and be henceforth, de-facto, free and 
emancipated. A clause was added which 
made the master extempt, from the future 
support of the slave, even in case of disa- 
bility or old age. The report failed in the 
Upper House, but at the same session an 
act was passed whereby slaves of "good 
life and conversation" when adjudged by 
the selectmen to be suitable persons for 
the army, were put into service and the 
master freed from future support of them. 
Many a slave enlisted, and, writes J. Ham- 
mond Trumbull, " neither the selectmen 
nor the commanding officers questioned 
the color ; white and black, bond and free 
if able bodied, went into the roll together, 
accepted as the representatives or substi- 
tutes of their employers." Many masters, 
actuated either by money or motives of 
humanity, freed their slaves to allow them 
to go into the army. In Meigs' regiment 
one whole company was made up of 
slaves. This company was commanded by 
Capt. David Humphreys, one of the 
authors of the celebrated " Anarchiad " 
and aide to Gen. Washington ; Doctor 
Steiner says that Humphreys took com- 
mand after others had refused and re- 
mained at the head until the declaration 
of peace in 1783. 

Many slaves, both in the regiment and 
elsewhere, displayed superior bravery 
when death was imminent. Wilson in- 
stances the case of a negro, Lambert by 
name, who at Fort Griswold, Sept. 6, 
1 781, slew the British officer who mur- 
dered Col. Ledyard; he then fell/pierced 
by thirty-three bayonet wounds," as true 
a hero as ever lived. 

J. Hammond Trumbull, in describing 
the efficiency of slaves as soldiers writes : 
" So far as my acquaintance extends, 
almost every family has its traditions of 
the good and faithful service of a black 
servant or slave, who was killed in battle 
or served through the war and came home 

to tell stories of hard fighting, and draw 
his pension. In my town I remember five 
such pensioners, three of whom, I believe, 
had been slaves." As late as 1840 Oliver 
Mitchell, a black Revolutionary soldier, 
died of a fit in his boat on the Connecti- 
cut river. He had but just drawn his 
pension at Hartford and was returning 
to his home up stream. 

It has been said that many masters 
freed their slaves to make soldiers of them, 
and it cannot be doubted that the aid thus 
furnished to the masters in the struggle 
for freedom was a factor in the movement 
for freeing the blacks themselves. It must 
not be supposed, however, that this was 
the initial step : nor must we fall into that 
other error of supposing that the sole or 
controlling motive was humanitarian. It 
may possibly be true, as a prominent 
writer has said, that the importation of 
Africans into the state reduced the price 
of labor to such a degree that the service 
of freemen was not required and that this 
consideration influenced the legislature to 
some extent, but it is quite evident from 
the records of the twenty years previous 
to 1784 that the ceaseless, uncompromis- 
ing agitation against slavery, carried on 
by the clergy of the state was the real 
reason for the extinction, within Connecti- 
cut borders at least. 

Before the opening of the Revolutionary 
war. then, the sentiment against slavery 
and practically against the slave trade, had 
considerably grown. For ten years, 1774- 
1784, there were many eloquent sermons 
hurled from pulpits all over the state 
against slave owners and traders. About 
1776, the Rev. Samuel Hopkins, pastor of 
a church in Housatonic (now Great 
Barrington, Mass.) but a native of Water- 
bury, a man of great power, issued a 
" dialogue " wherein he proved beyond 
doubt that it was the plain religious duty 
of every slave owner to liberate his slaves. 



This " dialogue " was interestingly written 
and had its mission. As the sturdy Con- 
necticut farmer, sitting before his fireplace 
after a hard day's work, read this little 
pamphlet, he was probably brought for 
the first time to realize the wickedness of 
African slavery. The younger Jonathan 
Edwards also published an anti-slavery 
pamphlet, " The Injustice and Impolicy 
of the Slave Trade ;" both from the pulpit 
and from pamphleteers, by 1776 petitions 
began to be presented to the General 
Assembly, praying for the emancipation 
of slaves in Connecticut. Public opinion 
at last turned the tide and the agitators 
saw their hopes realized, for in 1784 the 
legislature passed the first emancipation 
law. On this important issue Connecti- 
cut has the honor of being about the first 
to commit herself. 

The law, originally drafted, I think, as 
early as 1780, provided for a gradual 
emancipation, whereby every negro or 
mulatto child born after the first of March, 
1784, should not be held a slave after 
reaching the age of twenty-five years. 
Although this law was not radical, it was 
meant by its authors to be very firm, for 
slave owners who did not file certificates 
of birth of slaves at a specified time, or 
within six months of that date, were re- 
quired to pay a fine of seven dollars for 
every month over due. In 1797 another 
act was passed making all born after Aug. 
1, 1797, free at the age of 21 years. 

Although the use and importation of 
Africans had been believed in and coun- 
tenanced by the best citizens, yet such 
eminent statesmen as Roger Sherman and 
Oliver Ellsworth, our representatives in 
the Constitutional Convention of 1787, 
came out boldly against the traffic, and 
the former declared it to be iniquitous. 
The law worked silently and steadily, and 
when, in 1848 the act was passed which 
abolished slavery in this state forever, 

there were, according to the eminent 
authority, John Hooker, only six slaves 

Whether the liberation of the blacks 
was a benefit to them as individuals or 
not has been a matter for grave dispute. 
Undoubtedly it was sometimes an injury 
to both master and slave, but Professor 
Fowler avers that his experience in gath- 
ering testimonials for forty or fifty years 
regarding this question convinced him 
that emancipation was more advantageous 
and less injurious to the slave. Noah 
Webster, however, writing about the time 
of emancipation, took a dismal view of 
the case. Pie said, " Slaves born and 
bred beneath the frown of power, neglec- 
ted and despised in youth, they abandon 
themselves to ill company and low vicious 
pleasure, till their habits are formed, when 
manumission, instead of destroying 
their habits and repressing their cor- 
rupt inclinations, seems to afford them 
more numerous opportunities for indulg- 
ing both." In direct opposition to this 
doleful opinion of the great lexicographer, 
Prof. Fowler, an unimpeachable authority, 
says that, in talking with men born in 
Connecticut noffar from 1760, he learned 
that slaves in this state "were more moral, 
religious, had larger families of children 
and lived longer than their free brethren." 
This is the opinion of a man who made a 
study of slavery in its every aspect. 

The condition of the blacks under 
slavery is very comprehensively viewed by 
Tapping Reeve, the famous head of the 
more famous Litchfield Law School 
(now the Yale Law School) in his able 
work entitled "Domestic Relations " 

"In i8t6," he says, "it is difficult to find 
in the state of Connecticut a slave." In 
discussing the relations between master 
and slave, he writes : "The master had no 
control over the life of his slave. If he 
killed him, he was liable to the same pun- 



ishment as if he killed a freeman. A slave 
was capable of holding property in the 
character of devisee or legatee. If a slave 
married a free woman with the consent of 
his master, he was emancipated ; for his 
master had suffered him to contract a re- 
lation inconsistent with a state of slavery. 
The master by his consent had agreed to 
abandon his rights to him as a slave." 

Notwithstanding the beneficent working 
of the law, and the desire of the law- 
makers to do away with slavery, the records 
of events show an evident desire on the 
part of the public still to antagonize 
negroes individually whether bond or free. 
In the year 1831 a movement was inaugu- 
rated at New Haven, by the friends of the 
blacks, to establish there a college where 
negroes might receive a proper education. 
But a large mass meeting of prominent 
citizens passed strong resolutions against 
the project; they declared in vigorous 
language they were utterly opposed to 
abolition sentiment. So strong was the 
feeling that the legislature in sympathy 
with the meeting passed, two years later, 
an act which rendered the establishing of 
schools in Connecticut, for the instruction 
of pupils from other states, unlawful. The 
excuse for its passage was given that such 
schools would " tend to the great increase 
of the population of the state, and thereby 
to the injury of the people. 

How an increased population could be 
an injury to the people was not explained, 
probably the wiser course. But it was 
under the provision of this act that a 
famous prosecution was made, which 
attracted widespread attention, not only 
in this but in many other states. Miss 
Prudence Crandall opened a young ladies' 
school in the small town of Canterbury. 
She had taught with marked success in 
other places, and the leading citizens of 
Canterbury prevailed upon her to move 
thither. This she did and opened the 

school in the fall of 1831. Miss Crandall 
prospered until she allowed a colored girl, 
the daughter of a respectable resident of 
the town, to become a pupil. It appears 
that Miss Crandall had access to Garrison's 
anti-slavery paper, u The Liberator," and 
had imbibed from it sentiments decidedly 
favorable to abolition ; she therefore had 
no hesitation in starting the girl on a 
course of study which would enable her 
to " teach colored children." This inno- 
cent act precipitated a little storm, insti- 
gated by the wife of an Episcopal rector, 
residing in the town, and a general boy- 
cott was declared. This fierce opposition 
only nerved the brave little woman in the 
determination to carry out her design ; 
she soon afterwards made the public 
announcement that she proposed opening 
a school for " little misses of color." 

The ire of the townspeople was 
thoroughly aroused. At a public town 
meeting held in the Canterbury meeting 
house, March, 1833, resolutions were 
unanimously adopted denouncing and 
vehemently opposing the opening of the 
school for colored girls within the limits 
of the town ; a committee was appointed 
to confer with Miss Crandall and persuade 
her to abandon the project. At a second 
town meeting a committee was appointed 
to apply to the next legislature for a law 
to meet the case and as a consequence 
the disgraceful law of T833, alluded to 
before, was passed. From this time on 
her school was treated with an extreme of 
lawlessness which would have astonished 
even a party of western cowboys. 

Unruly boys, encouraged by their 
seniors, created an unearthly noise in 
front of her school and threw rotten eggs 
and other offensive missiles. She and her 
pupils were even debarred from purchasing 
goods at the village store. She was 
warned that if she continued teaching 
colored children not residents of Con- 



necticut, the law would be rigidly enforced, 
and, in very truth, on the 27 th of June, 
1833, the amiable, Quaker schoolmistress 
was arrested and committed by a justice 
of the peace for her trial before the 
Windham County court in August. 

Her friends refused to furnish bonds, 
preferring rather to let the law take its 
course ; accordingly Miss Crandall passed 
one night in a cell previously occupied by 
a condemned murderer. Bail was, how- 
ever, furnished by an unknown person 
next morning, but the fact rather turned 
public sentiment in her favor, for the 
Honorable Arthur Tappan of New York, 
the famous anti-slavery agitator, notified 
Miss CrandalPs friends to spare no cost 
in obtaining the ablest lawyer in her de- 
fence. The case of the state versus Cran- 
dall came to trial before Judge Eaton at 
Brooklyn on the 23rd of August, 1833. 
The jury stood seven for conviction and 
five for acquittal, and the case was brought 
before Judge Daggett in the October 
session of the Superior Court. The ver- 
dict again went against Miss Crandall. 
Her counsel appealed to the Supreme 
Court of Errors, where the case was heard 
on the 2 2d of July, 1834. Here the pre- 
vious decisions were reversed on the 
ground of "insufficiency of information." 

The school was continued through this 
long bitter controversy, but popular indig- 
nation did not decrease. The prosecution 
having failed in the courts, the thirst for 
vengeance broke out afresh ; the officers 
of the Congregational church refused to 
allow Miss Crandall or her pupils to wor- 
ship within its walls ; her barn was set 
afire, fortunately without bad results ; and 
on the night of Sept. 9th a crowd of men 
and boys attacked the house, breaking all 
the windows and doors and almost totally 
ruining the structure. After this barbarous 
outrage the school was discontinued and 
the miserable affair came to an end, yet 

the little town, in justification of its con- 
duct, placed this resolution upon its 
records : " That the Government of the 
United States, the nation with all its insti- 
tutions, of right belongs to the white men 
who now control them, that our appeal to 
the legislature of our own state in a case 
of such peculiar mischief was not only due 
to ourselves, but to the obligations devolv- 
ing upon us under the Constitution. To 
have been silent would have been partici- 
pating in the wrongs intended. We rejoice 
that the appeal was not in vain." 

Numerous incidents of the irrepressible 
conflict in Connecticut might be cited. 
The famous " Amistad Case," which lack 
of space prevents our discussing, began in 
1839 an d ended only in 1844 in the 
Supreme Court of the United States ; a 
signal legal victory was then won by John 
Quincy Adams and Roger Sherman Bald- 
win for the Amistad captives. At public 
meetings held in Hartford and New 
Haven in 1835, the Abolitionists were 
roundly denounced for sending their " in- 
flammatory literature " into the Southern 

Governor Isaac Toucey himself presided 
over the Hartford meeting. Later in 1850, 
there is record of transaction, significant 
as showing the evolution of public feeling. 
Joseph R. Hawley, agent, purchased for 
John Hooker, Esq., of Hartford, Rev. 
James Pennington, D. D., ("Jim Pem- 
broke") an escaped slave who had pre- 
viously served as pastor of a church in 
that city. He was fearful of capture afrer 
the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law 
and had adopted the means of going to 
Canada and afterwards to Germany to 
obtain his freedom. Mr. Hooker paid 
one hundred and fifty dollars for the 
doctor of divinity, owned him one day 
and then executed a writ of manumission. 

The sentiment against the Abolitionists 
throughout the state was certainly bitter, 



yet through the work of the " Christian 
Freeman," afterwards known as "The 
Charter Oak," with the able Burleigh as 
editor, the cause was continually agitated 
and steadily advanced. In 1840 James 
G. Birney, candidate of the Liberty Party 
for president received only 174 votes; 
four years later he got 1,943. In 1852, 
John P. Hale received 3,160, and but two 
years later the candidate for governor 
obtained 19,465. In 1856 Fremont, for 
president, carried the state with 42,715 
votes, and from then on the gain was 
rapid, placing Connecticut in the Repub- 
lican column for many years. 
To Dr. Steitier's "Slavery in Connecti- 

cut," J. H. U., 1893, and "The Historical 
Status of the Negro in Connecticut," by 
William C. Fowler, L,. Iv. D., I am especially 
indebted. Prof .Fowler's valuable work was 
printed in Dawson's Historical Magazine, 
3d series, Vol. Ill, 1874. 

I have also consulted the following works 
in the preparation of this article: De 
Forest's "Indians of Connecticut;" 
Moore's "Notes on Slavery;" Caulkin's 
" Norwich " and " New London;" William's 
" History of the Negro Race in America; " 
Jameson's " Essays in Constitutional His- 
tory ; " Wilson's "Rise and Fall of the 
Slave Power;" Bacon's "Slavery Dis- 
cussed in occasional Essays ; " the general 
Histories of Connecticut, by Trumbull, 
Hoi lister and Barber, and numerous town 



He climbed his storied mountain-tops, but failed 
To pierce the mystery of heaven's blue ; 

He skimmed the sea, — but never thought to sound 
The hidden worlds that 'neath its surface grew. 

His mind was but a perfect circle, all 

His hopes and fears, desires, joys, and pain 

Were moving iines upon a rounded disc, 

That reached the edge and still returned again. 

For Measure was his god, his all in all, 

And cold perfection chilled his statues through ; 
His verses trembled out their stilted strain, 

Lest, stumbling, they should break a foot or two. 

He lived a slave to that which could be seen, 
And ever round his beaten circuit ran, 

Until, with Plato, came the fuller thought 

That reached beyond, and made the Greek- 



THE character of Governor Hubbard, 
both professional and personal, has 
been sketched by me in an obituary notice 
of him in Volume 50, Conn. Law Reports, 
p. 604. I shall here speak only of certain 
personal qualities that were but little ob- 
served by the public, and which it is 
specially proper that I should notice in 
these reminiscences, as they brought us 
into very friendly personal relations. 

Governor Hubbard came to the bar 
about a year after I did, and we were 
thereafter fellow-members of the Hartford 
bar. I observed his progress in the pro- 
fession with most brotherly interest, and, 
though he soon outstripped me in the 
race, it never occurred to me to regard 
his greater success invidiously. I saw 
less of him for the first ten years, as I was 
then living in Farmington, but I often 
met him in the court room, and on my 
removal to Hartford we became warm and 
faithful friends. Among letters that I 
received from him, especially in the latter 
part of his life, I find several among my 
papers that I am sure will be read by the 
profession with interest, as exhibiting the 
fine qualities of his nature that I have ad- 
verted to. I take them by their dates, 
and with no attempt (except in one case) 
to give my side of the corrrspondence. 
Indeed, my letters to him were probably 
not preserved by him. The letters often 
show the occasion that called them out, 
and where they do not I thought it not 

best to occupy space with stating the but 
half-remembered occasion. 

Hartford, April 20, 1874. 
My Dear Hooker : 

I write to tell you how glad I am you 
are going to Europe — almost as glad as if 
I were going myself. No good fortune 
can come to you that I will not rejoice in. 
God go with you, my friend — bring repose 
to weary nerves and cudgelled brain — 
bring you back in health and safety, and 
preserve in your memory a kindly recol- 
lection of him who now bids you a loving 
adieu. May the ocean, perfidious to 
others of late, be kindly to you. 

Believe me, with the most friendly re- 
gards, very truly yours, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

Hartford, Sept. 19, 1874. 

God bless you, John Hooker, and wel- 
come home. Your friendly words are 
beyond price. I used to rub against and 
know something of you when you were in 
practice.* But you seem to me, since 
then, to have held yourself aloof from 
your professional associates, which I have 
often and much regretted. Nevertheless, 
I have never allowed my regard for you — 
which is greater than you know — to 
diminish one hair's breadth. 

I cannot see and feel and lay hold of 
the life beyond as you do. I know not 
if it be those glorious things for the elect 
which glorious old John Bunyan saw in 
visions, and those dreadful things for the 
non-elect which John Calvin eviscerated 
from his infernal brain ; or, on the other 
hand, that " infinite azure " of Prof. Tyn- 
dall's, if anybody knows what that means. 
But what I do know is, that in what re- 

* Refeniug to my acceptance of the office of Reporter of the Supreme Court in 1858, 
and my final withdrawal from ordinary practice in court. 




mains of the little span of the life that now 
is, whilst I agree with you in few things, 
or, at least, in few theological dogmas, I 
love you in all things as a man whose 
heart and life are infinitely better than his 

Accept, my dear fellow, a thousand 
assurances of friendly regard from the 
poor groundling whose eyes see not the 
things which you see, and whose ears hear 
not the things which you hear, but whose 
eyes are not blind and whose ears are not 
deaf to the least proof of affection from 
his friends, and least of all from you, John 

Ever and truly yours, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

January i, 1875. 

God bless us both, my dear John. The 
year of grace, '75, has overtaken us . Ehen 
Jugaces, etc. It seems like yesterday or 
the day before that you and I took a ride 
together from Farmington in. 'Twas some 
petty business that we had there. For the 
life of me I can remember nothing of it. 
Only I know that, whereas before you had 
seemed to me all polar, you then opened 
up all tropical. You have forgotten it. 
Well, no matter. 

'Twere something if I were ambitious, 
as the great cardinal was, to have such an 
" Honest Griffith " as you for a " chroni- 
cler." But no more of that " an thou 
lovest me." The earth is all glorious to 
me still, and the heavens infinitely deep 
and blue. I would not willingly come to 
"a little earth for charity " as yet. Nor 
would I have you. But if I should out- 
tarry you, trust me for a kindly word, my 
good fellow, if heart and brain survive. 

Sam. Bowles is a trump, and publishes 
the best paper in the United States. God 
save all such, and let Ben. Butler go to 
his own without delay or hinderance, and 
with him all such as he. 
Your friend, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

Hartford, Nov. 29, 1876. 
My Dear John Hooker : 

Health and benedictions ! Yours with 
enclosure this moment received. Enclo- 
sure reserved, as per your advice, to 
accompany my cigar this evening. 

Meanwhile, the blessings of the heavens 
above and the deep that coucheth beneath, 
and all other blessings in store for the 
elect (among whom I doubt not you are 
numbered), rest upon your honest head 
and thinking brain. 

Your friend, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

Sunday Evening, Dec. 3, 1876. 

My Dear Hooker : 

[The letter is mainly taken up with a 
discussion of some points suggested by the 
" enclosure " referred to in the last letter. 
It then proceeds as follows :] 

Meanwhile, the years fly like weavers' 
shuttles ; the almond tree blossoms and 
the sun westers, and eras ingens iterabimus 
cequor. See all that remains of my scanty 
Horace, brought to mind by the little that 
remains of my poor self. But what little 
remains, my dear fellow, and while that 
little remains, believe me, with the sincere- 
est assurances of regard for one whose 
heart and mind I believe to be as honest 
as the day, and whose faith, unlike mine, 
lays hold on the high heavens- 
Most truly your friend, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

Mr. Hubbard became Governor of the 
state at the beginning of 1877. The 
following note is in reply to one I sent 
him, congratulating him on his accession 
to the office. 

Hartford, Sunday, Jan. 7, 1877. 
My Dear John Hooker : 

Any kind word from you provokes me 
to a kind acknowledgment, and so I thank 
you, my good friend, for your too appre- 
ciative note. 

I was never intended for public life, 
and I begin to think, for little else of any 
account. But hold me always for your 
friend and admirer, and believe me, my 
dear fellow, 

Most sincerely yours, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

I find that I preserved a copy of a 
letter which I wrote Governor Hubbard 
in April, 1878, and insert it here as neces- 
sary to the understanding of his reply : 



April 7, 1878, Sunday P. M. 
My Dear Governor Hubbard: 

I like your Fast Day proclamation. It 
is first-rate. Do you. successor (and more 
and more worthy one) of the sturdy 
Puritan governors of Connecticut, turn 
your thoughts inward and study yourself, 
so as to observe that your governorship 
(which may the Lord continue for many 
years) is doing a certain fine moral work 
upon you? I have seen and rejoiced over 
it for many months. You are feeling the 
responsibility that the office carries with 
it, and are meeting it nobly. Even to my 
most friendly observation you have seemed 
in time past not wholly unwilling to shirk 
a good many responsibilities that rested 
on you as a member of society, and es- 
pecially as a foremost man 

You would have knocked down a knave 
if he had jostled you ; but you did not 
seem to feel as if you had any special call 
to go around with a lantern and hunt up 
dishonest men in their hiding-places, and 
especially to pull off your coat and tug at 
the world to turn it over right side up. 
Well, now has come to you a special 
opportunity, and you seem both to see it 
and to feel its responsibility. I thank God 
for it all, and am glad that my humble 
vote helped to make the majority that 
elected you. 

Made, puer, nova virtute. 

May the Lord bless you, dear Gov- 
ernor, and bless you long as Governor, 
and thus bless the world, and with the 
rest your friend, 

J. Hooker. 

Sunday, April 14, 1878. 

I do introvert, my good friend, and 
much more than you think, and I find 
myself without any real length, breadth, 
or depth ; but when you praise me I grow 
for a moment in my own estimation. There 
does not live on the earth a creature I 
would have asked to vote for me, even by 
the remotest hint or indirection, but I 
wish you could know how much pleasure 
it gave me when I learned I had your 

I am a shirk. I know it. No one else 
knows it so well. I can't tell you with 
what a reluctance, what a drowning bark, 
I came to my office. Being obliged to 

enter on its duties I have discharged them 
with independence and honesty. So much 
I dare say — beyond that I dare not. 1 
have been ambitious not to shame tht- 
friends who have supported me. I have 
no other ambition. I was not made for a 
great man, or for public position. I lack 
all the elements necessary for public life. 
In other words, I am a shirk. That's just 
the plain truth, and I cannot make myself 
other than I am. 

Now, my good friend, ten thousand 
thanks for your too kind words. Coming 
from you, I prize them as if they were 
of gold. I know you see beyond the 
curtain what I cannot. You touch the 
heavens while I grope under them. Serns 
rede as, etc. 

With a world of friendly regards and 
grateful acknowledgments, 
Truly your friend, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

Governor Hubbard, in his first message 
to the General Assembly, stated in very 
strong terms the injustice done to married 
women in respect to their property by the 
law as it stood, being the ancient English 
law with a few recent modifications ; and 
soon after he sent for me and requested 
me to draft a bill for a public act securing 
equal rights to women with regard to their 
property with the rights of men with 
regard to theirs. This required a funda- 
mental change in the law of husband and 
wife, and an abandonment of the old idea 
of the superior rights of the husband. I 
drew the bill with much care, and on its 
being submitted to Governor Hubbard, he 
accepted it without change, except that a 
section in which I had provided for direct 
conveyances and transfers of property 
between husband and wife, he thought, in 
spite of safeguards which I had thrown 
about it, presented an opportunity for 
defrauding creditors, and this section was 
stricken out. This was the act of 1877 
with regard to the property rights of 
married women, an act which very soon 
received, and has ever since held, the full 



acquiescence of the legal profession and 
the public, and still holds its place on the 
statute book without material change. 

After the bill was passed my wife sent 
a copy of it to my triend Samuel Bowles, 
editor of the Springfield Republican. In 
his reply, dated March 28, 1877, ne 
speaks very strongly in approbation of the 
act, calling it a great step forward, and 
says : 

"We owe its success, first, to the right of 
the matter • second, to the agitation of 
the whole question, which has dissemina- 
ted the perception of that right; third, to 
you and your husband in particular ; 
and, fourth, to the fact that you had in 
Connecticut this year a governor who was 
recognized as the leading lawyer of the 
state, a genuine natural conservative, who 
yet said the measure was right and ought 
to go. It is this last element that has 
given Connecticut its chief leadership. It 
is a bigger thing than it seems at first, to 
have an eminent conservative lawyer on 
the side of such legislative reform. With 
such things going forward in national 
politics and such a sign in the heavens as 
this in Connecticut, we ought to be very 
happy, and I believe I am — spite of debts, 
hard work and fatigue, and more or less 
chronic invalidism. At any rate, I salute 
you both with honor and with affection, 
and am very faithfully yours, 

Sam'l. Bowles." 

Mrs. Hooker sent a copy of this letter 
to Governor Hubbard, from whom she 
received the following reply : 

Easter, April 1, 1877. 
My Good Friend : 

'Twas a " Good Friday " indeed that 
brought your friendly message. And what 
a gracious and dainty epistle Sam. Bowles 
does know how to write ! He is a good 
fellow, upon my word ; full of generous 
instincts and ideas. He ought to be at 
the head of the London Times, and master 
of all the wealth it brings. Add to this 
that the Good Physician should heal him 
of his " chronic invalidism," and then — 
well, what's the use of dreaming? 

Thank yourself and such as you for 
what there is of progress in respect of 
women's rights amongst us. I do believe 
the bill is a •' great step forward." " Alas," 
says our friend Mr. Robinson, " it has 
destroyed the divine conception of the 
unity of husband and wife." As divine, 
upon my soul, as the unity of the lamb 
and the devouring wolf. Half the abase- 
ment of woman has been and is due to 
theology. Out upon it ! half of it, I mean ; 
and live the better for the other half. 
Pardon me, my good friend, that I am 
skeptical. I believe in half as well as I 
know how. God help my unbelief, for I 

But enough of this. I salute you, my 
good friend, with a thousand salutations 
of respect and admiration. I do not agree 
with you in all things ; still less with St. 
Paul's Epistle to the Corinthians ; but I 
cannot tell you how much I glorify you 
for your courage and devotion to woman- 
hood. I am a pretty poor stick for any- 
thing like good work in the world ; but I 
am not without respect for it in others. 
And so I present myself to yourself and to 
your good and noble husband, whom I 
take to be one of the best, with my assur- 
ances of affection and esteem. 

Do you think your husband would ever 
have written that Epistle to the Corinthi- 
ans ? I trow not. 

Thanking you for your kind letter, I 
remain, my dear madam, 

Yours very truly, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

Governor Hubbard, in one of his letters 
speaks about his dissent from my theologi- 
cal dogmas. It is only justice to myself 
to state that our occasional conversations 
on religious subjects were almost invari- 
ably practical and personal. I never held 
with any tenacity, certainly in my maturer 
life, to the Calvinistic dogmas, and 
certainly never pressed them upon him. 
Perhaps I cannot better present to the 
readers of this memorial of my friend the 
kind of talks we had together on religious 
subjects than by giving an account of a 
conversation one evening at his house, 
about 1875. He had invited me to din- 



ner. Mrs. Hubbard was absent, and after 
dinner Governor Hubbard sat down with 
me by the parlor fire, and we spent the 
whole evening in talk. Our conversation 
ran over a wide field, but when we got 
upon the subject of religion we spent a 
large part of an hour upon it. He told 
me of the impossibility of his seeing 
" beyond the veil," as I seemed to do, 
while at the same time fearing those dread- 
ful realities that the orthodox theology 
had so long held and taught. I told him 
that we could never have our eyes opened 
to divine truth except by doing our full 
duty to God and man. The Scriptures 
told us that it was by doing the will of 
God that we came to know the truth of 
God. Now (said I) it is very plain to me 
how you ought to begin if you would get 
this knowledge. You are an Episcopalian. 
How simple a thing for you every morn- 
ing to get your family together and read 
with them your form of morning prayer. 
It is a very different thing from what it 
would be to begin with making an extem- 
poraneous prayer. Just think of it ; your 
children never heard you pray. I would 
not have that true of myself and my 
children for all the wealth that could be 
showered upon me. You don't know what 
a saving influence it might have upon 
your children. He replied that he did 
not feel as if he could do it. We talked 
it over at a good deal of length, he receiv- 
ing most kindly and in an interested way 
what I had to say ; but I came away with 
the feeling that he would never make the 
experiment, and I think he never did. A 
friend told me not long after that Gover- 
nor Hubbard had told him of our conver- 

A few years before his death there came 
into Governor Hubbard's life a deep 
sorrow — too deep to admit of any direct 
allusion to it on the part of the friends 

who would gladly have comforted him. I 
wrote him the following note : 

March 30th. 
Dear Hubbard : 

Remember that my wife and I love you 

Affectionately, J. H. 

There came this answer. 

April 1 st. 
My Dear Friend : 

I wish I could thank you and your wife 
as you deserve. But words are beggarly, 
and I am perplexed beyond measure. 
God bless you, my dear Hooker. 
I shall remember your goodness with 
love and gratitude to the end. 
Ever and faithfully yours, 

R. D. Hubbard. 

Governor Hubbard died, after a short 
but severe illness, on the 28th day of 
February, 1884. The General Assembly 
was then in session, and on the announce- 
ment of his death eloquent addresses in 
eulogy of him were made in each house. 
At a meeting of the Hartford bar, called 
on the occasion and held on the 29th of 
February, and quite fully attended, after 
several addresses had been made by other 
members of the bar, I arose and made 
some extemporaneous remarks, saying 
that after so much had been said, and well 
said, about Governor Hubbard's transcen- 
dent abilities, it was hardly worth while 
for me to occupy their time with remarks 
upon that subject, but that I would speak 
of the affectionate side of his nature, of 
which the public knew but little, and of 
him as my personal friend, telling them 
of the overflowing cordiality of his occa- 
sional letters, and of his rarely writing me 
on professional business without adding, 
by way of postscript, an affcetionate word. 
I then passed to another subject, upon 
which I spent most of the time that I 
occupied, and in which I was listened to 




with very close attention. After the meet- 
ing was closed one and another of the 
older members of the bar came to thank 
me for what I had said, and one leading 
citizen, not of our profession (there were 
many citizens present outside of the bar) , 
asked me to give him my speech, taking 
it for granted that I had it written. I 
told him that it was wholly extempora- 
neous and that I had not a line of it in 
writing. He then asked me if I could not 
write it out. I told him that I thought I 
could without difficulty while it was fresh 
in my mind. He then begged me to do 
so, and to put in every word that I said 
with regard to Governor Hubbard's atti- 
tude toward religion and the future life. 
When I got home I at once wrote out my 
remarks, and found no difficulty in follow- 
ing both my line of thought and the 
language I had used. My remarks (not 
including the introductory part of my 
address) were as follows : 

"I now come to a subject which I 
approach with much hesitation, and which 
I think I should not have ventured to 
touch but for the way having been opened 
for me by an allusion made by our Brother 
Sill a few minutes ago, in the closing part 
of his address. He spoke of the " halting 
faith " of our friend. I have long and 
sadly known of Mr. Hubbard's want of 
religious faith, and have endeavored to 
lift him up into a clearer perception of 
spiritual truths. The spiritual part of 
his nature he had never cultivated. He 
had a reverential spirit, but it was towards 
objects worthy of his admiration and 
reverence that presented themselves to 
his sight or vividly to his imagination. 
Always an anxious questioner of the in- 
finite, he seemed to get no response that 
he could interpret. He was pre-eminently 
a truth-loving man ; he hated shams and 
pretenses; and if he could speak to us 
to-day he would say, " Tell the truth about 

me if you say anything." I am sure he 
would wish me to say just what I am say- 

" To him the future life was all uncer- 
tainty. With all his imagination he could 
not see beyond the veil and fill the seem- 
ing void with realities. And so he came 
to dread that life. He loved this life — 
this green and beautiful earth — its intellec- 
tual enjoyments, its social delights, not a 
little its mere animal life, and did not 
want to leave it for another world of which 
he knew and could conceive nothing. He 
has often told me this. A few summers 
ago he spent some time at Newport, taking 
with him his family and his equipage. 
On his return he said to me : ' Hooker, I 
have had one of the pleasantest summers 
of my life, but over it all there hung a 
shadow. The question kept coming into 
my mind, How long will this last? and 
what then ? ' In commenting a few months 
ago upon a poem pf mine which appeared 
in the papers, in which I had expressed 
a longing for the other life, he said : ' How 
can anybody, with this green earth around 
him, be wanting to go over into the un- 
known world ? ' To me that world does 
not seem like an unknown one. I live in 
it, it seems to me, more than I do in this. 
It is as real to me as this. 

" Now with that world so near and so 
real to me, my mind has been filled, ever 
since I heard of Mr. Hubbard's death, 
with the thought of his experiences over 
there. I could not dwell on his eloquence, 
or his legal ability, or any of the things 
which his eulogists are so eloquently say- 
ing of him. I have been able to think 
only of where he is in that spirit world 
that was so uninviting to him. What has 
he found there ? What is his condition 
there ? I have wished, with inexpressible 
desire, to be there with him. It seems to 
me that I could hold his hand and steady 
and guide and comfort him there ; that 



he would not seem so much to be in a 
strange place if I were there with him. 

" Well, I should not have thought of 
saying all this if 1 had not been prepared 
to follow it up with words of comfort and 
hope. I was brought up on a stern old 
theology that, in considerable part, I 
utterly repudiate. I believe profoundly, 
it seems to me that I know as if God him- 
self had revealed it to me, that our proba- 
tion does not end with this life. As a 
progressive religious thinker has well said : 
1 We are placed in this world to be trained, 
not to be tested.' All bitter experiences 
in the other world I believe to be refor- 
matory. They may be of long continu- 
ance, but I believe there will be sweet 
fruit in the end. It is a dreadful mistake 
to lay up a burden of sin in this world ; 
its weight will be terrible upon the soul 
over there. But our friend had a great 
soul — reverential, truthful, just, generous, 
affectionate — and such a soul will soon 
find something in that spiritual world, to 
which it will be drawn and which it will 
draw to itself. His progress may be slow, 
but it will be constantly an ascent. He 
had the most important elements of a 
great character, and character there be- 
comes everything. I do not believe in 
any doctrine of imputed righteousness. 
The soul must work its slow way up into 
a high spiritual character of its own. And 
that such a soul as his will do this I feel 
sure. So I think of our friend with sad- 
ness, but with a calm trust and an expec- 
tation only of good, and if I shall tarry 
much longer upon the earth I shall expect 

to be welcomed over there by a bright 
spirit, which, if I do not recognize it in 
its new form, will say to me : " Why, I am 
your old friend, Dick Hubbard." 

Governor Hubbard was buried on Mon- 
day, the 2d day of March. On the Sun- 
day preceding I wrote and sent to the 
Courant of Monday morning, where they 
appeared, the following verses, with which 
I close these reminiscences of my friend : 

To R. D. H.— March i, 1884. 
Silent thou liest in death's solemn calm, 

Shaming the tumult in our breasts ; 
For 'tis the shadow of the lofty palm, 
Not cypress, on thee rests. 

From earthly pain set free and earth's 
Thou liest with thy dear hands folden ; 
Thy speech in life was silver, but thy silence 
To-day is more than golden. 

The halls which have so oft thy triumphs 
Mourn their great victor passed away ; 
Yet in triumphant life thou ne'er hast been 
Such victor as to-day. 

Oh, questioner ! who found in earth's dim 
No answer to thy mind's deep quest; 
Art thou not lighted now by the clear rays 
That shine upon the blest? 

Hast thou not found th' immortal stream 
that flows 
To heal the earth-stained souls of men ? 
And Him, who for us went to death, and 
And loves all souls as then ? 




Sept. 8 Infant Child of Joseph Phillips. 

10 Robert Chapman, aged 46. 

11 The wife of Jared Skinner, aged 

li William Smith [Baptized Oct. 
29, 1730; son of John and Anna 
(Allwood) Smith], aged 63. 

13 The wife of Elias Morgan, de- 

posited in tomb [Lavinia, 

daughter of David Bull], aged 

16 James Bunce, aged 46. 
16 The wife of Jonathan Taylor 

[Sarah], aged 60. 
Oct. 8 William Burr [son of William 

and Mitta (Steele) Burr], 

aged 19. 

14 William Nichols [Baptized Oct. 

11, 1741; son of Capt. William 
and Mary (Farnsworth) Nich- 
ols], aged 51. 
Nov. 2 Thaddeus Barnot (Infant Child.) 
8 BleasurSwetland'sWife,aged22. 
12 Child of William Laurence. 
21 Infant Child of Eleasur Swet- 
Dec. 25 Infant Child of Everard Benja- 
26 Mrs. Collyer, burial charged to 
Samuel Marsh [Thankful 
Goodwin, Baptized Feb. 28, 
1708-9; daughter of Daniel and 
Sarah (Easton) Goodwin; mar- 
ried (1) Nathaniel Marsh; (2) 
May 21, 1736, Daniel Collyer], 
aged 85. 

Jan. 7 Infant Child of Jeremiah Barret. 
9 Infant Child of Jonathan Chap- 
Feb. 8 Infant Child of Samuel Beck- 


15 Capt. Aaron Bull, laid in tomb; 
[son of Daniel and Mary (My- 
gatt) Bull], aged 82. 

25 Susannah Goodwin [Born Aug. 
12, 1704; daughter of William 
and Elizabeth (Shepard) Good- 
win], aged 82. 
Mar. 6 The wife of Samuel Beckwith, 
aged 32. 

12 The wife of Michael Bull [Eliza- 

beth, daughter of Moses and 
Sarah (Howard) Butler, born 
Sept. 17, 1770], aged 22. 
15 Jonathan Taylor [Baptized 
March 20, 1719-20; son of 
Stephen Taylor], aged 73. 

Mar. 17 John Fowler, a Stranger, aged 65 

Apr. 3 The wife of Ashbel Wells, aged 
31 years. 
9 Medad Webster, aged 70 years 
[Son of Ebenezer and Hannah 
(Webster) Webster]. 

13 Infant Child of Amasa Jones. 

23 John Steele's Child, aged 2 years. 

29 Child of John Cable, aged 1 

May 11 Daughter of John Wells, aged 29 

19 Dr. Dwell Morgan's Wife, aged 

22 years. [Elizabeth, dau. of 

Daniel and Elizabeth (Smith) 

21 Son of William Hosmer, aged 13 

years. [David]. 
June 7 Child of Caleb Woodworth, aged 

4 years. 
" Child of Peter Colt, Esq., aged 

4 months. Died with Small 

15 Child of ElishaVibbert. (Infant) 


22 The Wife of William Knox, aged 

24 years. 
" Infant Child of John Caldwell. 
July 1 Child of John Trumbull, aged i 
5 Sarah Flagg aged 62 years. 
19 Infant Child of John James. 

25 Infant Child of Thomas Sloane, 


Aug. 3 Child of Thomas Hildrup, aged 
4 mo. 
4 Niel McLean, aged 47 years [Son 
of Dr. Neil and Mrs. Hannah 
(Stillman) [Caldwell] Mc 
21 Ebenezer Morse's Child, age i l / 2 
Sept. 4 Child of Jonathan Bull, aged 3 
mo. [John]. 
" Son of Willoughby Lowell, aged 
4 years. 

13 The mother of Joseph Barnot, 

aged 86 years. 
' ' Child of Hezekiah Seymour, aged 
1 year. 

15 Child of Josiah Hemsted, aged 1 

year. [Benjamin]. 

16 Child of James Taylor, aged 2 

years. [Wealthan]. 
" Child of Amos Wheeler, aged 1 

year. [Clarissa]. 
" Timothy Spencer's Wife, aged 42 

years. Died with Small Pox. 
18 The wife of John Mc Alpin. 

21 Alen Bebee's Child, aged 2 years. 

22 Timothy Spencer, aged 45 years. 

Died with Small Pox. 
' ' Child of John Allen. [ William ] , 

aged 1 year 
24 Son of Widow Anna Wilson, aged 

8 years. 
" Infant Child of Abijah Harring- 

26 Child of Benjamin Wood, aged 1 

" Infant Child of Jonathan Bigelow. 
Oct. 2 Ponwell [Pownal] Deming's 
Child, aged 2 years. 

14 Shadrack Johnson's Child, aged 

1 year. 

15 Child of Charles Camburgh, aged 

1 year. 

16 Child of Charles Shepard. 

I Fanny], aged 1 year. 
23 Child of Theodore Olcott, aged 
1 year. 

30 Infant Child of Peter Bufnngton. 
Nov. 6 Child of Ephraim Root. (Infant). 

12 Peleg Howe, aged 52 years. 

Dec. 2 Charles Seymour [born June 9, 

1742, Son of Daniel and Mabel 

(Bigelow) Seymour], aged 51 


3 Child of John Jeffrey, aged 2 

9 Child of Justin Lyman, aged 1 

15 Daughter of Widow Susanna 
Dodd. [Susannah], aged 19 

17 Rachael Nichols died with Small 

Pox. [Dau. of Cyprian and 
Agnes (Humphreys) Nichols. 
Bapt. Nov. 18, 1733], aged 62 
29 Widow Agnes Seymour. Small 
Pox. (Widow 1 st of Cyprian 
Nichols, who died in 1745, and 
2d of Capt. Isaac Seymour. 
Dau. of Nathaniel and Agnes 
(Spencer) Humphreys, bapt. 
Feb. 17, 1711-12, aged 82 years. 

31 Child of Mr. Gobdet (Gallanclet)? 



Jan. 2 The wife of Gurdon Wadsworth. 
[Gurdon Wadsworth of Hart- 
ford, and Mehitabel Wright of 
Wethersfield, married Oct. 17, 
T 775- Wethersfield Church 
record]. Aged 42. 

18 Child of John Jackson, aged 5 

28 John Bunce. [Son of John and 
Anna (Bunce) Bunce], aged 44 
Feb. 6 Daniel Phelps. [Son of Timothy 
and Sarah (Brown) Phelps, 
born Oct. 13, 1726], aged 68 
21 Child of Thomas Lloyd. (Delia), 
aged 8 mo. 
Mar. 2 Child of Timothy Dodd, aged 1 
9 Daughter of William Adams, 
aged 19 years. 


12 Wife of Daniel Skinner. [Ruth 
Spencer], aged 47 years. 

14 Joseph Sheldon. [Born 1729, Son 

of Deacon Isaac and Elizabeth 
(Pratt) Sheldon], aged 64 
" Nathaniel Treadwell, aged 24 

15 Child of William Pratt, Jr., aged 

1 year. 

18 Daughter of Jacob Ogden, aged 

15 years. 

19 John Skinner. [Born March 29, 

1726, son of John and Mary 
(Turner) Skinner], aged 68 
24 Child of Richard Seymour. 
(Rhoda), aged 18 mo. 

30 Child of Daniel Curtiss, aged 2 


31 Child of Richard Shepard, aged 

5 years. 

Apr. 1 Child of Asa Bunce. [Theron], 
aged 1 year. 

2 Son of Mrs. Sally Bunce, widow 

of John [John], aged 6 years. 

3 Son of Richard Shepard, aged 3 


12 Child of Gurdon Wadsworth, 

aged 9 years. 

13 Child of Capt. Caleb Bull, aged 

2 years. 

16 Child of Joshua Leffingwell, aged 

1 year. 

19 Eunice Nichols. [Widow of 

George Nichols], aged 48 years. 

20 Infant Child of Thomas Mason. 

21 Roswell Butler. Died with Small 

Pox, aged 23 years. 
" Child of Amos Bull. [T. Parkin], 

aged 3 years. 
30 Child of Allen McKee, aged 5 
May 2 Child of Matthew Chandler, aged 

2 mo. 

7 Adna Bull, aged 15 years. 
18 Son of Dr. Bronson, aged 6 years. 

22 Daughter of John McAlpin, aged 

6 years. 

" Infant Child of Uriah Shepard. 

24 Infant Child of William Dexter. 

5 years. 

25 Mrs. Strong. Burial charged 

Geo. Willis, Esq. [Susanna, 

daughter of George and Mary 
(Woodbridge) Wyllys. Bapt. 
May 13, 1750. Wife of Judge 
Jedediah Strong of Litchfield], 
aged 42 years. 

29 Child of Richard Butler. 

[George], aged 8 mo. 

30 Child of Joseph Grist, aged 5 

June 3 Eunice Waginers Child, aged 1 

12 William Hooker, aged 76 years. 
" Infant Child of John Bolles, 2d. 

13 Infant Child of James Hosmer. 
20 Infant Child of Elisha Vilbert. 
25 Infant Child of William Skinner. 

July 4 Mrs. Elizabeth Cook, aged 91 
6 The wife of Timothy Shepard, 

aged 41 years. 
" Child of Samuel Bolles, aged 9 

1 1 The mother of David Wadsworth, 

aged 73 years. 
" Daughter of Patrick Malone, 

aged 8 years. 
16 Child of William Anderson, aged 

2 years. 
" Infant Child of John Bolles. 

24 Capt. John Olcott. [Son of 

Jonathan and Sarah (Collyer) 
Olcott. Bapt. July 27, 1735]. 
aged 59 years. 
" Daughter of Oliver Clapp, aged 

5 years. 

'• Daughter of Justin Lyman, aged 

6 years. 

Aug. 3 Son of Jonathan Butler, in the 

burying lot. 
10 Child of Hallen, aged 1 year. 
15 The Mother of Jesse Marsh, aged 

88 years. . 
19 Jesse Choate's Child, aged 2 

22 Child of Reuben Wadsworth, 

aged 1 year. 

25 John Burkett, aged 31 years. 

27 Child of Samuel Coomes, aged 1 

30 Child of Uriah Shepard. [Nancy] 

aged 10 years. 
" Child of Frederick Stanley. 
[Patty], aged 6 years. 
To be Continued. 



Some Former Prominent Clergymen. 

IT has long been an accepted fact that 
Hartford from its settlement, has had 
the reputation of having eminent clergymen 

rev. joel hawes. 

and pastors in its churches, and perhaps 
at no time in its history has this been 
more evident than during a period about 
half a century ago. From 1840 to 1855 
probably no city of the size of Hartford 
had so many clergymen noted for their 
sermons and writings ; not only had they 
a local and state reputation, but in many 
instances a national one. 

It is not my intention to write at length 
concerning the beloved pastors of those 
days, but carrying out the plan of previous 
articles, to recall to the older residents of 
our city the history of the old-time 

churches, and the faces of some of the 

With what awe and respect we, as 
children, looked up to "our minister," as 
well as to the officers of the church, and 
I doubt very much if in these days the 
" deacons " are regarded in the same light 
as a half century ago, or with the same 

Many of the church edifices have 
disappeared to make way for business 
needs, as well as to accommodate the 







growth of other sections ; others have 
been sold to be used as public halls, 
while dozens of new churches have, within 
recent years, been erected in the rapidly 
growing, outlying districts, in some 
instances having been overdone by differ- 
ent denominations. 

The oldest church in Hartford is the 
First (Center) Congregational, also one 

of the oldest in New England, organized 
at Cambridge, Mass. in 1632, removed 
to Hartford when settled in June, 1636, 
first meeting-house erected at the north- 
east corner of the Public Square ; the 
present edifice erected in 1807. 

The renovating of the old Burying 
Ground adjoining on the west, and the 
Gold street improvements now being 
done, are the most creditable pieces of 
work done by our citizens for many a 

The Second (South) Congregational 
Church was organized in 1670, the parish 



covering the territory south of Little 
River; the present edifice, (Third) was 
erected in 1827. These two supplied the 
spiritual wants of the town until a few 
years prior to the Revolutionary War, at 
which time the population was but 5,000, 
although, without doubt, there were ser- 
vices held by other denominations occa- 

The Third (North) Congregational 
Church, was organized in 1824, and the 
edifice was erected on what, in the early 




history of the settlement, was known as 
Centinel Hill. The old church was sold 
and a new edifice erected facing Bushnell 
Park, and now known as the Park Church, 
dedicated in March. 1S67. 

The Fourth Congregational Church 
organized in 1S32 : present edifice dedi- 
cated in 1S50. The old church stood on 
Main street, nearly opposite Temple 
Street, and after being vacated was known 
as the '*' Melodeon" until demolished 
recently to make way for a fine business 
block. ' 

The Pearl Street Congregational Church 
was organized nearly a half century ago, 
and dedicated in 1852. This beautiful 
church with its handsome steeple. 212 
feet in height, will be known as such but 
ior a few months. The property has been 
sold, and a fine new edifice is nearly com- 
pleted, to be known as the Farmington 
Avenue Congregational Church, situated 
at the corner of the Avenue and Wood- 
land street, one and one-half miles west 
of the present location. 

The Talcott Street Congregational 
Church (Colored), organized in 1S33, 

still remains without much change or im- 
provement at the corner of Talcott and 
Market streets. This church became 
somewhat famous because of its pastor. 
Rev. J.W. Pennington, who was a fugitive 

Christ Church (Episcopal) organized 
in 1762 ; the first church standing on the 
north corner of Main and Church streets. 
This was a wooden structure, and on com- 
pletion of the present brown stone edifice, 
in 1829, was sold to the Roman Catholics, 
and moved to Talcott street, on the north 
side, about 300 feet east of Main. 

St. John's Episcopal was erected in 
1 84 1 : the present edifice consecrated 
April, 1842. Both these churches have 
had as rectors many men of note, and 
have had the honor of furnishing eminent 
men as bishops. 

First (North) Baptist, organized 
March, 1790: in 1798 erected a wooden 
edifice at the corner of Market and 
Theatre (now Temple . ■-. which is 

still standing, being occupied as a sash 
and blind factor}-. In 1S31 erected a 





new church on Main street, where the 
Cheney Block stands, and in 1856 occu- 
pied their present house of worship at the 
corner of Main and Talcott streets, having 
sold the old church to the Hebrews. 

South Baptist, organized in 1834, the 
former house of worship situated at the 
corner of Main and Sheldon streets • the 
present edifice dedicated in April, 1854. 

First Methodist Episcopal, organized in 
1820. The old church building stood on 
corner of Trumbull and Chapel streets, 

and is now occupied by C. C. Cook and 
the Messrs. Hapgood ; the present 
edifice on Asylum street was dedicated in 
i860. Following the example of other 
down-town organizations there is a likeli- 
hood of disposing of their valuable 
property and locating elsewhere. 

African M. E. Zion (Colored) estab- 
lished in 1836, formerly stood on the 
corner of Elm and Clinton streets; this 
little building was torn down when Elm 
street was straightened. The well known 
brick church on Pearl street was then 
built, which has now given place to 
another now being erected. 



Universalist Church organized in 1827, 
formerly stood on Central Row, site of 
Central Hall. The ground floor was long 
occupied by the Post Office and Abraham 
Rose, news dealer ; present edifice ded- 
icated in i860, and known in latter- years 
as Church of the Redeemer. 

First Unitarian Congregational (Church 
of the Saviour) organized in July, 1844. 
Their brown stone church stood on the 
north-east corner of Asylum and Trumbull 
streets, and was sold to Trinity (Episco- 
pal) Church, taken down and rebuilt on 




,"\f .. 



Sigourney street in i860, again torn down 
and a new edifice has recently been erected 
on the same site and consecrated May 
31st. The Unitarian Society was re- 
organized in 1879, and the present Unity 
Church on Pratt street was dedicated in 
April, 1 88 1. 

Trinity (Roman Catholic) organized in 
June, 1823, and when Christ Church had 
completed its present edifice in 1829 the 
old wooden church was purchased by them 
and moved to Talcott street, on the north 
side, a little west of Main. This was 
destroyed by fire in May, 1853. A new 
stone edifice, St. Patrick's, had been 
erected in 1851 at the corner of Church 
and Ann streets, which was also burned 
in January, 1875, and the present church 
dedicated in November, 1876. 

First Presbyterian organized in 1851, 
and for several years occupied the old 
South Baptist Church. Since 1870 located 
on Capitol avenue, corner of Clinton 

Congregation Beth Israel organized in 
1847. As before mentioned, the society 
purchased the former North Baptist 

Church, which was afterward known as 
Touro Hall, the society occupying the 
ground floor as a synagogue, the church 
proper being used a public hall until torn 
down to make room for Cheney Block. 
The present synagogue dedicated in 1876 
is located on Charter Oak avenue. 

I have thus hastily, and rather crudely, 
given a sketch of what may be called the 
older church organizations, and their 
places of worship. 

The rapid growth of our city, the pop- 
ulation being about 80,000, and adding 
those who transact business here, but 
who reside in adjacent towns, bringing the 
population to not less than 85,000 — is 
making such demands for business sites, 
in all probability before many years others 
of our down-town churches must disap- 
pear to make way for business blocks. 

Glancing backward about half a century, 
what a procession of beloved ministers of 
the gospel pass before our eyes, and re- 
membering the love and affection felt for 
them, I have endeavored to bring before 
you the faces of the old-time pastors, and 
in but a very few instances have I failed 








to obtain them. Some were taken many 
years ago, others in more recent years, 
those selected being the best known. 

Rev. Joel Hawes, D. D., First Congre- 

Rev. Horace Bushnell, D. D., North 

Rev. W. W. Patton, D. D., Fourth 

Rev. J. W. Pennington, Talcott Street 

Rt. Rev. T. C. Brownell, D. D., First 
President Trinity College. 

Rev. George Burgess, D. D., Christ 

Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe, D. D., St. 

Rev. Robert Turnbull, D. D., North 

Rev. J. N. Murdock, D. D., South 

Rev. John Moore, Universalist. 
Rev. John Brady, Roman Catholic. 
Rabbi Mayer, Congregational Beth 

No words of mine can do justice to 
these eminent ministers of the Gospel, 
therefore I present their names and faces 
to you. Two others, " Father " Hawley 
and " Father " Fisher, are presented to 
you, whose work as City Missionaries 
among the poor of Hartford endeared 
them to all. What familiar figures they 
were on our streets, what good cheer they 
always brought into the homes of the 
poor, and how beloved by every one who 
knew them. 

Affording the readers of this article an 
opportunity to once more look upon their 
faces, is better than any words of eulogy. 

Recently I had occasion to pass through 
Market and Morgan streets to the river, 
and stopped a moment before the old 
church where Rev. Charles R. Fisher 
officiated for so many years. I stopped 
a moment also at the corner of Morgan 
and Front streets and looked at the old 
building still standing, where, in 1851 a 
Sunday School was opened under the 
auspices of the City Mission (newly 
organized,) and where Henry Clay 
Trumbull, Rodney Dennis, E. M. Gallau- 
det and a corps of young men and women 

-.-■" "\ 

','?$' ' • 


1 ^ ^^ % 




from various churches labored faithfully 
under the leadership of "Father" Hawley 
for several years. The school was held in 
a large front room in the third story of the 

building standing on the southeast corner 
of Morgan and Front streets, within a 
stone's throw of the present Morgan 
street Mission School. 



A wavering lane crawls o'er the hill 
Where ran the King's Highway ; 
The grasses in its deep old ruts 
Grow thicker day by day. 

And here the ponderous mail coach rolled, 
And there the tavern sate ; 
How often did the country squires 
Draw rein before its gate ! 

The minute man paused on this knoll 
For the last glimpse of home ; 
The captive Hessian trudged along 
Where now the cattle roam. 

The roofless tavern waits and waits 
For guests who never come : 
The crumbling coach lies in its yard, 
Its creaking axles dumb. 

The living shun the rough old road, 
Not here the children play ; 
Ah ! — living, ye may work your will, — 
But dead, ye pass this way ! 

For here the village fathers sleep ; 
I seem to see it still, 
The poor, pathetic goal of man, 
God's acre on the hill. 

The ivied hedge and mighty elm 
Drowse in the summer sun, 
And little paths stray all about, — 
I know them every one ! 

Last night I dreamed I passed this way : 
How glad I was to see 
Where they had made my little bed 
Among mine ancestry ! 

And as I passed the tavern by, 
How strange it seemed to see 
The long forgotten dead look out 
And smile and smile on me ! 

And oh ! how tired I laid me down, 
And ah ! how long I slept, — 
Yet heeded where the daisies grew, 
And how the shadows crept. 

Across the new mounds and the old 
Thro' endless summer days ; — 
I feared that none might find me here 
In such a tangled maze ! 

All day the locusts droned and droned 
Above me where I slept : 
All night the fire flies burned their lamps, 
And faithful vigils kept. 

So sped the silent years j and so 
Like children tired at play, 
My friends crept up the rough old road 
And found me where I lay. 



WM. A. E. THOMAS, Editor. 

Querists are requested to write all names of persons and places so that they cannot 
be misunderstood, to write on only one side of the paper, to enclose a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope and ten cents in stamps for each querry. Those who are subscribers 
will be given preference in the insertion of their queries and they will be inserted in the 
order in which they are received. All matters relating to this department must be sent 
to The Connecticut Magazine, Hartford, marked, Genealogical Department. Give 
full name and post office address. 

It is optional with querist to have name and address or initials published. 


25. {b) Mr. Rollin U. Tyler of Tyler- 
ville, Conn., says that Mr. Henry B. 
Sisson of Hamburgh, Conn., "is said 
to have the family Bible of Hezekiah 
Shailer who d. in 1834." 

38. (b) E. C. Penfield of 107 Ashley 
St., Hartford, Conn,, writes — John 
Penfield b. May 14, 17 18, was Colo- 
nel of Militia and served as such 
during the Revolution : he d. Feb. 22, 
1797: he m. Ruth Stocking and had 
eight children, the sixth being Jeremiah. 
As I find no other of that name, I think 
he must be the one who m. Elizabeth 

29. Mrs. George H. Butler of Crom- 
well, Conn., says the following does 
not correspond exactly with Cone, 
Gen. on p. 191, but has been collected 
on good authority. Daniel Cone, one of 
the first settlers in Haddam, m. Mehit- 
able, dau. of Jared Spencer : had ten ch. 
Ruth, the eldest, b. Jan. 6, 1663, Caleb, 
the youngest, b. 1680. Daniel and his 
sons (except Caleb who remained in 
Haddam) moved to East Haddam where 
he d.i7o6,aet. 80. Caleb 2 m. first Eliza- 
beth , m. second, Eliza Cunningham 

and had 1. Caleb 3 b. Jan. 12, 1704. 2. 
Joseph 3 b. Jan. 26, 1705. 3. Noah b. 


July 14, 1707. 4. Elisha 3 b. Sept. 11, 
I 7°9* 5* Elizabeth 3 b. Jan. 22, 1712. 
6. Joshua 3 b. July 14, 17 14. 7. Simeon 3 
b. June 11, 1724. 8. Daniel 3 b. Dec. 
22, 1725. 9. Beriah 3 b. Feb. 12, 1728. 
10. Abigail 3 b. July 2, 1730. 11. 
Mary 3 b. Mch. 20, 1732. 12. Lydia 3 
b. Jan. 29, 1736. Joseph 3 Cone m. 
Susanna, dau. of James Wells and sister 
of Joseph Wells, Esq., of Haddam. 
They had : 1. James 4 . 2. Susanna 4 
b. in Haddam. 3. Rebecca 4 b. in 
Middletown where Joseph 3 had moved. 
James 4 Cone m. Deborah Smith and 
among their descendants in Haddam 
were two named James Wells Cone. 


47. Goods ell — Thomas appears in 1679 
on the Branford Records. I have been 
told that 3 brothers came from England 
about that time and that he was one of 
them. What were the names of the 
other two and who were their parents ? 

F. P. G. 

48. Turner. — Lewis m. Susan Whitney 
in Pelham, Mass., 15th May, 1788. 
They moved (date unknown) to Wash- 
ington Co., N. Y., in or near Smith's 
Basin or Hartford, N. Y. About 1800 
with many children they moved to Wal- 



worth, Wayne Co., N. Y., where Lewis 
d. in 1806. A Miss Turner, of the 
family, name unknown, probably a sis- 
ter of Lewis m. Harden Bailey and 
lived in Hartford, Wash. Co., N. Y. 
Desired the lineage of this Lewis Tur- 
ner, of Susan Whitney, and of the Mrs. 
Bailey, or citations where the same may 
be found. F. R. 

49. Clark. — Ann of Lebanon, Ct., (d. 
June 25, 1726) m. July 4, 1711 Na- 
thaniel Foote of Colchester. Who 
were her parents? J. C. F. 

50. Cook. — David lived in New Haven, 
m. about 1795 Hannah . Tra- 
dition says she was descended from 
Gov. Treat. What was her maiden 
name ? Who were her parents ? Also 
his parents? R. C. G. C. 

51. Williams. — Stephen of Rocky Hill, 
son of Jacob and Sarah (Gilbertt?) 
Williams b. Mch. 19, 1693 d. Jan. 17, 

1746-7 m. before 1719 Abigail . 

Who were her parents? A. S. C. S. 

52. Holmes. — Stephen of Clinton Cor- 
ners, Duchess Co., N. Y., a Quaker m. 

Patience and had 1. Patience 

m. Thomas Doty and had Patience m. 
a Sutherland, 2. Phebe. Who were 
parents of Stephen and Patience ? 

B. L. H. 

53. (a) Fuller. — Joseph m. Rhoda Par- 
melee and had Pamelia b. Oct. 18, 
1800 in New Fairfield, Ct. Who were 
parents and grandparents of Joseph and 
Rhoda? Also names of their other 
children ? 

(b) Thompson, Frederick b. in Hun- 
tington, Ct. His mother was named 
Mary. Who was his father ? He lived 
in Brookfield, Ct. W. B. 

54. Stevens. — Benjamin settled in Dan- 
bury, Ct., about 1700. Can it be 
proved that his father was the Thomas 
Stevens who d. 1658 in Stamford, Ct. ? 

Edwin B. Stevens, 

Clintonville, Ct. 

55. Crane. — Zebulon, b. Aug. 7, 1746, 
d. 12-31-1814, m. a Miss Holmes of 
Bedford, Westchester Co., N. Y., sister 
of David Holmes and had three sons, 
Belden, David and Samuel. What was 
name of Miss Holmes? Who were 
parents of David Holmes and Zebulon 
Crane? H. C. McP. 

56. Gladwin. — Joseph 1 , m Susan Ford- 
ham and had: 1. Joseph 2 , b. Dec. 
22, 1 791, m. Sally, b. June 3, 1796, 
dau. of Edmond Doane. 2. Elisha 2 , 
b. June 17, 1790, m. Betsey Bishop. 3. 
Susan 2 . 4. Sally 2 , m. Mr. Brooks. 5. 
Alvah 2 , m. Delecta, dau. of Elkanah 
(Joel?) and Dolly (Comstock) Doane 
and had Sereno 3 , m. Emily Gertrude 

Kelsey. 6. Sears 2 , m. and had : 

1. Porter 3 . 2. Win. 3 . 3. Jeremiah 3 . 
4. Silas 3 . 5. Samuel 3 . 6. Sally 3 , 
never m. 7. Lucy Ann 3 , m. Wm. 
Edgar Arnold. Joseph 2 and Sally had : 
1. Chapman 3 , b. 1819. 2. Augustus 3 . 

3. Russell 3 . 4. Gilbert Alonzo 3 . 5. 
Joseph 3 . 6. Eckford 3 , m. a dau. of 
Esther (Gladwin) Knowles. Elisha 2 
and Betsey had: 1. Benjamin 3 , m. 
Mary Selden. 2. Emily 3 , m. George 
Starkey. 3. Eliza 3 , m. David Piatt. 

4. Betsey 3 , m. Clark Wright. 5. 
Jane 3 , m. Hayden Wright. 6. Caroline 3 , 
m. Frederick, son of Josiah Gladden. 
Who were parents of Joseph and 
Josiah Gladden? In Buckingham 
Genealogy, Daniel 1 Gladden d. Dec. 6, 
181 7 : perhaps of Higganum, Conn., m. 
first, Dec. 29, 1 768, Killingworth,Conn., 
to Dinah Wilcox : m. second abt. 1772, 
Bethia Buckingham. Who were parents 
of this Daniel? It is thought his father 
was Josiah. B. G. 

57. Rutty. — Asa, of Haddam, Conn., 
made his will Aug. 14, 1828 : wife 
Elizabeth ; son Edward ; daus. Sylva, 
Clarissa, wife of Jonathan Dickinson, 
Julia, Betsey, wife of Diodate Shaler, 
Mary and Catharine : in the distribution 
Julia is wife of Dudley Randell and 
Mary is wife of Fred'k DeWolf. On 
Sept. 30, 1805, distribution of estate 
of Ezra Rutty, late of Haddam, wid. 

. Drusilla; x\sa, eldest bro. ; Eber, 
youngest bro. ; Catharine Carter, eldest 
sister • Polly Towner, second sister ; 
Sarah Hull, third sister ; Julah Rutty, 
fourth sister. Who were parents of 
these Rutty's? What was Mr. Towner's 
name? S. R. S. 

5 8 . Hickenlooper. — Miss 

-, gradu- 

ated some years ago from some univer- 
sity near Boston. Desired her name 
and address. F. H. 

| ^iU=fe|M i dri 



THE work of the Gold Street improve- 
ments in Hartford now gives such 
tangible evidence of its necessity for the 
decent appearance of one of the most 
travelled portions of the city that we may 
well wonder why it had not been done 
long ago and why the city government so 
long persisted in refusing to bring it about. 
All honor to those who have aided in its 
final accomplishment, and to the noble 
women of the D. A. R., without whose 
work it probably would have never been 
done the city is under an eternal debt 
of gratitude. 

It is passing strange that with all the 
cry for legislative economy, with some of 
the leading papers of the state opposing 
gratuities to reporters and the absurdity 
of the business with no logical ground of 
support, there should be danger of its go- 
ing through this year. If the members of 
the legislature have not the sense or sand 
to turn it down, we hope the governor's 
veto pen is in good working order and will 
be used effectively. 

* * 


The Prudence Crandall episode of 
nearly seventy years ago, as outlined in 


Mr. Norton's article in this number recalls 
to mind the prejudice existing even at a 
later time in individual cases against col- 
ored children in our schools. In the north- 
east school in Hartford there were a few 
attending about fifteen years ago. The 
principal there at the time, a minister of the 
gospel, took every occasion to abuse these 
nine year old children by the most shame- 
ful whippings, such as he inflicted on 
none of the other pupils. Before the 
whole school he would make them hold a 
chair above their heads and thrash them 
on their bare legs, upon the slightest pro- 
vocation. We had supposed that such 
drastic methods belonged to an earlier 
period, but within two years there was an 
apparent attempt at their revival in the 
New Britain schools. Children were belted 
with rubber hose fastened to a stick and 
one was whacked on the wrists with a 
hard ruler and then compelled to hold his 
wrists in cold water, so the welts would 
not show. If our information is correct 
this treatment was upheld by the superin- 
tendent of schools there. We all admit 
that children should be made to mind, 
but there are better ways of doing it, and 
the teacher who has to resort to such dia- 
bolical treatment is not only a brute but 
an incompetent. The recent red-pepper 
affair at Derby shows that there is room 
for improvement in school discipline. 


Newsdealers in all parts of the State 
handle the Connecticut Magazine. 

The cards of a number of the State's 
educational institutions appear under our 
" Educational " head. The scope and 
circulation of the Magazine makes it 
particularly adapted for advertisements of 
this sort. 


Our readers will notice in our adver- 
tising pages the announcement of pre- 
mium offers to persons sending in five 
paid subscriptions to The Connecticut 
Magazine for one year. We have pre- 
sented a variety of premiums that the am- 
bitious solicitor may not be limited to one 
channel as a reward for his efforts. The 
premiums presented are not of a worthless 
nature, but are the product of such re- 
liable houses as the William Rogers Mfg. 
Co., the Arms Pocket Book Co., of Hart- 
ford, and the famous Ingersoll Watch Co., 
of New York City. The pocket books are 
always useful articles, and are put together 
with great care. The Harriet Beecher 
Stowe Souvenir Spoon is a work of art, 
and makes a beautiful historical souvenir. 
The Ingersoll Watches are a marvel, and 
keep good time. The manufacturers give 
the following guarantees to. the trade : 
" We agree that if, without abuse, this 
watch fails to keep good time, we will, 
upon its return to us within one year 
from date of receipt, repair or replace it 
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Any one who wants a good reliable 
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The Editorial Department of The Con- 
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has for the past four years, to give its 
readers the best material obtainable, and 
to present it in the most interesting 

The business department is endeavoring 
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But the advertiser to be a patron of our 
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Our policy is to encourage those who 
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To our readers we ask, read the plan 
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You See It 



You Don't Get Tired of it ^ <m 

It is a peculiar fact that you never get tired 
of drinking Williams' Root Beer. When other 
drinks fail, you can always come back to it 
with joy. It is the most cooling and thirst- 
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famous for the grandeur of the 
surrounding country. The hills on 
which it is located rise to an altitude of 1300 
feet and overlook the territory for many 
miles around. 

It is a famous spot for the better class of 
summer hotel and cottage dwellers. A great 
amount of money has been spent on the town 
by a few of its public spirited residents, 
making it one of the handsomest and most 
desirable places in the State. There are golf 
links, tennis courts, a bowling alley, a hand- 
some gymnasium and other facilities galore 
for solid recreation. The air in the Summer 
is always cool and refreshing and many 

are attracted thence knowing that per- 
fect rest and accommodations can be ob- 
tained. The Stevens, that famous hotel 
so well equipped, has been enlarged and 
remodeled this season and is better prepared 
than ever to receive the tired business man 
and his family, and recuperate them through 
the Summer months. The hotel is supplied 
with gas, steam heat, open fires and private 

There is a stable in connection with open 
and box stalls. 

It is a pleasure to live under the care of 
the genial proprietor, Mr. E. C. Stevens, 
during the Summer months. It fits one for 
renewed business efforts in the fall. 

Please mention The Connecticut Magazine when you write to advertisers. 

The Best of the 
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Bristol, Conn., Nov. 12, 1898. 

Mr. E. C. Linn, Sec'y and Treas., 

The Connecticut Building and Loan Association, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Dear Sir; I am just in receipt of the check of 
the Association for $1,091.00, in payment of the 
maturity value of ten shares (insured class), held 
by my late husband, which also includes the reserve ■ 
accumulations of the shares. 

I wish to thank you for your promptness in the 
settlement of this claim. Yours truly, 

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$10 a month for 120 months produces $2,000, 
which will be paid in cash upon maturity of shares, 
or at prior death the proceeds of the life insurance 
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value of shares. 

Assets, Over, - $850,000.00 
Guarantee Fund, (paid in Cash), 100,000.00 

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New York Office, 62 White Street. 
Also Manufacturer of 

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